55 Works

Sequestration of defenses against predators drives specialized host plant associations in preadapted milkweed bugs (Heteroptera: Lygaeinae)

Georg Petschenka, Rayko Halitschke, Tobias Züst, Anna Roth, Sabrina Stiehler, Linda Tenbusch, Christoph Hartwig, Juan Francisco Moreno Gámez, Robert Trusch, Jürgen Deckert, Kateřina Chalušová, Andreas Vilcinskas & Alice Exnerová
Host plant specialization across herbivorous insects varies dramatically, but while the molecular mechanisms of host-plant adaptations are increasingly known, we often lack a comprehensive understanding of the selective forces that favor specialization. The milkweed bugs (Heteroptera: Lygaeinae) are engaged in ancestrally specialized associations with plants of the Apocynaceae from which they commonly sequester cardiac glycosides for defense, facilitated by resistant Na+/K+-ATPases and adaptations for transport, storage and discharge of toxins. Here, we show that three...

All-trans retinoic acid induces synaptopodin-dependent metaplasticity in mouse dentate granule cells

Maximilian Lenz, Amelie Eichler, Pia Kruse, Julia Muellerleile, Thomas Deller, Peter Jedlicka & Andreas Vlachos
Previously we showed that the vitamin A metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) induces synaptic plasticity in acute brain slices prepared from the mouse and human neocortex (Lenz et al., 2021). Depending on the brain region studied, distinct effects of atRA on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission have been reported. Here, we used intraperitoneal injections of atRA (10 mg/kg) in adult C57BL/6J mice to study the effects of atRA on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the mouse...

Distribution and pollination services of wild bees and hoverflies along an altitudinal gradient in mountain hay meadows

Kevin Baumann, Julia Keune, Volkmar Wolters & Frank Jauker
Extensively managed and flower rich mountain hay meadows, hotspots of Europe’s biodiversity, are subject to environmental and climatic gradients linked to altitude. While the shift of pollinators from bee to fly dominated communities with increasing elevation across vegetation zones is well established, the effect of highland altitudinal gradients on the community structure of pollinators within a specific habitat is poorly understood. We assessed wild bee and hoverfly communities, and their pollination service to three plant...

Data from: Land-use type and intensity differentially filter traits in above- and belowground arthropod communities

Klaus Birkhofer, Martin M. Gossner, Tim Diekötter, Claudia Drees, Olga Ferlian, Mark Maraun, Stefan Scheu, Wolfgang W. Weisser, Volkmar Wolters, Susanne Wurst, Andrey S. Zaitsev & Henrik G. Smith
1. Along with the global decline of species richness goes a loss of ecological traits. Associated biotic homogenization of animal communities and narrowing of trait diversity threaten ecosystem functioning and human well-being. High management intensity is regarded as an important ecological filter, eliminating species that lack suitable adaptations. Belowground arthropods are assumed to be less sensitive to such effects than aboveground arthropods. 2. Here, we compared the impact of management intensity between (grassland vs. forest)...

Data from: Relative selectivity of plant cardenolides for Na+/K+-ATPases from the monarch butterfly and non-resistant insects

Georg Petschenka, Colleen S. Fei, Juan J. Araya, Susanne Schröder, Barbara N. Timmermann & Anurag A. Agrawal
A major prediction of coevolutionary theory is that plants may target particular herbivores with secondary compounds that are selectively defensive. The highly specialized monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) copes well with cardiac glycosides (inhibitors of animal Na+/K+-ATPases) from its milkweed host plants, but selective inhibition of its Na+/K+-ATPase by different compounds has not been previously tested. We applied 17 cardiac glycosides to the D. plexippus-Na+/K+-ATPase and to the more susceptible Na+/K+-ATPases of two non-adapted insects (Euploea...

Data from: Conquest of the deep, old and cold: an exceptional limpet radiation in Lake Baikal

Björn Stelbrink, Alena A. Shirokaya, Catharina Clewing, Tatyana Y. Sitnikova, Larisa A. Prozorova, Christian Albrecht & Tatiana Y. Sitnikova
Lake Baikal is the deepest, oldest and most speciose ancient lake in the world. The lake is characterized by high levels of molluscan species richness and endemicity, including the limpet family Acroloxidae with 25 endemic species. Members of this group generally inhabit the littoral zone, but have been recently found in the abyssal zone at hydrothermal vents and oil-seeps. Here, we use mitochondrial and nuclear data to provide a first molecular phylogeny of the Lake...

Data from: Assessing the effects of human activities on the foraging opportunities of migratory shorebirds in Austral high-latitude bays

Juan G. Navedo, Claudio Verdugo, Ignacio Rodríguez-Jorquera, Jose M. Abad-Gómez, Cristián G. Suazo, Luis E. Castañeda, Valeria Araya, Jorge Ruiz & Jorge S. Gutiérrez
Human presence at intertidal areas could impact coastal biodiversity, including migratory waterbird species and the ecosystem services they provide. Assessing this impact is therefore essential to develop management measures compatible with migratory processes and associated biodiversity. Here, we assess the effects of human presence on the foraging opportunities of Hudsonian godwits (Limosa haemastica, a trans-hemispheric migratory shorebird) during their non-breeding season on Chiloé Island, southern Chile. We compared bird density and time spent foraging in...

\"Hay una aspiración criolla. Todos quisieran ser güeritos\". Entrevista con Edgar Chías realizada por correo electrónico

Verena Dolle
pp. 7-14.

Psychosocial burden of recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections

Kurt G. Naber, José Tirán-Saucedo & Florian M.E. Wagenlehner
Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a leading cause of bacterial infections in women. Despite acute treatment, 30–50% of women who have a UTI will experience a recurrence within 6–12 months. In this review, the focus will be on the personal psychosocial impacts of recurrent UTI. Methods: A PubMed/MEDLINE literature search was carried out from 2000 to 2020 in order to identify any recent high-quality meta-analyses or systematic reviews on these topics. Results: One systematic...

Repositories for taxonomic data: Where we are and what is missing

Aurélien Miralles, Teddy Bruy, Katherine Wolcott, Mark Scherz, Dominik Begerow, Bank Beszteri, Michael Bonkowski, Janine Felden, Birgit Gemeinholzer, Frank Glaw, Frank Oliver Glöckner, Oliver Hawlitschek, Ivaylo Kostadinov, Tim Nattkemper, Christian Printzen, Jasmin Renz, Nataliya Rybalka, Marc Stadler, Tanja Weibulat, Thomas Wilke, Susanne Renner & Miguel Vences
Natural history collections are leading successful large-scale projects of specimen digitization (images, metadata, DNA barcodes), transforming taxonomy into a big data science. Yet, little effort has been directed towards safeguarding and subsequently mobilizing the considerable amount of original data generated during the process of naming 15–20,000 species every year. From the perspective of alpha-taxonomists, we provide a review of the properties and diversity of taxonomic data, assess their volume and use, and establish criteria for...

Data from: Four myriapod relatives – but who are sisters? No end to debates on relationships among the four major myriapod subgroups

Nikolaus U. Szucsich, Daniela Bartel, Alexander Blanke, Alexander Böhm, Alexander Donath, Makiko Fukui, Simon Grove, Shanlin Liu, Oliver Macek, Ryuichiro Machida, Bernhard Misof, Yasutaka Nakagaki, Lars Podsiadlowski, Kaoru Sekiya, Shigekazu Tomizuka, Björn M. Von Reumont, Robert M. Waterhouse, Manfred Walzl, Guanliang Meng, Xin Zhou, Günther Pass & Karen Meusemann
Background: Phylogenetic relationships among the myriapod subgroups Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Symphyla and Pauropoda are still not robustly resolved. The first phylogenomic study covering all subgroups resolved phylogenetic relationships congruently to morphological evidence but is in conflict with most previously published phylogenetic trees based on diverse molecular data. Outgroup choice and long-branch attraction effects were stated as possible explanations for these incongruencies. In this study, we addressed these issues by extending the myriapod and outgroup taxon sampling...

Data from: Suitability of traits related to aggression and handleability for integration into pig breeding programmes: genetic parameters and comparison between Gaussian and binary trait specifications

Uta König Von Borstel, Björn Tönepöhl, Anne Appel, Barbara Voß, Horst Brandt, Saied Naderi & Matthias Gauly
Changes in husbandry systems as well as consumers' increasing demands for animal welfare lead to increasing importance of traits such as handleability and aggressiveness in pigs. However, before using such novel traits for selection decisions, information on genetic parameters for these traits for the specific population is required. Therefore, weight gain and behaviour-related traits were recorded in 1004 pigs (814 Pietrain x German Landrace crossbred, 190 German Landrace purebred) at different ages. Behaviour indicators and...

Data from: The past ecology of Abies alba provides new perspectives on future responses of silver fir forests to global warming

Willy Tinner, Daniele Colombaroli, Oliver Heiri, Paul Henne, Marco Steinacher, Johanna Untenecker, Elisa Vescovi, Judy Allen, Gabriele Carraro, Marco Conedera, Fortunat Joos, André Lotter, Jürg Luterbacher, Stephanie Samartin & Verushka Valsecchi
Paleoecology can provide valuable insights into the ecology of species that complement observation and experiment-based assessments of climate-impact dynamics. New paleoecological records (e.g. pollen, macrofossils) from the Italian Peninsula suggest a much wider climatic niche of the important European tree species Abies alba (silver fir) than observed in its present spatial range. To explore this discrepancy between current and past distribution we analyse climatic data (e.g. temperature, precipitation, frost, humidity, sunshine) and vegetation-independent paleoclimatic reconstructions...

Data from: Sympatric population divergence within a highly pelagic seabird species complex (Hydrobates spp.)

Rebecca S. Taylor, Anna Bailie, Previn Gulavita, Tim Birt, Tomas Aarvak, Tycho Anker-Nilssen, Daniel C. Barton, Kirsten Lindquist, Yuliana Bedolla-Guzmán, Petra Quillfeldt & Vicki L. Friesen
Both physical and non-physical barriers can restrict gene flow among seabird populations. Understanding the relative importance of non-physical barriers, such as breeding phenology, is key to understanding seabird biodiversity. We investigated drivers of diversification in the Leach’s storm-petrel species complex (Hydrobates spp.) by examining population genetic structure across its range. Variation in the mitochondrial control region and six microsatellite loci was assayed in birds sampled from breeding colonies throughout the North Atlantic and North Pacific...

Data from: Phylogenetic and comparative genomics of the family Leptotrichiaceae and introduction of a novel fingerprinting MLVA for Streptobacillus moniliformis

Tobias Eisenberg, Ahmad Fawzy, Werner Nicklas, Torsten Semmler & Christa Ewers
Background: The Leptotrichiaceae are a family of fairly unnoticed bacteria containing both microbiota on mucous membranes as well as significant pathogens such as Streptobacillus moniliformis, the causative organism of streptobacillary rat bite fever. Comprehensive genomic studies in members of this family have so far not been carried out. We aimed to analyze 47 genomes from 20 different member species to illuminate phylogenetic aspects, as well as genomic and discriminatory properties. Results: Our data provide a...

Data from: Reprograming of epigenetic mechanisms controlling host insect immunity and development in response to egg-laying by a parasitoid wasp

Rabia Özbek, Krishnendu Mukherjee, Fevzi Uçkan & Andreas Vilcinskas
Parasitoids are insects that use other insects as hosts. They sabotage host cellular and humoral defenses to promote the survival of their offspring by injecting viruses and venoms along with their eggs. Many pathogens and parasites disrupt host epigenetic mechanisms to overcome immune system defenses, and we hypothesized that parasitoids may utilize the same strategy. We used the ichneumon wasp Pimpla turionellae as a model idiobiont parasitoid to test this hypothesis, with pupae of the...

Data from: Metabarcoding vs. morphological identification to assess diatom diversity in environmental studies

Jonas Zimmermann, Gernot Glöckner, Regine Jahn, Neela Enke & Birgit Gemeinholzer
Diatoms are frequently used for water quality assessments; however, identification to species level is difficult, time-consuming and needs in-depth knowledge of the organisms under investigation, as nonhomoplastic species-specific morphological characters are scarce. We here investigate how identification methods based on DNA (metabarcoding using NGS platforms) perform in comparison to morphological diatom identification and propose a workflow to optimize diatom fresh water quality assessments. Diatom diversity at seven different sites along the course of the river...

Data from: Sensory evolution of hearing in tettigoniids with differing communication systems

Johannes Strauß, Arne Lehmann, Gerlind Lehmann & G. U. C. Lehmann
In Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera: Ensifera), hearing organs are essential in mate detection. Male tettigoniids usually produce calling songs by tegminal stridulation, whereas females approach the males phonotactically. This unidirectional communication system is the most common one among tettigoniids. In several tettigoniid lineages, females have evolved acoustic replies to the male calling song which constitutes a bidirectional communication system. The genus Poecilimon (Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae) is of special interest because the ancestral state of bidirectional communication, with calling...

Data from: Does origin always matter? Evaluating the influence of nonlocal seed provenances for ecological restoration purposes in a widespread and outcrossing plant species

Jutta Reiker, Benjamin Schulz, Volker Wissemann & Birgit Gemeinholzer
For restoration purposes, nature conservation generally enforces the use of local seed material based on the “local-is-best” (LIB) approach. However, in some cases recommendations to refrain from this approach have been made. Here we test if a common widespread species with no obvious signs of local adaptation may be a candidate species for abandoning LIB during restoration. Using 10 microsatellite markers we compared population genetic patterns of the generalist species Daucus carota in indigenous and...

Data from: Independent evolution of ancestral and novel defenses in a genus of toxic plants (Erysimum, Brassicaceae)

Tobias Züst, Susan Strickler, Adrian Powell, Makenzie Mabry, Hong An, Mahdieh Mirzaei, Thomas York, Cynthia Holland, Pavan Kumar, Matthias Erb, Georg Petschenka, José-María Gomez, Francisco Perfectti, Caroline Mueller, Chris Pires, Lukas Mueller & Georg Jander
Phytochemical diversity is thought to result from coevolutionary cycles as specialization in herbivores imposes diversifying selection on plant chemical defenses. Plants in the speciose genus Erysimum (Brassicaceae) produce both ancestral glucosinolates and evolutionarily novel cardenolides as defenses. Here we test macroevolutionary hypotheses on co-expression, co-regulation, and diversification of these potentially redundant defenses across this genus. We sequenced and assembled the genome of E. cheiranthoides and foliar transcriptomes of 47 additional Erysimum species to construct a...

2.8.4. Psyche und Mundgesundheit

Renate Deinzer
Kapitel im Online Lehrbuch der Medizinischen Psychologie und Medizinischen Soziologie

Die Ostraka vom Kerameikos

Stefan Brenne
Kerameikos 20

3.2. Der Patient im Gesundheitssystem

Renate Deinzer
Kapitel des Online Lehrbuch der Medizinischen Psychologie und Medizinischen Soziologie

Editorial. Identidades glocales en el teatro y performance mexicanos contemporáneos

Verena Dolle & Guido Rings
pp. 4-6.

Erzbischof Balduin I. von Hamburg-Bremen (1169–1178) – ein Pontifikat im Schatten des Löwen?

Roman Tischer
Der vorliegende Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit Erzbischof Balduin I. von Hamburg-Bremen (1169–1178). Von größerer Bekanntheit ist die Aussage Arnolds von Lübeck, dass es besser sei, von Balduin zu schweigen als zu sprechen, da dieser sein eigenes Bistum vernachlässigt habe. Die neuere und ältere Forschungsliteratur schließt sich diesem Urteil an und betont die Machtlosigkeit des Bischofs und seine totale Abhängigkeit von Herzog Heinrich dem Löwen. Es lohnt sich hingegen, die Quellenzeugnisse erneut kritisch zu sichten, um...

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