105 Works

Light pollution affects West Nile virus exposure risk across Florida

Meredith Kernbach
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) present global health threats, and their emergences are often linked to anthropogenic change. Artificial light at night (ALAN) is one form of anthropogenic change that spans beyond urban boundaries and may be relevant to EIDs through its influence on behavior and physiology of hosts and/or vectors. Although West Nile virus (WNV) emergence has been described as peri-urban, we hypothesized that exposure risk could also be influenced by ALAN in particular, which...

Data from: The most efficient metazoan swimmer creates a ‘virtual wall’ to enhance performance

Brad Gemmell
It has been well documented that animals (and machines) swimming or flying near a solid boundary get a boost in performance. This ground effect is often modeled as an interaction between a mirrored pair of vortices represented by a true vortex and an opposite sign ‘virtual vortex’ on the other side of the wall. However, most animals do not swim near solid surfaces and thus near body vortex-vortex interactions in open-water swimmers have been poorly...

Examining Variation in Compliance to a New School Counselor Policy by School and School Counseling Program Variables

Chloe Lancaster, Martha F. Burke & Michelle Brasfield

Supplemental material - Multifaceted characteristics of aridity changes and causal mechanisms in Chinese drylands

Ying Hu, Fangli Wei, Bojie Fu, Shuai Wang, Lanhui Wang & Yongzhe Chen
Supplemental material for Multifaceted characteristics of aridity changes and causal mechanisms in Chinese drylands by Ying Hu, Fangli Wei, Bojie Fu, Shuai Wang, Lanhui Wang, Yongzhe Chen in Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment

Data from: The evolution of locomotor rhythmicity in tetrapods

Callum F. Ross, Richard W. Blob, David R. Carrier, Monica A. Daley, Stephen M. Deban, Brigitte Demes, Janaya L. Gripper, Jose Iriarte-Diaz, Brandon Michael Kilbourne, Tobias Landberg, John D. Polk, Nadja Schilling & Bieke Vanhooydonck
Differences in rhythmicity (relative variance in cycle period) between mammal, fish, and lizard feeding systems have been hypothesized to be associated with differences in their sensorimotor control systems. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether the locomotion of tachymetabolic tetrapods (birds and mammals) is more rhythmic than that of bradymetabolic tetrapods (lizards, alligators, turtles, salamanders). Species averages of intra-individual coefficients of variation in cycle period were compared while controlling for gait and substrate. Variance in...

Data from: The relationship between microhabitat use, allometry, and functional variation in the eyes of Hawaiian Megalagrion damselflies

Jeffrey A. Scales & Marguerite A. Butler
The evolution of visual systems is guided by visual requirements imposed by the environment, the size of the animal's eyes, and physical limitations imposed by the resolution-sensitivity trade-off. Given a particular eye surface area, resolution and sensitivity cannot be simultaneously maximized: gains in resolution, the ability of the eye to detect detail, will come at the cost of sensitivity, the ability to capture photons, and vice versa, without an increase to eye size. How this...

Data from: The effect of taxonomic corrections on Phanerozoic generic richness trends in marine bivalves with a discussion on the clade’s overall history

Subhronil Mondal & Peter J. Harries
This study uses a comprehensive, revised, and updated global bivalve dataset combining information from two major databases available to study temporal trends in Phanerozoic bivalve richness: the Sepkoski Compendium and the Paleobiology Database. This compilation results in greater taxonomic and stratigraphic coverage than possible with either of the two databases alone. However, there are challenges in directly comparing these two sources due to differences in their taxonomic designations and stratigraphic range information. Moreover, both of...

Data from: Constrained body shape among highly genetically divergent allopatric lineages of the supralittoral isopod Ligia occidentalis (Oniscidea)

Carlos A. Santamaria, Mariana Mateos, Thomas J. DeWitt & Luis A. Hurtado
Multiple highly divergent lineages have been identified within Ligia occidentalis sensu lato, a rocky supralittoral isopod distributed along a ~3000 km latitudinal gradient that encompasses several proposed marine biogeographic provinces and ecoregions in the eastern Pacific. Highly divergent lineages have nonoverlapping geographic distributions, with distributional limits that generally correspond with sharp environmental changes. Crossbreeding experiments suggest postmating reproductive barriers exist among some of them, and surveys of mitochondrial and nuclear gene markers do not show...

Data from: Inhibition of BTK and ITK with ibrutinib is effective in the prevention of chronic graft-versus-host disease in mice

Steven D. Schutt, Jianing Fu, Hung Nguyen, David Bastian, Jessica Heinrichs, Yongxia Wu, Chen Liu, Daniel G. McDonald, Joseph Pidala & Xue-Zhong Yu
Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) and IL-2 Inducible T-cell Kinase (ITK) are enzymes responsible for the phosphorylation and activation of downstream effectors in the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathways, respectively. Ibrutinib is an FDA-approved potent inhibitor of both BTK and ITK that impairs B-cell and T-cell function. CD4 T cells and B cells are essential for the induction of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). We evaluated these targets by testing the...

Data from: Stress hormones predict a host superspreader phenotype in the West Nile virus system

Stephanie S. Gervasi, Sarah C. Burgan, Erik Hofmeister, Thomas R. Unnasch & Lynn B. Martin
Glucocorticoid stress hormones, such as corticosterone (CORT), have profound effects on the behaviour and physiology of organisms, and thus have the potential to alter host competence and the contributions of individuals to population- and community-level pathogen dynamics. For example, CORT could alter the rate of contacts among hosts, pathogens and vectors through its widespread effects on host metabolism and activity levels. CORT could also affect the intensity and duration of pathogen shedding and risk of...

Data from: Range-wide and regional patterns of population structure and genetic diversity in the gopher tortoise

Daniel Gaillard, Joshua R. Ennen, Brian R. Kreiser, Carl P. Qualls, Sarah C. Sweat, Roger Birkhead, Tracey D. Tuberville, Matthew Aresco, Earl D. McCoy, Henry R. Mushinsky, Thomas W. Hentges, B.R. Kreiser, C.P. Qualls, T.D. Tuberville, E.D. McCoy, H.R. Mushinsky & T.W. Hentges
The gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) has experienced dramatic population declines throughout its distribution in the southeastern United States and is federally listed as threatened in the area west of the Tombigbee-Mobile Rivers. While there is molecular support for recognizing the listed portion of the range as genetically distinct, other research has suggested that additional population structure exists at both range-wide and regional scales. In this study, we sought to comprehensively define structure at both spatial...

Data from: Past is prologue: host community assembly and the risk of infectious disease over time

Fletcher W. Halliday, Robert W. Heckman, Peter A. Wilfahrt & Charles E. Mitchell
Infectious disease risk is often influenced by host diversity, but the causes are unresolved. Changes in diversity are associated with changes in community structure, particularly during community assembly; therefore, by incorporating change over time, host community assembly may provide a framework to resolve causation. In turn, community assembly can be driven by many processes, including resource enrichment. To test the hypothesis that community assembly causally links host diversity to future disease, we experimentally manipulated host...

Data from: Claw morphometrics in monitor lizards: variable substrate and habitat use correlate to shape diversity within a predator guild

Domenic C. D'Amore, Simon Clulow, J. Sean Doody, David Rhind & Colin R. McHenry
Numerous studies investigate morphology in the context of habitat, and lizards have received particular attention. Substrate usage is often reflected in the morphology of characters associated with locomotion, and, as a result, claws have become well‐studied ecomorphological traits linking the two. The Kimberley predator guild of Western Australia consists of 10 sympatric varanid species. The purpose of this study was to quantify claw size and shape in the guild using geometric morphometrics, and determine whether...

Data from: An updated global dataset for diet preferences in terrestrial mammals: testing the validity of extrapolation

Alison M. Gainsbury, Oliver J. S. Tallowin & Shai Meiri
1. Diet is a key trait of an organism’s life history that influences a broad spectrum of ecological and evolutionary processes. Kissling et al. (2014) compiled a species-specific dataset of diet preferences of mammals for 38% of a total of 5364 terrestrial mammalian species assessed for the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List, to facilitate future studies. The authors imputed dietary data for the remaining 62% by using extrapolation from phylogenetic relatives. 2....

Spectral composition of light pollution affects melatonin suppression and West Nile virus infection resistance and mortality in the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus).

Meredith Kernbach, Vincent Cassone, Thomas Unnasch & Lynn Martin
Artificial light at night (ALAN) has become a pervasive anthropogenic stressor for both humans and wildlife. Although many negative impacts of ALAN on human health have been identified, the consequences for infectious disease dynamics are largely unexplored. With the increase in popularity of energy efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the effects of spectral composition of ALAN have also come into question. Previous studies showed that exposure to low levels of incandescent ALAN extended the infectious period...

Data from: Effects of forestry-driven changes to groundcover and soil moisture on amphibian desiccation, dispersal, and survival

Christopher J.E. Haggerty, Thomas L. Crisman & Jason R. Rohr
Over 80% of amphibian species that are declining are forest dependent. Forestry practices are a major cause of forest alterations globally, and it is well documented that clearcutting can contribute to amphibian declines. However, there might be adverse effects of forestry practices other than clearcutting. For example, planting overstory trees in rows (plantations) can change groundcover microhabitats and soil moisture levels, but the effects of this common practice on amphibian populations are not well studied....

Differentially evolutionary pathways and their interactions in genes expressed in brain of human and macaque

Ju Wang, Yuequn Ma, Changying Cao, Mengwen Zhao, Xinhua Liu & Feng Cheng
As the key organ that separates human from other non-human primates, brain has continuously evolved to adapt to the changes of environments and climates. Although human shares most genetic, molecular and cellular features with primates like macaque, there are significant differences in the structure and function in brain of human and these species. Thus, exploring the differences between brains of human and non-human primates in the context of evolution will provide insights into the development,...

The Impact of Grey Literature in Advancing Global Karst Research: An Information Needs Assessment for a Globally Distributed Interdisciplinary Community

Todd Chavez
Co-authored together with Anna Perrault, Pete Reehling, and Courtney Crummett. - A survey of the global karst community was conducted in 2006. The survey was distributed via the World Wide Web to known karst researchers. The instrument was designed to generate an initial inventory of core grey information types, to assess levels of usage of grey information by the respondents, and to gauge the karst community’s willingness to participate in building and expanding both this...

Data from: Can variation in seed removal patterns of Neotropical pioneer tree species be explained by local ant community composition?

Selina Ruzi, Paul-Camilo Zalamea, Daniel Roche, Rafael Achury, James Dalling & Andrew Suarez
Many plants depend on animals for seed dispersal, and ants commonly fill this role. We examined if heterogeneity in ant community composition among sites, between above- and below-ground foraging guilds, or between seasons predicts observed variation in seed removal rates for 12 nonmyrmecochorous Neotropical pioneer tree species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. We also investigated if ants associated with removing seeds differed in specific morphological characters from the larger ant community. We observed ant-seed interactions...

Disentangling interactions among mercury, immunity, and infection in a Neotropical bat community

Daniel Becker, Kelly Speer, Jennifer Korstian, Dmitriy Volokhov, Hannah Droke, Alexis Brown, Catherene Baijnauth, Ticha Padgett-Stewart, Hugh Broders, Raina Plowright, Thomas Rainwater, Brock Fenton, Nancy Simmons & Matthew Chumchal
Contaminants such as mercury are pervasive and can have immunosuppressive effects on wildlife. Impaired immunity could be important for forecasting pathogen spillover risks, as many land-use changes that generate mercury contamination also bring wildlife into close contact with humans and domestic animals. However, the interactions among contaminants, immunity, and infection are difficult to study in natural systems, and empirical tests of possible directional relationships remain rare. We capitalized on extreme mercury variation in a diverse...

Repeated genetic and adaptive phenotypic divergence across tidal elevation in a foundation plant species

Robyn Zerebecki, Erik E Sotka, Torrance C Hanley, Katherine L. Bell, Catherine Gehring, Chris C. Nice, Christina L. Richards & A Randall Hughes
Microgeographic genetic divergence can create fine-scale trait variation. When such divergence occurs within foundation species, then it might impact community structure and ecosystem function, and cause other cascading ecological effects. We tested for parallel microgeographic trait and genetic divergence in Spartina alterniflora , a foundation species that dominates salt marshes of the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Spartina is characterized by tall-form (1-2m) plants at lower tidal elevations and short-form (<0.5m) plants at higher tidal...

Lead mitigation via an interdisciplinary perspective

Adaline Buerck

Supplementary materials for the manuscript entitled: Mitochondrial Perspective on Species Identification and Delimitation for troglobitic Cicurina (Arachnida: Araneae: Hahniidae) from Central Texas

Preston J. McDonald McDonald, Julie A. Parlos, James C. Cokendolpher, Stirling J. Robertson, Jean K. Krejca, Jennifer C. Girón & Caleb D. Phillips
Central Texas is home to a diverse fauna of endemic species found in the karst areas along the Balcones Fault Line, the Edwards Aquifer region, and associated springs. The fauna occurring in Bexar County experience especially high anthropogenic pressure due to urban sprawl and suburban development in and around San Antonio, one of the largest cities in the United States. Among local fauna are numerous troglobitic spider species of the genus Cicurina Menge, 1871 (subgenus...

Supplementary information provided with Murray et al.: Discovery of an Antarctic ascidian-associated uncultivated Verrucomicrobia with antimelanoma palmerolide biosynthetic potential

Alison E Murray, Chien-Chi Lo, Hajnalka E Daligault, Nicole E Avalon, Robert W Read, Karen W Davenport, Mary L Higham, Yuliya Kunde, Armand EK Dichosa, Bill J Baker & Patrick SG Chain
The Antarctic marine ecosystem harbors a wealth of biological and chemical innovation that has risen in concert over millennia since the isolation of the continent and formation of the Antarctic circumpolar current. Scientific inquiry into the novelty of marine natural products produced by Antarctic benthic invertebrates led to the discovery of a bioactive macrolide, palmerolide A, that has specific activity against melanoma and holds considerable promise as an anticancer therapeutic. While this compound was isolated...

Revisiting the quantity theory of money in Euro Area: the case of Greece

Serdar Ongan, Ismet Gocer & Ayse Ongan
This study revisits the Quantity Theory of Money for Greece from the perspective of potentially nonlinear relations between the variables of the equation of exchange. Therefore, this methodological approach makes this study different from previous empirical studies, which were constructed on the assumption of linear relations in this equation. To this aim, for the first time, the nonlinear ARDL model is applied for testing the QTM for a specific country. This model decomposes the variables...

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