15 Works

Urbanization impacts apex predator gene flow but not genetic diversity across an urban-rural divide

Daryl R Trumbo, Patricia E Salerno, Kenneth Logan, Mat Alldredge, Roderick B Gagne, Christopher P Kozakiewicz, Simona Kraberger, Nick Fountain-Jones, Meggan E Craft, Scott Carver, Holly B Ernest, Kevin Crooks, Sue VandeWoude & W. Chris Funk
Apex predators are important indicators of intact natural ecosystems. They are also sensitive to urbanization because they require broad home ranges and extensive contiguous habitat to support their prey base. Pumas (Puma concolor) can persist near human developed areas, but urbanization may be detrimental to their movement ecology, population structure, and genetic diversity. To investigate potential effects of urbanization in population connectivity of pumas, we performed a landscape genomics study of 130 pumas on the...

Data from: Historical stocking data and 19th century DNA reveal human-induced changes to native diversity and distribution of cutthroat trout

Jessica L. Metcalf, Sierra L. Love Stowell, Christopher M. Kennedy, Kevin B. Rogers, Daniel McDonald, Kyle Keepers, Janet Epp, Alan Cooper, Jeremy J. Austin & Andrew P. Martin
Many species are threatened with extinction and efforts are underway worldwide to restore imperiled species to their native ranges. Restoration requires knowledge of species’ historic diversity and distribution, which may not be available. For some species, many populations were extirpated and humans moved individuals beyond their native range before native diversity and distribution were documented. Moreover, traditional taxonomic assessments often failed to accurately capture phylogenetic diversity. We illustrate a general approach for estimating regional native...

Data from: Extreme site fidelity as an optimal strategy in an unpredictable and homogeneous environment

Brian D. Gerber, Mevin B. Hooten, Christopher P. Peck, Mindy B. Rice, James H. Gammonley, Anthony D. Apa & Amy J. Davis
1. Animal site fidelity structures space-use, population demography, and ultimately gene flow. Understanding the adaptive selection for site fidelity patterns provides a mechanistic understanding to both spatial and population processes. This can be achieved by linking space-use with environmental variability (spatial and temporal) and demographic parameters. However, rarely is the environmental context that drives the selection for site fidelity behavior fully considered. 2. We use ecological theory to understand whether the spatial and temporal variability...

Data from: Feline immunodeficiency virus in puma: estimation of force of infection reveals insights into transmission

Jennifer Reynolds, Scott Carver, Mark Cunningham, Ken Logan, Winston Vickers, Kevin Crooks, Sue VandeWoude & Meggan Craft
Determining parameters that govern pathogen transmission (such as the force of infection, FOI), and pathogen impacts on morbidity and mortality, is exceptionally challenging for wildlife. Vital parameters can vary, for example across host populations, between sexes and within an individual's lifetime. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus affecting domestic and wild cat species, forming species-specific viral--host associations. FIV infection is common in populations of puma (Puma concolor), yet uncertainty remains over transmission parameters and...

Individual and population fitness consequences associated with large carnivore use of residential development

Heather Johnson, David L. Lewis, Stewart Breck, Heather E. Johnson & Stewart W. Breck
Large carnivores are negotiating increasingly developed landscapes, but little is known about how such behavioral plasticity influences their demographic rates and population trends. Some investigators have suggested that the ability of carnivores to behaviorally adapt to human development will enable their persistence, and yet, others have suggested that such landscapes are likely to serve as population sinks or ecological traps. To understand how plasticity in black bear (Ursus americanus) use of residential development influences their...

Data from: Elk migration influences the risk of disease spillover in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

Nathaniel Rayl, Jerod Merkle, Kelly Proffitt, Emily Almberg, Jennifer Jones, Justin Gude & Paul Cross
Wildlife migrations provide important ecosystem services, but they are declining. Within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) some elk (Cervus canadensis) herds are losing migratory tendencies, which may increase spatiotemporal overlap between elk and livestock (domestic bison [Bison bison] and cattle [Bos taurus]), potentially exacerbating pathogen transmission risk. We combined disease, movement, demographic, and environmental data from eight elk herds in the GYE to examine the differential risk of brucellosis transmission (through aborted fetuses) from migrant...

Population genetics reveals bidirectional fish movement across the Continental Divide via an interbasin water transfer

Audrey Harris, Sara Oyler-McCance, Jennifer Fike, Matthew Fairchild, Christopher Kennedy, Harry Crockett, Dana Winkelman & Yoichiro Kanno
Interbasin water transfers are becoming an increasingly common tool to satisfy municipal and agricultural water demand, but their impacts on movement and gene flow of aquatic organisms are poorly understood. The Grand Ditch is an interbasin water transfer that diverts water from tributaries of the upper Colorado River on the west side of the Continental Divide to the upper Cache la Poudre River on the east side of the Continental Divide. We used single nucleotide...

Data from: Fine scale genetic correlates to condition and migration in a wild Cervid

Joseph M. Northrup, Aaron B. A. Shafer, , David W. Coltman, George Wittemyer & Charles R. Anderson
The relationship between genetic variation and phenotypic traits is fundamental to the study and management of natural populations. Such relationships often are investigated by assessing correlations between phenotypic traits and heterozygosity or genetic differentiation. Using an extensive data set compiled from free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), we combined genetic and ecological data to (i) examine correlations between genetic differentiation and migration timing, (ii) screen for mitochondrial haplotypes associated with migration timing, and (iii) test whether...

Sample metadata for feline leukemia virus dataset

Raegan Petch, Roderick Gagne, Elliott Chiu, Clara Mankowski, Jaime Rudd, Melody Roelke-Parker, Winston Vickers, Kenneth Logan, Mathew Alldredge, Deana Clifford, Mark Cunningham, Dave Onorato & Sue VandeWoude
Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a gammaretrovirus with horizontally transmitted and endogenous forms. Domestic cats are the primary reservoir species, but FeLV outbreaks in endangered Florida panthers and Iberian lynx have resulted in mortalities. To assess prevalence and interspecific/intraspecific transmission, we conducted an extensive survey and phylogenetic analysis of FeLV infection in free-ranging pumas (n=641), bobcats (n=212) and shelter domestic cats (n=304). Samples were collected from coincident habitats across the United States between 1985-2018. FeLV...

Data from: Mesopredators change temporal activity in response to a recolonizing apex predator

Carolyn R. Shores, Justin A. Dellinger, Eric S. Newkirk, Shannon M. Kachel & Aaron J. Wirsing
Apex predators can influence ecosystems through density and behaviorally mediated effects on herbivores and mesopredators. In many parts of the world, apex predators live in, or are returning to, landscapes that have been modified by people, so it is important to understand their ecological role in anthropogenic landscapes. We used motion-activated game cameras to compare the activity patterns of humans and two mesopredators, coyotes (Canis latrans) and bobcats (Lynx rufus), in areas with and without...

Estimating densities of larval Salmonflies (Pteronarcys californica) through multiple pass removal of post-emergent exuvia in Colorado rivers

Dan Kowalski
Traditional methods of collecting, sorting, and identifying benthic macroinvertebrate samples are useful for stream biomonitoring and ecological studies, however, these methods are time consuming, expensive, and require taxonomic expertise. Estimating larval densities through collection of post-emergent exuvia can be a practical and time efficient alternative. We evaluated the use of multiple pass depletion techniques of the post-emergent exuvia of Pteronarcys californica to estimate larval densities at ten sites in three Colorado rivers. Exuvia density was...

Data from: Mismatches between breeding phenology and resource abundance of resident alpine ptarmigan negatively affect chick survival

Gregory T. Wann, Cameron L. Aldridge, Amy E. Seglund, Sara J. Oyler-McCance, Boris C. Kondratieff & Clait E. Braun
1. Phenological mismatches – defined here as the difference in reproductive timing of an individual relative to the availability of its food resources – occur in many avian species. Mistiming breeding activities in environments with constrained breeding windows may have severe fitness costs due to reduced opportunities for repeated breeding attempts. Therefore, species occurring in alpine environments may be particularly vulnerable. 2. We studied fitness consequences of timing of breeding in an alpine-endemic species, the...

Data from: Life-history theory provides a framework for detecting resource limitation: a test of the Nutritional Buffer Hypothesis

Brett Jesmer, Matthew Kauffman, Alyson Courtemanch, Steve Kilpatrick, Timothy Thomas, Jeff Yost, Kevin Monteith & Jacob Goheen
For ungulates and other long-lived species, life-history theory predicts that nutritional reserves are allocated to reproduction in a state-dependent manner because survival is highly conserved. Further, as per-capita food abundance and nutritional reserves decline (i.e., density-dependence intensifies), reproduction and recruitment become increasingly sensitive to weather. Thus, the degree to which weather influences vital rates should be associated with proximity to nutritional carrying capacity—a notion that we refer to as the Nutritional Buffer Hypothesis. We tested...

Data for: Apparent stability masks underlying change in a mule deer herd with unmanaged chronic wasting disease

Michael Miller
The contagious prion disease “chronic wasting disease” (CWD) infects mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and related species. Unchecked epidemics raise ecological, socioeconomic, and public health concerns. Prion infection shortens a deer’s lifespan, and when prevalence (proportion of adults infected) becomes sufficiently high CWD can affect herd dynamics. Understanding population responses over time is key to forecasting long-term impacts. Here we describe unexpected stability in prevalence and abundance in a mule deer herd where CWD has been...

Data from: Hunger mediates apex predator's risk avoidance response in wildland-urban interface

Kevin A. Blecha, Randall B. Boone & Mathew W. Alldredge
1. Conflicts between large mammalian predators and humans present a challenge to conservation efforts, as these events drive human attitudes and policies concerning predator species. Unfortunately, generalities portrayed in many empirical carnivore landscape selection studies do not provide an explanation for a predator’s occasional use of residential development preceding a carnivore-human conflict event. In some cases, predators may perceive residential development as a risk-reward tradeoff. 2. We examine whether state dependent mortality-risk sensitive foraging can...

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