92 Works

Great tits (Parus major) flexibly learn that herbivore-induced plant volatiles indicate prey location – an experimental evidence with two tree species

Katerina Sam, Eliska Kovarova, Inga Freiberga, Henriette Uthe, Alexander Weinhold, Leonardo Jorge & Rachakonda Sreekar
1. When searching for food, great tits (Parus major) can use herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) as an indicator of arthropod presence. Their ability to detect HIPVs was shown to be learned, and not innate, yet the flexibility and generalization of learning remains unclear. 2. We studied if, and if so how, naïve and trained great tits (Parus major) discriminate between herbivore-induced and non-induced saplings of Scotch elm (Ulmus glabra) and cattley guava (Psidium cattleyanum). We...

Data from: Heme pathway evolution in kinetoplastid protists

Ugo Pierre Cenci, Daniel Moog, Bruce A. Curtis, Goro Tanifuji, Laura Eme, Julius Lukeš & John M. Archibald
Background: Kinetoplastea is a diverse protist lineage composed of several of the most successful parasites on Earth, organisms whose metabolisms have coevolved with those of the organisms they infect. Parasitic kinetoplastids have emerged from free-living, non-pathogenic ancestors on multiple occasions during the evolutionary history of the group. Interestingly, in both parasitic and free-living kinetoplastids, the heme pathway—a core metabolic pathway in a wide range of organisms—is incomplete or entirely absent. Indeed, Kinetoplastea investigated thus far...

Data from: Environmental correlates of the Late Quaternary regional extinctions of large and small Palaearctic mammals

Věra Pavelková Řičánková, Michal Horsák, Martin Hais, Jan Robovský & Milan Chytrý
Most studies of mammal extinctions during the Pleistocene–Holocene transition explore the relative effects of climate change vs. human impacts on these extinctions, but the relative importance of the different environmental factors involved remains poorly understood. Moreover, these studies are strongly biased towards megafauna, which may have been more influenced by human hunting than species of small body size. We examined the potential environmental causes of Pleistocene–Holocene mammal extinctions by linking regional environmental characteristics with the...

Data from: Contrasting evolutionary history, anthropogenic declines and genetic contact in the northern and southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum)

Yoshan Moodley, Isa-Rita M. Russo, Jan Robovský, Desire Lee Dalton, Antoinette Kotze, Steve Smith, Jan Stejskal, Oliver A. Ryder, Robert Hermes, Chris Walzer & Michael W. Bruford
The white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) has a discontinuous African distribution, which is limited by the extent of sub-Saharan grasslands. The southern population (SWR) declined to its lowest number around the turn of the 19th century, but recovered to become the world’s most numerous rhinoceros. In contrast, the northern population (NWR) was common during much of the 20th century, declining rapidly since the 1970s, and now only two post-reproductive individuals remain. Despite this species’ conservation status,...

Data from: Evaluation of 11 single-locus and seven multilocus DNA barcodes in Lamium L. (Lamiaceae)

Katarzyna Krawczyk, Monika Szczecińska & Jakub Sawicki
The aim of this work was to evaluate the suitability of selected DNA regions in the barcoding of plants, based on the species belonging to the genus Lamium (Lamiaceae). For this purpose, nine chloroplast barcodes, that is, accD, matK, rbcL, rpoA, rpoB, rpoC1, rpoC2, trnH-psbA, trnL-trnF, as well as ITS nuclear region, and intron of mitochondrial nad5 gene were tested. Among the single-locus barcodes, most effective in the identification of Lamium species was the trnH-psbA...

Data from: Is active management the key to the conservation of saproxylic biodiversity? Pollarding promotes the formation of tree hollows

Pavel Sebek, Jan Altman, Michal Platek & Lukas Cizek
Trees with hollows are key features sustaining biodiversity in wooded landscapes. They host rich assemblages of often highly specialised organisms. Hollow trees, however, have become rare and localised in Europe. Many of the associated biota is thus declining or endangered. The challenge of its conservation, therefore, is to safeguard the presence of hollow trees in sufficient numbers. Populations of numerous species associated with tree hollows and dead wood are often found in habitats that were...

Data from: Multilocus phylogeography of a widespread savanna-woodland adapted rodent reveals the influence of Pleistocene geomorphology and climate change in Africa’s Zambezi region

Molly M. McDonough, Radim Šumbera, Vladimír Mazoch, Adam W. Ferguson, Caleb D. Phillips & Josef Bryja
Understanding historical influences of climate and physiographic barriers in shaping patterns of biodiversity remains limited for many regions of the world. For mammals of continental Africa, phylogeographic studies, particularly for West African lineages, implicate both geographic barriers and climate oscillations in shaping small mammal diversity. In contrast, studies for southern African species have revealed conflicting phylogenetic patterns for how mammalian lineages respond to both climate change and geologic events such as river formation, especially during...

Data from: Arthropod distribution in a tropical rainforest: tackling a four dimensional puzzle

Yves Basset, Lukas Cizek, Philippe Cuénoud, Raphael K. Didham, Vojtech Novotny, Frode Ødegaard, Tomas Roslin, Alexey K. Tishechkin, Jürgen Schmidl, Neville N. Winchester, David W. Roubik, Henri-Pierre Aberlenc, Johannes Bail, Héctor Barrios, Jonathan R. Bridle, Gabriela Castaño-Meneses, Bruno Corbara, Gianfranco Curletti, Wesley Duarte Da Rocha, Domir De Bakker, Jacques H.C. Delabie, Alain Dejean, Laura L. Fagan, Andreas Floren, Roger L. Kitching … & Jacques H. C. Delabie
Quantifying the spatio-temporal distribution of arthropods in tropical rainforests represents a first step towards scrutinizing the global distribution of biodiversity on Earth. To date most studies have focused on narrow taxonomic groups or lack a design that allows partitioning of the components of diversity. Here, we consider an exceptionally large dataset (113,952 individuals representing 5,858 species), obtained from the San Lorenzo forest in Panama, where the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa was surveyed using 14...

Data from: Distribution of alien animal species richness in the Czech Republic

Radek Gebauer, Jan Divíšek, Miloš Buřič, Martin Večeřa, Antonín Kouba & Bořek Drozd
Biogeographical barriers formed by natural forces over billions of years have been substantially disrupted by human activity, particularly in recent centuries. In response to these anthropogenic changes, global homogenization of biota is observed at an ever‐increasing rate, causing environmental and economic losses as well as emerging health risks. Identifying factors underlying alien species richness is essential for prevention of future introductions and subsequent spread. In this study, we examined the effects of environmental and human‐related...

Data from: The nest defence by the red-backed shrike (Lanius collurio) - support for the vulnerability hypothesis

Irena Strnadová, Michal Němec, Martin Strnad, Petr Veselý & Roman Fuchs
The majority of altricial bird species defend their brood against predators more intensively in nestlings rather than eggs stage. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this difference. The majority of existing experimental studies have recorded a gradually increasing intensity of nest defence supporting the reproductive value hypothesis. We have compared nest defence in two nesting stages of the red-backed shrike against two predators of adult birds and against two predators of nests. While the...

Data from: Host-plant dissections reveal contrasting distributions of Crematogaster ants and their symbionts in two myrmecophytic Macaranga species

Mickal Y.I. Houadria, Petr Klimes, Tom M. Fayle & Penny J. Gullan
1. Ant–plant mutualisms are among the most widespread and ecologically important insect–plant interactions in the tropics. The multitrophic mutualism involving Macaranga plants (Euphorbiaceae) and Crematogaster ants (Formicidae) is the most diverse in Southeast Asia. This interaction also includes trophobiotic scale insects (Coccidae) and nematodes inhabiting ant refuse piles. 2. Here we compared two myrmecophytic systems, Macaranga trachyphylla with Crematogaster captiosa (Mt+Cc) and M. beccariana with C. decamera (Mb+Cd), using a fine-scale dissection of the stems....

Data from: Evidence of functional species sorting by rainfall and biotic interactions: A community monolith experimental approach

Ana L. Peralta, Ana M. Sánchez, Arantzazu L. Luzuriaga, Francesco De Bello & Adrian Escudero
1. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie species assembly is a central concern in community ecology. Abiotic and biotic filters are probabilistic ‘sieves’ that allow species with certain functional traits to become part of the community, or not. We manipulated natural plant assemblieses in order to identify variations in the timings of biotic and abiotic filters that determine community trait assemblies. 2. We extracted soil portions when the investigated annual plant community was in its seed...

Antiviral, antibiotics and decongestants in wastewater treatment plants and receiving rivers in the Thames catchment

A.C. Singer, Järhult, R. Grabic, G.A. Khan, R.H. Lindberg, G. Fedorova, J. Fick, M.J. Bowes, B. Olsen & H. Söderström
This dataset contains the concentration of eleven antibiotics (trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, cefotaxime, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin), three decongestants (naphazoline, oxymetazoline, xylometazoline) and the antiviral drug oseltamivir's active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate, measured at 21 locations within the River Thames catchment in England. The measurements were taken weekly during November 2009, once in March 2010 and once in May 2011, with the aim to quantify pharmaceutical usage during the influenza pandemic of 2009 and...

Data from: Parentage analysis of Ansell's mole-rat family groups indicates a high reproductive skew despite relatively relaxed ecological constraints on dispersal

Hana Patzenhauerová, Jan Šklíba, Josef Bryja & Radim Šumbera
To better understand evolutionary pathways leading to eusociality, interspecific comparisons are needed, which would use a common axis, such as that of reproductive skew, to array species. African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia) provide an outstanding model of social evolution because of a wide range of social organizations within a single family; however, their reproductive skew is difficult to estimate, due to their cryptic lifestyle. A maximum skew could theoretically be reached in groups where reproduction is...

Data from: Morphological identification and single-cell genomics of marine diplonemids

Ryan M. R. Gawryluk, Javier Del Campo, Noriko Okamoto, Jurgen F. H. Strassert, Julius Lukes, Thomas A. Richards, Alexandra Z. Worden, Alyson E. Santoro & Patrick J. Keeling
Recent global surveys of marine biodiversity have revealed that a group of organisms known as “marine diplonemids” constitutes one of the most abundant and diverse planktonic lineages [1]. Though discovered over a decade ago [2 and 3], their potential importance was unrecognized, and our knowledge remains restricted to a single gene amplified from environmental DNA, the 18S rRNA gene (small subunit [SSU]). Here, we use single-cell genomics (SCG) and microscopy to characterize ten marine diplonemids,...

Data from: The balance of canopy and soil effects determines intraspecific differences in foundation species’ effects on associated plants

Nuria Pistón, Richard Michalet, Christian Schöb, Petr Macek, Cris Armas & Francisco I. Pugnaire
1. The impact of plant-plant interactions on species diversity patterns has been broadly addressed in stressful environments, such as alpine ecosystems, where foundation species promote species richness by creating habitat for other species. However, foundation species with contrasting phenotypes might modify the microhabitat differently, which would alter the subordinate community composition, and coincide with distinct feedback effects of those subordinate species on the foundation species. However, the precise interaction mechanisms that facilitate species are not...

Data from: Taxon cycle predictions supported by model-based inference in Indo-Pacific trap-jaw ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Odontomachus)

Pável Matos-Maraví, Nicholas J. Matzke, Fredrick J. Larabee, Ronald M. Clouse, Ward C. Wheeler, Daniela Magdalena Sorger, Andrew V. Suarez & Milan Janda
Non-equilibrium dynamics and non-neutral processes, such as trait-dependent dispersal, are often missing from quantitative island biogeography models despite their potential explanatory value. One of the most influential non-equilibrium models is the taxon cycle, but it has been difficult to test its validity as a general biogeographical framework. Here, we test predictions of the taxon-cycle model using six expected phylogenetic patterns and a time-calibrated phylogeny of Indo-Pacific Odontomachus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae), one of the ant genera...

Data from: Daphnia galeata and D. dentifera are geographically and ecologically separated whereas their hybrids occur in intermediate habitats: a survey of 44 Chinese lakes

Xiaolin Ma, Wei Hu, Petr Smilauer, Mingbo Yin & Justyna Wolinska
The idea that hybridization promotes range expansion has received recent attention, but support from field studies is limited. We hypothesized that in the cladoceran waterflea Daphnia, parental species are geographically and ecologically separated, whereas hybrids occupy intermediate or occasionally extreme environments, potentially facilitating range expansion of parental species. We assessed the distribution of Daphnia dentifera, D. galeata and their interspecific hybrids across 44 lakes in China (using mitochondrial and microsatellite markers), and related it to...

Data from: Seasonality promotes grassland diversity: interactions with mowing, fertilization and removal of dominant species

Jiri Dolezal, Vojtech Lanta, Ondrej Mudrak & Jan Leps
1. Current biodiversity declines in species-rich grasslands are connected with the cessation of management, eutrophication and the expansion of dominant grass species. One of the theoretical mechanisms limiting biodiversity loss is the ability of subordinate species to avoid competitive exclusion by seasonal niche separation from dominant species. Here we explore how seasonality underpins the maintenance of diversity in temperate meadows under different management regimes and competition intensities in relation to species functional traits. 2. We...

Nest microhabitats and tree size mediate shifts in ant community structure across elevation in tropical rainforest canopies

Nichola Plowman, Ondrej Mottl, Vojtech Novotny, Clifson Idigel, Frank Jurgen Philip & Petr Klimes
Declines or mid-elevation peaks in invertebrate diversity with elevation are often attributed to climate and geometric constraints. However, vegetation structure may also drive diversity patterns, especially for tree-dwelling species, via its effects on microhabitat use and competitive interactions. Here we investigate these effects on the diversity and community structure of tree-nesting ants over elevation. We exhaustively sampled ant nests in 1254 trees within continuous plots of primary rainforest at low (200 m a.s.l.), mid (900...

Data from: Are pollinators the agents of selection on flower colour and size in irises?

Daniel Souto-Vilarósa, Ana Vuleta, Sanja Manitašević Jovanović, Sanja Budečević, Hui Wang, Yuval Sapir & Eric Imbert
Plant-pollinator interactions are believed to play a major role in the evolution of floral traits. Flower colour and flower size are important for attracting pollinators, directly influencing reproduction, and thus expected to be under pollinator-mediated selection. Pollinator-mediated selection is also proposed to play a role in maintaining flower colour polymorphism within populations. However, pigment concentrations, and thus flower colour, are also under selective pressures independent of pollinators. We quantified phenotypic pollinator-mediated selection on flower colour...

Data from: Effects of prey density, temperature and predator diversity on nonconsumptive predator-driven mortality in a freshwater food web

Veselý Lukáš, David Boukal, Miloš Buřič, Pavel Kozák, Antonín Kouba & Arnaud Sentis
Nonconsumptive predator-driven mortality (NCM), defined as prey mortality due to predation that does not result in prey consumption, is an underestimated component of predator-prey interactions with possible implications for population dynamics and ecosystem functioning. However, the biotic and abiotic factors influencing this mortality component remain largely unexplored, leaving a gap in our understanding of the impacts of environmental change on ecological communities. We investigated the effects of temperature, prey density, and predator diversity and density...

Data from: Linkage of plant trait space to successional age and species richness in boreal forest understory vegetation

Bright B. Kumordzi, Francesco De Bello, Grégoire Freschet, Yoann Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Jan Lepš & David A. Wardle
Determining the changes in within- and between-species functional diversity in plant communities, and their contribution to overall species trait overlap, can enhance efforts at understanding mechanisms of species coexistence. However, little is known about how variation in species functional diversity influences variation in species trait overlap among contrasting environments. Here, we studied the understorey vegetation in a well-characterized 5000-year-old chronosequence involving 30 forested islands that differ greatly in size, soil fertility, and species diversity. Across...

Data from: Island- and lake-like parallel adaptive radiations replicated in rivers

Edward D. Burress, Lubomír Piálek, Jorge R. Casciotta, Adriana Almirón, Milton Tan, Jonathan W. Armbruster & Oldřich Říčan
Parallel adaptive radiations have arisen following the colonization of islands by lizards and lakes by fishes. In these classic examples, adaptive radiation is a response to the ecological opportunities afforded by the colonization of novel ecosystems and similar adaptive landscapes that favor the evolution of similar suites of ecomorphs despite independent evolutionary histories. Here, we demonstrate that parallel adaptive radiations of cichlid fishes arose in South American rivers. Speciation-assembled assemblages of pike cichlids (Crenicichla) have...

Data from: Biochemical determinants of litter quality in 15 species of Sphagnum

Fia Bengtsson, Håkan Rydin & Tomáš Hájek
Background and aims: Sphagnum mosses are ecosystem engineers that create and maintain boreal peatlands. With unique biochemistry, waterlogging and acidifying capacities, they build up meters-thick layers of peat, reducing competition and impeding decomposition. We quantify within-genus differences in biochemical composition to make inferences about decay rates, related to hummock–hollow and fen–bog gradients and to phylogeny.Methods: We sampled litter from 15 Sphagnum species, abundant over the whole northern hemisphere. We used regression and Principal Components Analysis...

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  • University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice
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  • Charles University
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  • New Guinea Binatang Research Center
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