105 Works

The impacts of body mass on immune cell concentrations in birds

Emily Cornelius Ruhs
Body mass affects many biological traits, but its impacts on immune defenses are fairly unknown. Recent research on mammals found that neutrophil concentrations disproportionately increased (scaled hypermetrically) with body mass, a result not predicted by any existing theory. Although the scaling relationship for mammals might predict how leukocyte concentrations scale with body mass in other vertebrates, vertebrate classes are distinct in many ways that might affect their current and historic interactions with parasites and hence...

Data from: The genetic architecture of plant defense tradeoffs in a common monkeyflower

Nicholas Kooyers, Benjamin Blackman, Abigail Donofrio & Liza Holeski
Determining how adaptive combinations of traits arose requires understanding the prevalence and scope of genetic constraints. Frequently observed phenotypic correlations between plant growth, defenses, and/or reproductive timing have led researchers to suggest that pleiotropy or strong genetic linkage between variants affecting independent traits is pervasive. Alternatively, these correlations could arise via independent mutations in different genes for each trait and extensive correlational selection. Here we evaluate these alternatives by conducting a QTL mapping experiment involving...

First to Go to College and First to “Go Greek:” Engagement in Academically Oriented Activities by Senior Year First Generation Students Who Are Fraternity/Sorority Members

Chad Aren, Dan Bureau, Helen Grace Ryan & Vasti Torres

Collaborative Research: Project Incubation -- NJIT-CAREs: New Jersey Institute of Technology Campus Alignment Review of Ethics

David Kidd
For this Project Incubation award, we propose a one-year project at New Jersey Institute of Technology
(NJIT) to pilot mixed-methodologies developed by the National Ethics Project (NEP), with the goal of
establishing a baseline for writing a collaborative Institutional Transformation proposal to be submitted in
the following funding cycle. This Incubation Project constitutes the next incremental step in a series of
projects intended to benefit a broad range of institutions in auditing or transforming approaches to ER2.

Long-term change in the parasite burden of shore crabs (Hemigrapsus oregonensis and H. nudus) on the northwestern Pacific coast of North America

Jessica Quinn, Sarah Lee, Duncan Greeley, Alyssa Gehman, Armand Kuris & Chelsea Wood
The abundances of free-living species have changed dramatically in recent decades, but little is known about change in the abundance of parasitic species. We investigated whether populations of several parasites have shifted over time in two shore crab hosts, Hemigrapsus oregonensis and H. nudus, by comparing the prevalence and abundance of three parasite taxa in a historical dataset (1969–1970) to contemporary parasite abundance (2018–2020) for hosts collected from 11 intertidal sites located from Oregon, USA...

Decoupled dust deposition and ocean productivity in the Antarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean over the past 1.5 million years

Michael E. Weber , Ian Bailey , Sidney R. Hemming , Yasmina M. Martos , Brendan T. Reilly , Thomas A. Ronge , Stefanie Brachfeld , Trevor Williams , Maureen Raymo , Simon T. Belt , Hendrik Vogel , Victoria Peck , Linda Armbrecht , Alix Cage , Fabricio G. Cardillo , Zhiheng Du , Gerson Fauth , Christopher J. Fogwill , Marga Garcia , Marlo Garnsworthy , Anna Glüder , Michelle Guitard , Marcus Gutjahr , Iván Hernández-Almeida , Frida S. Hoem … & Xufeng Zheng
Southern Ocean paleoceanography provides key insights into how iron fertilization and oceanic productivity developed through Pleistocene ice-ages and their role in influencing the carbon cycle. We report the first high-resolution record of dust deposition and ocean productivity for the Antarctic Zone, close to the main dust source, Patagonia. Our deep-ocean records cover the last 1.5 Ma, thus doubling that from Antarctic ice-cores. We find a ≥10-fold increase in dust deposition during glacials and a ≤5-fold...

Collaborative Research: Do Anthropogenic Light Levels Affect Predation Mortality on Diel Vertically Migrating Mesopelagics?

Steven Murawski
In recent years, oil and gas facilities have aggressively extended into the ultra-deep waters (>1,000 m) in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM), impinging upon the offshore habitats of both large epipelagic predators and diel vertically migrating (DVM) mesopelagics. High intensity lighting at these platforms attracts a variety of prey at night including lanternfishes (Myctophidae) and other vertically migrating fishes, squids and zooplankton. As well, a number of pelagic apex predators including yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares,...

Experimental evidence that host species composition alters host-pathogen dynamics in a ranavirus-amphibian assemblage

Paul Snyder, Chloe Ramsay, Carmen Harjoe, Emily Khazan, Cheryl Briggs, Jason Hoverman, Pieter Johnson, Daniel Preston, Jason Rohr & Andrew Blaustein
Losses in biodiversity can alter disease risk through changes in host species composition. Host species vary in pathogen susceptibility and competence. Yet how changes in diversity alter host-pathogen dynamics remains unclear in many systems, particularly with respect to generalist pathogens. Amphibians are experiencing worldwide population declines linked to generalist pathogens, such as ranavirus, and thus represent an ideal group to investigate how host species composition affects disease risk. We conducted experiments where individuals in the...

Data from: Highway to the danger zone: exposure-dependent costs of immunity in a vertebrate ectotherm

Amber J. Brace, Sam Sheikali & Lynn B. Martin
Parasite exposure often causes innate immune activation, resulting in tradeoffs among physiological processes and strong selection on the parasite. Costs of immune activation vary widely among and within host populations though, likely dependent on the evolutionary history of host-parasite interactions and the environments in which they occur. For hosts, degree of exposure may drive the magnitude of costs incurred, and subsequently whether hosts resist or tolerate infections. If costs increase concomitantly with exposure, a threshold...

Data from: Spatial and temporal patterns of larval dispersal in a coral-reef fish metapopulation: evidence of variable reproductive success

Timothy J. Pusack, Mark R. Christie, Darren W. Johnson, Christopher D. Stallings & Mark A. Hixon
Many marine organisms can be transported hundreds of kilometers during their pelagic larval stage, yet little is known about spatial and temporal patterns of larval dispersal. Although traditional population-genetic tools can be applied to infer movement of larvae on an evolutionary time scale, large effective population sizes and high rates of gene-flow present serious challenges to documenting dispersal patterns over shorter, ecologically-relevant, time scales. Here, we address these challenges by combining direct parentage analysis and...

Data from: Predatory fish sounds can alter crab foraging behavior and influence bivalve abundance

A. Randall Hughes, David A. Mann & David L. Kimbro
The risk of predation can have large effects on ecological communities via changes in prey behaviour, morphology and reproduction. Although prey can use a variety of sensory signals to detect predation risk, relatively little is known regarding the effects of predator acoustic cues on prey foraging behaviour. Here we show that an ecologically important marine crab species can detect sound across a range of frequencies, probably in response to particle acceleration. Further, crabs suppress their...

Data from: Neonicotinoid insecticide travels through a soil food chain, disrupting biological control of non-target pests and decreasing soya bean yield

Margaret R. Douglas, Jason R. Rohr & John F. Tooker
1. Neonicotinoids are the most widely used insecticides world-wide, but their fate in the environment remains unclear, as does their potential to influence non-target species and the roles they play in agroecosystems. 2. We investigated in laboratory and field studies the influence of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam, applied as a coating to soya bean seeds, on interactions among soya beans, non-target molluscan herbivores and their insect predators. 3. In the laboratory, the pest slug Deroceras reticulatum...

Data from: Habitat, predators, and hosts regulate disease in Daphnia through direct and indirect pathways

Alexander T. Strauss, Marta S. Shocket, David J. Civitello, Jessica L. Hite, Rachel M. Penczykowski, Meghan A. Duffy, Carla E. Cáceres & Spencer R. Hall
Community ecology can link habitat to disease via interactions among habitat, focal hosts, other hosts, their parasites, and predators. However, complicated food web interactions (i.e., trophic interactions among predators, and their impacts on host density and diversity) often obscure the important pathways regulating disease. Here, we disentangle community drivers in a case study of planktonic disease, using a two-step approach. In step one, we tested univariate field patterns linking community interactions to two disease metrics....

Data from: Sex-biased avian host use by arbovirus vectors

Nathan D. Burkett-Cadena, Andrea M. Bingham & Thomas R. Unnasch
Prevalence of arthropod-borne parasites often differs drastically between host sexes. This sex-related disparity may be related to physiological (primarily hormonal) differences that facilitate or suppress replication of the pathogen in host tissues. Alternately, differences in pathogen prevalence between host sexes may be owing to differential exposure to infected vectors. Here, we report on the use of PCR-based assays recognizing bird sex chromosomes to investigate sex-related patterns of avian host use from field-collected female mosquitoes from...

Data from: A quantitative framework for investigating risk of deadly collisions between marine wildlife and boats

Julien Martin, Quentin Sabatier, Timothy A. Gowan, Christophe Giraud, Eliezer Gurarie, Charles Scott Calleson, Joel G. Ortega-Ortiz, Charles J. Deutsch, Athena Rycyk & Stacie M. Koslovsky
Speed regulations of watercraft in protected areas are designed to reduce lethal collisions with wildlife but can have economic consequences. We present a quantitative framework for investigating the risk of deadly collisions between boats and wildlife. We apply encounter rate theory to demonstrate how marine mammal-boat encounter rate can be used to predict the expected number of deaths associated with management scenarios. We illustrate our approach with management scenarios for two endangered species: the Florida...

Data from: Dynamic sinking behaviour in marine phytoplankton: rapid changes in buoyancy may aid in nutrient uptake

Brad J. Gemmell, Genesok Oh, Edward J. Buskey & Tracy A. Villareal
Phytoplankton sinking is an important property that can determine community composition in the photic zone and material loss to the deep ocean. To date, studies of diatom suspension have relied on bulk measurements with assumptions that bulk rates adequately capture the essential characteristics of diatom sinking. However, recent work has illustrated that individual diatom sinking rates vary considerably from the mean bulk rate. In this study, we apply high-resolution optical techniques, individual-based observations of diatom...

Data from: Herbivore size matters for productivity-richness relationships in African savannas

Deron E. Burkepile, Richard W. S. Fynn, Dave I. Thompson, Nathan P. Lemoine, Sally E. Koerner, Stephanie Eby, Nicole Hagenah, Kevin R. Wilcox, Scott L. Collins, Kevin P. Kirkman, Alan K. Knapp & Melinda D. Smith
1.Productivity and herbivory often interact to shape plant community composition and species richness with levels of production mediating the impact of herbivory. Yet, differences in herbivore traits such as size, feeding guild, and dietary requirements may result in different impacts of diverse herbivore guilds across productivity gradients. 2.We used size-selective herbivore exclosures to separate the effects of herbivory by larger herbivores, such as elephant, Burchell's zebra, and blue wildebeest from those of medium/smaller herbivores, such...

Data from: The diverse dietary profiles of MIS 3 cave bears from the Romanian Carpathians: insights from stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) analysis

Marius Robu, Jonathan G. Wynn, Ionuţ C. Mirea, Alexandru Petculescu, Marius Kenesz, Cristina M. Puşcaş, Marius Vlaicu, Erik Trinkaus & Silviu Constantin
Late Pleistocene European cave bears (Ursus spelaeus) have been considered to be largely vegetarian, although stable isotope data (δ13C and δ15N values) from the Romanian Carpathians has suggested considerable dietary variation. Here we evaluate previous and additional adult cave bear isotopic data from four Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) sites in the Carpathians. Peştera Urşilor (N = 35), Peştera Cioclovina (N = 32), Peştera Muierilor (N = 8), and Peştera cu Oase (N =...

Data from: Competition drives trait evolution and character displacement between Mimulus species along an environmental gradient

Nicholas J. Kooyers, Brooke James & Benjamin K. Blackman
Closely related species may evolve to coexist stably in sympatry through niche differentiation driven by in situ competition, a process termed character displacement. Alternatively, past evolution in allopatry may have already sufficiently reduced niche overlap to permit establishment in sympatry, a process called ecological sorting. The relative importance of each process to niche differentiation is contentious even though they are not mutually exclusive and are both mediated via multivariate trait evolution. We explore how competition...

Data from: Randomized phase 2 study of FcRn antagonist efgartigimod in generalized myasthenia gravis

James F. Howard, Vera Bril, Ted M. Burns, Renato Mantegazza, Malgorzata Bilinska, Andrzej Szczudlik, Said Beydoun, Francisco Javier Rodriguez De Rivera Garrido, Fredrik Piehl, Mariarosa Rottoli, Philip Van Damme, Tuan Vu, Amelia Evoli, Miriam Freimer, Tahseen Mozaffar, E. Sally Ward, Torsten Dreier, Peter Ulrichts, Katrien Verschueren, Antonio Guglietta, Hans De Haard, Nicolas Leupin & Jan J. G. M. Verschuuren
Objective: To investigate safety and explore efficacy of efgartigimod (ARGX-113), an anti-neonatal Fc receptor immunoglobulin G1 Fc fragment, in patients with generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG) with a history of anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) autoantibodies, who were on stable standard-of-care myasthenia gravis (MG) treatment. Methods: A phase 2, exploratory, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 15-center study is described. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 4 doses over a 3-week period of either 10 mg/kg IV efgartigimod or...

Macroimmunology: the drivers and consequences of spatial patterns in wildlife immune defense

Daniel Becker, Gregory Albery, Maureen Kessler, Tamika Lunn, Caylee Falvo, Gábor Czirják, Lynn Martin & Raina Plowright
1. Spatial variation in parasite pressure, abiotic and biotic conditions, and anthropogenic factors can all shape immune phenotypes across spatial scales. Identifying the most important spatial drivers of immunity could help preempt infectious disease risks, especially in the context of how large-scale factors such as urbanization affect defense by changing environmental conditions. 2. We provide a synthesis of how to apply macroecological approaches to the study of ecoimmunology (i.e., macroimmunology). We first review spatial factors...

Data from: Correlates of rate heterogeneity in avian ecomorphological traits

Angela M. Chira, Christopher R. Cooney, Jen A. Bright, Elliot J.R. Capp, Emma C. Hughes, Chris J.A. Moody, Lara O. Nouri, Zoe K. Varley, Gavin H. Thomas, E. J. R. Capp & C. J. A. Moody
Heterogeneity in rates of trait evolution is widespread, but it remains unclear which processes drive fast and slow character divergence across global radiations. Here, we test multiple hypotheses for explaining rate variation in an ecomorphological trait (beak shape) across a globally distributed group (birds). We find low support that variation in evolutionary rates of species is correlated with life history, environmental mutagenic factors, range size, number of competitors, or living on islands. Indeed, after controlling...

Data from: A re‐interpretation of the ambulacral system of Eumorphocystis (Blastozoa, Echinodermata) and its bearing on the evolution of early crinoids

Sarah L. Sheffield & Colin D. Sumrall
Recent debates over the evolutionary relationships of early echinoderms have relied heavily on morphological evidence from the feeding ambulacral system. Eumorphocystis, a Late Ordovician diploporitan, has been a focus in these debates because it bears ambulacral features that show strong morphological similarity to early crinoid arms. Undescribed and well‐preserved specimens of Eumorphocystis from the Bromide Formation (Oklahoma, USA) provide new data illustrating that composite arms supported by a radial plate that bear a triserial arrangement...

Elucidating mechanisms of invasion success: effects of parasite removal on growth and survival rates of invasive and native frogs

Elizabeth Roznik, Kerri Surbaugh, Natalia Cano & Jason Rohr
1. Identifying the mechanisms underlying biological invasions can inform the management of invasive species. The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) suggests that invasive species have a competitive advantage in their introduced range because they leave behind many of their predators and parasites from their native range, allowing them to shift resources from defenses to growth, reproduction, and dispersal. Many studies have demonstrated that invasive species have fewer parasites than their native counterparts, but few studies have...

Prehistoric baseline reveals substantial decline of oyster reef condition in a Gulf of Mexico conservation priority area

Stephen Hesterberg, Gregory Herbert, Thomas Pluckhahn, Ryan Harke, Nasser Al-Qattan, C. Trevor Duke, Evan Moore, Megan Smith, Alexander Delgado & Christina Sampson
This dataset contains oyster shell height measurements for prehistoric and modern oysters collected near Crystal River, Florida, USA. Oxygen and carbon stable isotope values for large prehistoric and modern oysters are also reported.

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Affiliations

  • University of South Florida
    105
  • Oregon State University
    8
  • University of Florida
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  • Hainan Medical University
    4
  • University of Shanghai for Science and Technology
    4
  • Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College
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  • Capital Medical University
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  • Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital
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  • Pfizer (United States)
    4
  • The University of Texas at Austin
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