44 Works

Data from: Human-induced marine ecological degradation: micropaleontological perspectives

Moriaki Yasuhara, Gene Hunt, Denise Breitburg, Akira Tsujimoto & Kota Katsuki
We analyzed published downcore microfossil records from 150 studies and reinterpreted them from an ecological degradation perspective to address the following, critical but still imperfectly answered questions: (1) How is the timing of human-induced degradation of marine ecosystems different among regions? (2) What are the dominant causes of human-induced marine ecological degradation? (3) How can we better document natural variability and thereby avoid the problem of shifting baselines of comparison as degradation progresses over time?...

Data from: Possible ballast water transfer of lionfish to the eastern Pacific Ocean

Hugh J. MacIsaac, Emma M. De Roy, Brian Leung, Alice Grgicak-Mannion & Gregory M. Ruiz
The Indo-Pacific Red Lionfish was first reported off the Florida coast in 1985, following which it has spread across much of the SE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Lionfish negatively impact fish and invertebrate assemblages and abundances, thus further spread is cause for concern. To date, the fish has not been reported on the Pacific coast of North or Central America. Here we examine the possibility of ballast water transfer of lionfish from...

Data from: Tree circumference dynamics in four forests characterized using automated dendrometer bands

Valentine Herrmann, Sean M. McMahon, Matteo Detto, James A. Lutz, Stuart J. Davies, Chia-Hao Chang-Yang & Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira
Stem diameter is one of the most commonly measured attributes of trees, forming the foundation of forest censuses and monitoring. Changes in tree stem circumference include both irreversible woody stem growth and reversible circumference changes related to water status, yet these fine-scale dynamics are rarely leveraged to understand forest ecophysiology and typically ignored in plot- or stand-scale estimates of tree growth and forest productivity. Here, we deployed automated dendrometer bands on 12–40 trees at four...

Data from: Plant host identity and soil macronutrients explain little variation in sapling endophyte community composition: is disturbance an alternative explanation?

Eric A. Griffin, Joshua G. Harrison, Steven W. Kembel, Alyssa A. Carrell, S. Joseph Wright & Walter P. Carson
1. Bacterial endophytes may be fairly host specific; nonetheless, an important subset of taxa may be shared among numerous host species forming a community-wide core microbiome. Moreover, other key factors, particularly the supply of limiting macronutrients and disturbances, may supersede the importance of host identity. 2. We tested the following four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses: 1. The Host Identity Hypothesis: endophytes vary substantially among different host plant species. 2. The Core Microbiome Hypothesis: a subset of...

Reduced avian body condition due to global warming has little reproductive or population consequences

Nina McLean, Henk Van Der Jeugd, Chris Van Turnhout, Jonathan Lefcheck & Martijn Van De Pol
Climate change has strong effects on traits such as phenology and physiology. Studies typically assume that climate-induced trait changes will have consequences for population dynamics, but explicit tests are rare. Body condition reflects energy storage and may directly affect how much can be invested in reproduction and survival. However, the causal pathway by which decreased body condition impacts population dynamics has never been quantified across multiple populations and species. Therefore, we lack a general understanding...

Data from: Microgeography, not just latitude, drives climate overlap on mountains from tropical to polar ecosystems

David H. Klinges & Brett R. Scheffers
An extension of the climate variability hypothesis is that relatively stable climate, such as that of the tropics, induces distinct thermal bands across elevation that render dispersal over tropical mountains difficult compared to temperate mountains. Yet, ecosystems are not thermally static in space-time, especially at small scales, which might render some mountains greater thermal isolators than others. Here, we provide an extensive investigation of temperature drivers from fine to coarse scales, and demonstrate that the...

Data from: Chemical novelty facilitates herbivore resistance and biological invasions in some introduced plant species

Brian Sedio, John Devaney, Jamie Pullen, Geoffrey Parker, S. Joseph Wright & John Parker
Ecological release from herbivory due to chemical novelty is commonly predicted to facilitate biological invasions by plants, but has not been tested on a community scale. We used metabolomics based on mass spectrometry molecular networks to assess the novelty of foliar secondary chemistry of 15 invasive plant species compared to 46 native species at a site in eastern North America. Locally, invasive species were more chemically distinctive than natives. Among the 15 invasive species, the...

Data from: Lichens: a limit to peat growth?

Lorna I. Harris, Tim R. Moore, Nigel T. Roulet & Andrew J. Pinsonneault
1. The fruticose lichens Cladina stellaris and Cladina rangiferina, form thick mats that can cover large areas of northern peatlands (above ~ 50° latitude), including the extensive peatlands of the Hudson Bay Lowland (HBL) in Canada, where lichens may cover up to 50 % of the landscape. Despite the abundance of lichens in northern peatlands, our understanding of their role within peatland ecosystems, and peat accumulation in particular, is limited. 2. We investigate the potential...

Data from: Consumer versus resource control and the importance of habitat heterogeneity for estuarine bivalves

Rochelle D. Seitz, Romuald N. Lipcius & Anson H. Hines
The relative influence of consumers (top down) and resources (bottom up) on the distribution and abundance of organisms remains a key question in ecology. We examined the relationships between consumer and resource variables along a productivity gradient for a dominant predator–prey interaction in a marine soft-sediment system. We 1) quantified density and size of the clam Macoma balthica (prey species) in six replicate sites at each of four habitat types (shallow mud, deep mud, muddy...

Data from: Detrital traits affect substitutability of a range-expanding foundation species across latitude

Rachel S. Smith, Todd Z. Osborne, Ilka C. Feller & James E. Byers
Climate-driven range shifts of foundation species could alter ecosystem processes and community composition by providing different resources than resident foundation species. Along the US Atlantic coast, the northward expanding foundation species, black mangrove, Avicennia germinans, is replacing the dominant salt marsh foundation species, marsh cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora. These species have distinct detrital attributes that ostensibly provide different resources to epifauna. We experimentally examined how detritus of these species affects decomposition and community composition in different...

Data from: The role of taxonomic expertise in interpretation of metabarcoding studies

Paula Pappalardo, Allen G. Collins, Katrina M. Pagenkopp Lohan, Kate M. Hanson, Sarit B. Truskey, William Jaeckle, Cheryl Lewis Ames, Jessica A. Goodheart, Stephanie L. Bush, Leann M. Biancani, Ellen E. Strong, Michael Vecchione, M. G. Harasewych, Karen Reed, Chan Lin, Elise Hartil, Jessica Whelpley, Jamie Blumberg, Kenan Matterson, Niamh E. Redmond, Allison Becker, Michael J. Boyle & Karen J. Osborn
The performance of DNA metabarcoding approaches for characterizing biodiversity can be influenced by multiple factors. Here we used morphological assessment of taxa in zooplankton samples to develop a large barcode database and to assess the congruence of taxonomic identification with metabarcoding under different conditions. We analyzed taxonomic assignment of metabarcoded samples using two genetic markers (COI, 18S V1-2), two types of clustering into molecular operational taxonomic units (OTUs, ZOTUs), and three methods for taxonomic assignment...

Comparative transcriptomics of tropical woody plants supports fast and furious strategy along the leaf economics spectrum in lianas

Ugur Uzay Sezen
Lianas, climbing woody plants, influence the structure and function of tropical forests. Climbing traits have evolved multiple times, including ancestral groups such as gymnosperms and pteridophytes, but the genetic basis of the liana strategy is largely unknown. Here, we use a comparative transcriptomic approach for 47 tropical plant species, including ten lianas of diverse taxonomic origins, to identify genes that are consistently expressed or downregulated only in lianas. Our comparative analysis of full-length transcripts enabled...

Data from: Submerged macrophytes mitigate direct and indirect insecticide effects in freshwater communities

, Rick A. Relyea & William R. Brogan
Understanding how ecological interactions mitigate the impacts of perturbations such as pesticides in biological communities is an important basic and applied question for ecologists. In aquatic ecosystems, new evidence from microcosm experiments suggests that submerged macrophytes can buffer cladocerans from pulse exposures to the widely used insecticide malathion, and that mitigation increases with macrophyte density. However, whether these results scale up to more complex aquatic communities where ecological interactions such as competition can alter toxicity...

Data from: Species richness and interacting factors control invasibility of a marine community

Michelle L. Marraffini & Jonathan B. Geller
Anthropogenic vectors have moved marine species around the world leading to increased invasions and expanded species' ranges. The biotic resistance hypothesis of Elton (in The ecology of invasions by animals and plants, 1958) predicts that more diverse communities should have greater resistance to invasions, but experiments have been equivocal. We hypothesized that species richness interacts with other factors to determine experimental outcomes. We manipulated species richness, species composition (native and introduced) and availability of bare...

Data from: Drivers of vegetative dormancy across herbaceous perennial plant species

Richard P. Shefferson, Tiiu Kull, Michael J. Hutchings, Marc-André Selosse, Hans Jacquemyn, Kimberly M. Kellett, Eric S. Menges, Richard B. Primack, Juha Tuomi, Kirsi Alahuhta, Sonja Hurskainen, Helen M. Alexander, Derek S. Anderson, Rein Brys, Emilia Brzosko, Slavomir Dostálik, Katharine Gregg, Zdeněk Ipser, Anne Jäkäläniemi, Jana Jersáková, W. Dean Kettle, Melissa K. McCormick, Ana Mendoza, Michael T. Miller, Asbjørn Moen … & Dennis F. Whigham
Vegetative dormancy, that is the temporary absence of aboveground growth for ≥ 1 year, is paradoxical, because plants cannot photosynthesise or flower during dormant periods. We test ecological and evolutionary hypotheses for its widespread persistence. We show that dormancy has evolved numerous times. Most species displaying dormancy exhibit life‐history costs of sprouting, and of dormancy. Short‐lived and mycoheterotrophic species have higher proportions of dormant plants than long‐lived species and species with other nutritional modes. Foliage...

Data from: Atmospheric rivers and the mass mortality of wild oysters: insight into an extreme future?

Brian S. Cheng, Andrew L. Chang, Anna Deck & Matthew C. Ferner
Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and severity of extreme events. However, the biological consequences of extremes remain poorly resolved owing to their unpredictable nature and difficulty in quantifying their mechanisms and impacts. One key feature delivering precipitation extremes is an atmospheric river (AR), a long and narrow filament of enhanced water vapour transport. Despite recent attention, the biological impacts of ARs remain undocumented. Here, we use biological data coupled with remotely sensed...

Data from: Size-related scaling of tree form and function in a mixed-age forest

Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira, Jennifer C. McGarvey, Helene C. Muller-Landau, Janice Y. Park, Erika B. Gonzalez-Akre, Valentine Herrmann, Amy C. Bennett, Christopher V. So, Norman A. Bourg, Jonathan R. Thompson, Sean M. McMahon & William J. McShea
Many morphological, physiological and ecological traits of trees scale with diameter, shaping the structure and function of forest ecosystems. Understanding the mechanistic basis for such scaling relationships is key to understanding forests globally and their role in Earth's changing climate system. Here, we evaluate theoretical predictions for the scaling of nine variables in a mixed-age temperate deciduous forest (CTFS-ForestGEO forest dynamics plot at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Virginia, USA) and compare observed scaling parameters...

Data from: Sex-specific differences in the response of prey to predation risk

Sarah Donelan & Geoffrey Trussell
The nonconsumptive effects of predation risk can strongly affect prey behavior and fitness with emergent effects on community structure and ecosystem functioning. Prey may respond differently to predation risk based on key traits such as sex, but the influence of sex-specific variation is typically explored in species with strong sexual dimorphism. However, sex-specific responses to predation risk may arise even in prey species lacking sexual dimorphisms based on differences in the relative cost of reproduction....

Foliar water uptake by coastal wetland plants: a novel water acquisition mechanism in arid and humid subtropical mangroves

Matthew Hayes, Samantha Chapman, Amber Jesse, Elizabeth O'Brien, Adam Langley, Remi Bardou, John Devaney, John Parker & Kyle C. Cavanaugh
1. Climate change alters freshwater availability in many ecosystems leading to shifts in distributions for many plants. Despite living exclusively in intertidal, saline environments, mangroves rely on non-saline water to maintain plant productivity. However, several mangrove species persist in arid environments where non-saline water from rain and groundwater sources are limited. Under these conditions, foliar water uptake from fog and mist may be an important water acquisition strategy. 2. We conducted a field experiment in...

Primary detection records for aquatic nonindigenous species in global estuarine and marine ecosystems and the Great Lakes

Sarah Bailey, Lyndsay Brown, Marnie Campbell, João Canning-Clode, James Carlton, Nuno Castro, Paula Chainho, Farrah Chan, Joel Creed, Amelia Curd, John Darling, Paul Fofonoff, Bella Galil, Chad Hewitt, Graeme Inglis, Inti Keith, Nicholas Mandrak, Agnese Marchini, Cynthia McKenzie, Anna Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Henn Ojaveer, Larissa Pires-Teixeira, Tamara Robinson, Gregory Ruiz, Kimberley Seaward … & Aibin Zhan
Aim The introduction of aquatic non-indigenous species (ANS) has become a major driver for global changes in species biogeography. We examined spatial patterns and temporal trends of ANS detections since 1965 to inform conservation policy and management. Location Global Methods We assembled an extensive dataset of first records of detection of ANS (1965-2015) across 49 aquatic ecosystems, including the i) year of first collection, ii) population status and iii) potential pathway(s) of introduction. Data were...

Closing the life cycle of forest trees: The difficult dynamics of seedling-to-sapling transitions in a subtropical rain forest

Chia-Hao Chang-Yang, Jessica Needham, Chia-Ling Lu, Chang-Fu Hsieh, I-Fang Sun & Sean McMahon
1. Experimental and observational studies on seedling dynamics posit mechanisms that can influence forest diversity, structure, and function. However, high mortality and slow growth of seedlings make it difficult to evaluate the importance of this life-history filter to total tree life history. Quantifying the duration and transition of the seedling phase would help us understand this ‘black box’ in tree population biology. 2. We used a 16-year dataset of comprehensive seedling-to-sapling demography from a subtropical...

Opposing community assembly patterns for dominant and non-dominant plant species in herbaceous ecosystems globally

Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Elizabeth Borer, Eric Seabloom, Juan Alberti, Selene Baez, Jonathon Bakker, Elizabeth Boughton, Yvonne Buckley, Miguel Bugalho, Ian Donohue, John Dwyer, Jennifer Firn, Riley Gridzak, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Aveliina Helm, Anke Jentsch, , Kimberly Komatsu, Lauri Laanisto, Ramesh Laungani, Rebecca McCulley, Joslin Moore, John Morgan, Pablo Peri … & Marc Cadotte
Biotic and abiotic factors interact with dominant plants —the locally most frequent or with the largest coverage— and non-dominant plants differently, partially because dominant plants modify the environment where non-dominant plants grow. For instance, if dominant plants compete strongly, they will deplete most resources, forcing non-dominant plants into a narrower niche space. Conversely, if dominant plants are constrained by the environment, they might not exhaust available resources but instead may ameliorate environmental stressors that usually...

Data from: Warming accelerates mangrove expansion and surface elevation gain in a subtropical wetland

Glenn A. Coldren, J. Adam Langley, Ilka Candy Feller & Samantha K. Chapman
Climatic warming can change how coastal wetland plants grow, thus altering their capacity to build land and keep pace with rising seas. As freeze events decline with climate change, mangroves expand their range to higher latitudes and displace salt marsh vegetation. Warmer air temperatures will likely alter above‐ and below‐ground plant dynamics as this dramatic coastal wetland biome shift proceeds, which in turn may result in changes in ecosystem function such as sediment building. We...

Predation shapes invertebrate diversity in tropical but not temperate seagrass communities

Amy Freestone, Elizabeth Carroll, Katherine Papacostas, Gregory Ruiz, Mark Torchin & Brent Sewall
1. The hypothesis that biotic interactions are stronger at lower relative to higher latitudes has a rich history, drawing from ecological and evolutionary theory. While this hypothesis suggests that stronger interactions at lower latitudes may contribute to the maintenance of contemporary patterns of diversity, there remain few standardized biogeographic comparisons of community effects of species interactions. 2. Using marine seagrasses as a focal ecosystem of conservation importance and sessile marine invertebrates as model prey, we...

Data from: Hurricanes overcome migration lag and shape intraspecific genetic variation beyond a poleward mangrove range limit

John Paul Kennedy, Emily M. Dangremond, Matthew A. Hayes, Richard F. Preziosi, Jennifer K. Rowntree & Ilka C. Feller
Expansion of many tree species lags behind climate-change projections. Extreme storms can rapidly overcome this lag, especially for coastal species, but how will storm-driven expansion shape intraspecific genetic variation? Do storms provide recruits only from the nearest sources, or from more distant sources? Answers to these questions have ecological and evolutionary implications, but empirical evidence is absent from the literature. Hurricane Irma provided an opportunity to address this knowledge gap at the northern range limit...

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Resource Types

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Affiliations

  • Smithsonian Environmental Research Center
    44
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