63 Works

A time-lagged association between the gut microbiome, nestling weight and nestling survival in wild great tits

Gabrielle Davidson, Shane Somers, Niamh Wiley, Crystal Johnson, Micheal Reichert, R. Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton & John Quinn
Natal body mass is a key predictor of viability and fitness in many animals. While variation in body mass and therefore viability of juveniles may be explained by genetic and environmental factors, emerging evidence points to the gut microbiota as an important factor influencing host health. The gut microbiota is known to change during development, but it remains unclear whether the microbiome predicts fitness, and if it does, at which developmental stage it affects fitness...

Experimental investigation of insect deposition in lentic environments and implications for formation of Konservat-Lagerstätten

Qingyi Tian, Shengyu Wang, Zixiao Yang, Maria McNamara, Michael Benton & Baoyu Jiang
Terrestrial insects are often remarkably well preserved in lacustrine Konservat-Lagerstätten. However, the assumption that carcasses should sink fast through the water column seems to contradict evidence that this scenario is unlikely due to excessive buoyancy and surface tension. The mechanisms that promote rapid and permanent emplacement onto the sediment surface (RPESS) of such terrestrial animal remains are not fully understood. Here we use taphonomic experiments to show that floating in water, growth of microbial biofilms...

Data from: Low fossilization potential of keratin protein revealed by experimental taphonomy

Evan T. Saitta, Chris Rogers, Richard A. Brooker, Geoffrey D. Abbott, Sumit Kumar, Shane S. O'Reilly, Paul Donohoe, Suryendu Dutta, Roger E. Summons & Jakob Vinther
Recent studies have suggested the presence of keratin in fossils dating back to the Mesozoic. However, ultrastructural studies revealing exposed melanosomes in many fossil keratinous tissues suggest that keratin should rarely, if ever, be preserved. In this study, keratin's stability through diagenesis was tested using microbial decay and maturation experiments on various keratinous structures. The residues were analysed using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared to unpublished feather and hair fossils and published fresh and fossil...

Data from: Medical school selection criteria as predictors of medical student empathy: a cross-sectional study of medical students, Ireland

Donnchadh M. O'Sullivan, Joseph Moran, Paul Corcoran, Siun O'Flynn, Colm O'Tuathiagh & Aoife M. O'Sullivan
Objectives: To determine whether performance in any of the HPAT sections, most specifically the interpersonal understanding section, correlates with self-reported empathy levels in medical students. Setting: The study was conducted in University College Cork, Ireland. Participants: 290 students participated in the study. Matching HPAT scores were available for 263 students. All male and female undergraduate students were invited to participate. Post graduate and international students were excluded. Primary and secondary outcome measures: HPAT-Ireland and JSPE...

Data from: Opposing patterns of intraspecific and interspecific differentiation in sex chromosomes and autosomes

Peter A. Moran, Sonia Pascoal, Timothée Cezard, Judith E. Risse, Michael G. Ritchie & Nathan W. Bailey
Linking intraspecific and interspecific divergence is an important challenge in speciation research. X chromosomes are expected to evolve faster than autosomes and disproportionately contribute to reproductive barriers, and comparing genetic variation on X and autosomal markers within and between species can elucidate evolutionary processes that shape genome variation. We performed RADseq on a 16-population transect of two closely-related Australian cricket species, Teleogryllus commodus and T. oceanicus, covering allopatry and sympatry. This classic study system for...

Data from: Postglacial climate changes and rise of three ecotypes of harbor porpoises, Phocoena phocoena, in western Palearctic waters

Michaël C. Fontaine, Kathleen Roland, Isabelle Calves, Frederic Austerlitz, Friso P. Palstra, Krystal A. Tolley, Sean Ryan, Marisa Ferreira, Thierry Jauniaux, Angela Llavona, Bayram Öztürk, Ayaka A. Öztürk, Vincent Ridoux, Emer Rogan, Ursula Siebert, Marina Sequeira, Gísli A. Vikingsson, Asunción Borrell, Johan R. Michaux & Alex Aguilar
Despite no obvious barriers to gene flow in the marine realm, environmental variation and ecological specializations can lead to genetic differentiation in highly mobile predators. Here, we investigated the genetic structure of the harbor porpoise over the entire species distribution range in western Palearctic waters. Combined analyses of ten microsatellite loci and a 5,085 bases-pairs portion of the mitochondrial genome revealed the existence of three ecotypes, equally divergent at the mitochondrial genome, distributed in the...

Data from: Idiosyncratic species effects confound size-based predictions of responses to climate change

Marion Twomey, Eva Brodte, Ute Jacob, Ulrich Brose, Tasman P. Crowe & Mark C. Emmerson
Understanding and predicting the consequences of warming for complex ecosystems and indeed individual species remains a major ecological challenge. Here, we investigated the effect of increased seawater temperatures on the metabolic and consumption rates of five distinct marine species. The experimental species reflected different trophic positions within a typical benthic East Atlantic food web, and included a herbivorous gastropod, a scavenging decapod, a predatory echinoderm, a decapod and a benthic-feeding fish. We examined the metabolism–body...

Data from: SNP-array reveals genome wide patterns of geographical and potential adaptive divergence across the natural range of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

Vincent Bourret, Matthew P. Kent, Craig R. Primmer, Anti Vasemägi, Sten Karlsson, Kjetil Hindar, Philip McGinnity, Eric Verspoor, Louis Bernatchez & Sigbjørn Lien
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is one of the most extensively studied fish species in the world due to its significance in aquaculture, fisheries and ongoing conservation efforts to protect declining populations. Yet, limited genomic resources have hampered our understanding of genetic architecture in the species and the genetic basis of adaptation to the wide range of natural and artificial environments it occupies. In this paper, we describe the development of a medium density Atlantic salmon...

Evidence of links between haematological condition and foraging behaviour in Northern gannets (Morus bassanus)

Mark Jessopp, Zaraa Malvat, Sharon Lynch & Ashley Bennison
Haematological analyses can reveal the physiological condition of birds, who are known to efficiently disguise symptoms of stress and disease. However, interpretation of such analyses requires species-specific baseline data, which are lacking for most free-living seabird species. We provide baseline reference data for several haematological parameters in Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) and combine this with telemetry and dietary data to understand the links between haemotologic condition and foraging behaviour. Blood samples were collected from breeding...

Data from: Large birds travel farther in homogeneous environments

Marlee A. Tucker, Olga Alexandrou, , Keith L. Bildstein, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Chloe Bracis, John N. Brzorad, Evan R. Buechley, David Cabot, Justin M. Calabrese, Carlos Carrapato, André Chiaradia, Lisa C. Davenport, Sarah C. Davidson, Mark Desholm, Christopher R. DeSorbo, Robert Domenech, Peter Enggist, William F. Fagan, Nina Farwig, Wolfgang Fiedler, Christen H. Fleming, Alastair Franke, John M. Fryxell, Clara García-Ripollés … & João Paulo Silva
Aim: Animal movement is an important determinant of individual survival, population dynamics, and ecosystem structure and function. Yet it is still unclear how local movements are related to resource availability and the spatial arrangement of resources. Using resident bird species and migratory bird species outside of the migratory period, we examined how the distribution of resources affect the movement patterns of both large terrestrial birds (e.g., raptors, bustards, hornbills) and waterbirds (e.g., cranes, storks, ducks,...

Latitudinal influence on gametogenesis and host-parasite ecology in a marine bivalve model

Kate Mahony, Sharon Lynch, Sian Egerton, Rebecca Laffan, Simão Correia, Xavier De Montaudouin, Nathalie Mesmer-Dudons, Rosa Maria Freitas & Sarah Culloty
Reproduction and parasites have significant impacts on marine animal populations globally. This study aimed to investigate the associative effects of host reproduction and a host-parasite interplay on a marine bivalve, along a geographic gradient of latitude. Cockles Cerastoderma edule were sampled from five European sites (54°N to 40°N), between April 2018 and October 2019. A histological survey provided data on trematode (metacercaria and sporocyst life stages), prevalence and cockle stage of gametogenesis to assess the...

Biometric conversion factors as a unifying platform for comparative assessment of invasive freshwater bivalves

Neil Coughlan, Eoghan Cunningham, Ross Cuthbert, Patrick Joyce, Pedro Anastacio, Filipe Banha, Nicolás Bonel, Stephanie Bradbeer, Elizabeta Briski, Vincent Butitta, Zuzana Čadková, Jaimie Dick, Karel Douda, Lawrence Eagling, Noé Ferreira-Rodríguez, Leandro Hünicken, Mattias Johansson, Louise Kregting, Anna Labecka, Deliang Li, Florencia Liquin, Jonathan Marescaux, Todd Morris, Patrycja Nowakowska, Małgorzata Ożgo … & Francisco Sylvester
1. Invasive bivalves continue to spread and negatively impact freshwater ecosystems worldwide. As different metrics for body size and biomass are frequently used within the literature to standardise bivalve related ecological impacts (e.g. respiration and filtration rates), the lack of broadly applicable conversion equations currently hinders reliable comparison across bivalve populations. To facilitate improved comparative assessment amongst studies originating from disparate geographic locations, we report body size and biomass conversion equations for six invasive freshwater...

Data from: MHC-mediated spatial distribution in brown trout (Salmo trutta) fry

Brian O'Farrell, E De Eyto, J A H Benzie, P McGinnity, J Carlsson, E Dillane, C Graham, J Coughlan & T Cross
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-linked microsatellite data and parental assignment data for a group of wild brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) provide evidence of closer spatial aggregation among fry sharing greater numbers of MHC class I alleles under natural conditions. This result confirms predictions from laboratory experiments demonstrating a hierarchical preference for association of fry sharing MHC alleles. Full-siblings emerge from the same nest (redd), and a passive kin association pattern arising from limited...

Data from: Parasite genetic distance and local adaptation in coevolving bacteria-bacteriophage populations

Pauline D. Scanlan, Alex R. Hall & Angus Buckling
Antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites can lead to local adaptation (LA), such that parasite fitness is greatest in sympatric hosts (or vice versa). The magnitude of LA typically increases with geographic distance, which is assumed to be because genetic (and hence phenotypic) distance increases with geographic distance. Here we explicitly test the relationships between parasite genetic and phenotypic distance and LA using isolates of coevolved viral parasites (lytic bacteriophage ϕ2) and the host bacterium...

Data from: Salient eyes deter conspecific nest intruders in wild jackdaws (Corvus monedula)

Gabrielle L. Davidson, Nicola S. Clayton & Alex Thornton
Animals often respond fearfully when encountering eyes or eye-like shapes. Although gaze aversion has been documented in mammals when avoiding group-member conflict, the importance of eye coloration during interactions between conspecifics has yet to be examined in non-primate species. Jackdaws (Corvus monedula) have near-white irides, which are conspicuous against their dark feathers and visible when seen from outside the cavities where they nest. Because jackdaws compete for nest sites, their conspicuous eyes may act as...

Data from: Shy birds play it safe: personality in captivity predicts risk responsiveness during reproduction in the wild

Ella F. Cole & John L. Quinn
Despite a growing body of evidence linking personality to life-history variation and fitness, the behavioural mechanisms underlying these relationships remain poorly understood. One mechanism thought to play a key role is how individuals respond to risk. Relatively reactive and proactive (or shy and bold) personality types are expected to differ in how they manage the inherent trade-off between productivity and survival, with bold individuals being more risk-prone with lower survival probability, and shy individuals adopting...

Data from: Parasitism in early life: environmental conditions shape intra-brood variation in responses to infection

Hanna M. V. Granroth-Wilding, Sarah J. Burthe, Sue Lewis, Thomas E. Reed, Katherine A. Herborn, Mark A. Newell, Emi A. Takahashi, Francis Daunt & Emma J. A. Cunningham
Parasites play key ecological and evolutionary roles through the costs they impose on their host. In wild populations, the effect of parasitism is likely to vary considerably with environmental conditions, which may affect the availability of resources to hosts for defense. However, the interaction between parasitism and prevailing conditions is rarely quantified. In addition to environmental variation acting on hosts, individuals are likely to vary in their response to parasitism, and the combined effect of...

Data from: A high density SNP chip for genotyping great tit (Parus major) populations and its application to studying the genetic architecture of exploration behaviour

Jun-Mo Kim, Anna W. Santure, Henry J. Barton, John L. Quinn, Eleanor F. Cole, Marcel E. Visser, Ben C. Sheldon, Martien A.M. Groenen, Kees Van Oers, Jon Slate & J.-M. Kim
High density SNP microarrays (‘SNP chips’) are a rapid, accurate and efficient method for genotyping several hundred thousand polymorphisms in large numbers of individuals. While SNP chips are routinely used in human genetics and in animal and plant breeding, they are less widely used in evolutionary and ecological research. In this paper we describe the development and application of a high density Affymetrix Axiom chip with around 500 000 SNPs, designed to perform genomics studies...

Raw data for: No reproductive benefits of dear enemy recognition in a territorial songbird

Michael Reichert, Jodie Crane, Gabrielle Davidson, Eileen Dillane, Ipek Kulahci, James O'Neill, Kees Van Oers, Ciara Sexton & John Quinn
Territorial animals often learn to distinguish their neighbors from unfamiliar conspecifics. This cognitive ability facilitates the dear enemy effect, where individuals respond less aggressively to neighbors than to other individuals, and is hypothesized to be adaptive by reducing unnecessary aggressive interactions with individuals that are not a threat to territory ownership. A key prediction of this hypothesis, that individuals with better ability to learn to recognize neighbors should have higher fitness, has never been tested....

Data from: Tidal drift removes the need for area restricted search in foraging Atlantic puffins

Ashley Bennison, John Quinn, Alison Debney & Mark Jessopp
Understanding how animals forage is a central objective in ecology. Theory suggests that where food is uniformly distributed, Brownian movement ensures maximum prey encounter rate, but when prey is patchy, the optimal strategy resembles a Lévy walk where Area Restricted Search (ARS) is interspersed with commuting between prey patches. Such movement appears ubiquitous in high trophic level marine predators. Here we report foraging and diving behaviour in a seabird with a high cost of flight,...

Data from: Synchrotron-X-ray absorption spectroscopy of melanosomes in vertebrates and cephalopods: implications for the affinity of Tullimonstrum

Christopher Rogers, Timothy Astrop, Maria McNamara, Samuel Webb, Shosuke Ito & Kazumasa Wakamatsu
Screening pigments are essential for vision in animals. Vertebrates utilise melanins bound in melanosomes as screening pigments, whereas cephalopods are assumed to use ommochromes. Preserved eye melanosomes in the controversial fossil Tullimonstrum (Mazon Creek, Illinois) display size-and/or shape-specific are present in geometrically distinct layers that resemble tissue-specific melanosome populations considered unique to the vertebrate eye. Here, we show that extant cephalopod eyes also show tissue-specific size- and/or shape-specific partitioning of melanosomes; these differ from vertebrate...

Data from: Do personality and innovativeness influence competitive ability? An experimental test in the great tit

William O'Shea, Eva Serrano-Davies & John L. Quinn
Competitive ability is a major determinant of fitness, yet why individuals vary in their ability to compete for resources is often unclear. Rather than simply reflecting inherent differences in the ability of individuals to reach an assumed optimum behavior quality, empirical evidence suggests that competitive ability may also reflect alternative strategies that arise because of correlations with other behaviors, such as innovativeness and personality. We examined experimentally how two behavioral traits - exploration of a...

Guppy MHC and microsatellite genotypes, gyrodactylid infection trials, and analysis code

Karl Phillips
Natural host populations differ in their susceptibility to infection by parasites, and these intra-population differences are still an incompletely understood component of host-parasite dynamics. In this study, we used controlled infection experiments with wild-caught guppies (Poecilia reticulata) and their ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli to investigate the roles of local adaptation and host genetic composition (immunogenetic and neutral) in explaining differences in susceptibility to infection. We found differences between our four study host populations that were consistent...

Access Foundation Student Progression at Technological University Dublin: a Quantitative Study

Anette Forster, Fiona Faulkner & Mark Prendergast

(Re)Inscribing Meaning: Embodied Religious-spiritual Practices at Croagh Patrick and Our Lady’s Island, Ireland

Richard Scriven & Eoin O'Mahony

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  • University College Cork
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Oxford
  • Marine Institute
  • Queen's University Belfast
  • Oklahoma State University
  • University of Exeter
  • Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie
  • University of Bristol
  • University College Dublin