Data from: Carotenoids and amphibians: effects on life history and susceptibility to the infectious pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidisRickey D. Cothran, Stephanie S. Gervasi, Cindy Murray, Beverly J. French, Paul W. Bradley, Jenny Urbina, Andrew R. Blaustein & Rick A. Relyea
Carotenoids are considered beneficial nutrients because they provide increased immune capacity. Although carotenoid research has been conducted in many vertebrates, little research has been done in amphibians, a group that is experiencing global population declines from numerous causes, including disease. We raised two amphibian species through metamorphosis on three carotenoid diets to quantify the effects on life-history traits and post-metamorphic susceptibility to a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; Bd). Increased carotenoids had no effect on survival...
Data from: Highway to the danger zone: exposure-dependent costs of immunity in a vertebrate ectothermAmber J. Brace, Sam Sheikali & Lynn B. Martin
Parasite exposure often causes innate immune activation, resulting in tradeoffs among physiological processes and strong selection on the parasite. Costs of immune activation vary widely among and within host populations though, likely dependent on the evolutionary history of host-parasite interactions and the environments in which they occur. For hosts, degree of exposure may drive the magnitude of costs incurred, and subsequently whether hosts resist or tolerate infections. If costs increase concomitantly with exposure, a threshold...
Data from: A quantitative framework for investigating risk of deadly collisions between marine wildlife and boatsJulien Martin, Quentin Sabatier, Timothy A. Gowan, Christophe Giraud, Eliezer Gurarie, Charles Scott Calleson, Joel G. Ortega-Ortiz, Charles J. Deutsch, Athena Rycyk & Stacie M. Koslovsky
Speed regulations of watercraft in protected areas are designed to reduce lethal collisions with wildlife but can have economic consequences. We present a quantitative framework for investigating the risk of deadly collisions between boats and wildlife. We apply encounter rate theory to demonstrate how marine mammal-boat encounter rate can be used to predict the expected number of deaths associated with management scenarios. We illustrate our approach with management scenarios for two endangered species: the Florida...
Data from: The relationship between microhabitat use, allometry, and functional variation in the eyes of Hawaiian Megalagrion damselfliesJeffrey A. Scales & Marguerite A. Butler
The evolution of visual systems is guided by visual requirements imposed by the environment, the size of the animal's eyes, and physical limitations imposed by the resolution-sensitivity trade-off. Given a particular eye surface area, resolution and sensitivity cannot be simultaneously maximized: gains in resolution, the ability of the eye to detect detail, will come at the cost of sensitivity, the ability to capture photons, and vice versa, without an increase to eye size. How this...
Data from: The effect of taxonomic corrections on Phanerozoic generic richness trends in marine bivalves with a discussion on the clade’s overall historySubhronil Mondal & Peter J. Harries
This study uses a comprehensive, revised, and updated global bivalve dataset combining information from two major databases available to study temporal trends in Phanerozoic bivalve richness: the Sepkoski Compendium and the Paleobiology Database. This compilation results in greater taxonomic and stratigraphic coverage than possible with either of the two databases alone. However, there are challenges in directly comparing these two sources due to differences in their taxonomic designations and stratigraphic range information. Moreover, both of...
Data from: Inhibition of BTK and ITK with ibrutinib is effective in the prevention of chronic graft-versus-host disease in miceSteven D. Schutt, Jianing Fu, Hung Nguyen, David Bastian, Jessica Heinrichs, Yongxia Wu, Chen Liu, Daniel G. McDonald, Joseph Pidala & Xue-Zhong Yu
Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) and IL-2 Inducible T-cell Kinase (ITK) are enzymes responsible for the phosphorylation and activation of downstream effectors in the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathways, respectively. Ibrutinib is an FDA-approved potent inhibitor of both BTK and ITK that impairs B-cell and T-cell function. CD4 T cells and B cells are essential for the induction of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). We evaluated these targets by testing the...
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