16 Works

Data from: Environmental correlates of the Late Quaternary regional extinctions of large and small Palaearctic mammals

Věra Pavelková Řičánková, Michal Horsák, Martin Hais, Jan Robovský & Milan Chytrý
Most studies of mammal extinctions during the Pleistocene–Holocene transition explore the relative effects of climate change vs. human impacts on these extinctions, but the relative importance of the different environmental factors involved remains poorly understood. Moreover, these studies are strongly biased towards megafauna, which may have been more influenced by human hunting than species of small body size. We examined the potential environmental causes of Pleistocene–Holocene mammal extinctions by linking regional environmental characteristics with the...

Data from: Realised niche changes in a native herbivore assemblage associated with the presence of livestock

Juan Traba, Esperanza C. Iranzo, Carlos P. Carmona & Juan E. Malo
Habitat partitioning is a common ecological mechanism to avoid competition among coexisting species, and the introduction of new species into existing assemblages can increase competitive pressures. However, situations of species in allopatry and sympatry only differing in species presence but not in environmental conditions are scarce. Thus, discerning whether niche segregation arises from competition or from different habitat preferences is usually unfeasible. Here, we analyse species' habitat niches in an assemblage of native and introduced...

Data from: Habitat filtering determines the functional niche occupancy of plant communities worldwide

Yuanzhi Li, Bill Shipley, Jodi N. Price, Vinícius De L. Dantas, Riin Tamme, Mark Westoby, Andrew Siefert, Brandon S. Schamp, Marko J. Spasojevic, Vincent Jung, Daniel C. Laughlin, Sarah J. Richardson, Yoann Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Christian Schöb, Antonio Gazol, Honor C. Prentice, Nicolas Gross, Jacob Overton, Marcus V. Cianciaruso, Frédérique Louault, Chiho Kamiyama, Tohru Nakashizuka, Kouki Hikosaka, Takehiro Sasaki, Masatoshi Katabuchi … & Marco A. Batalha
How the patterns of niche occupancy vary from species-poor to species-rich communities is a fundamental question in ecology that has a central bearing on the processes that drive patterns of biodiversity. As species richness increases, habitat filtering should constrain the expansion of total niche volume, while limiting similarity should restrict the degree of niche overlap between species. Here, by explicitly incorporating intraspecific trait variability, we investigate the relationship between functional niche occupancy and species richness...

Data from: Extensive yellow crusts below limestone overhangs: a new taxon close to a minute epiphytic lichen

Jan Vondrak, Mahroo Haji Moniri, Jiri Malicek & Jiri Kosnar
A conspicuous yellow crust forming extensive covers on some dry and shaded limestone rocks in Europe is described here as Caloplaca substerilis subsp. orbicularis M. Haji Moniri, Vondrák & Malíček subsp. nov. Based on nuITS rDNA, 28S nuLSU rDNA and mtSSU rDNA sequence data, the new taxon is closely related to Caloplaca sterilis and C. ulcerosa. The three taxa form a supported clade in the subfamily Xanthorioideae (Teloschistaceae), but none of the recent genera are...

Data from: Suppressing competitive dominants and community restoration with native parasitic plants using the hemiparasitic Rhinanthus alectorolophus and the dominant grass Calamagrostis epigejos

Jakub Těšitel, Jan Mladek, Jan Horník, Tamara Těšitelová, Vojtěch Adamec & Lubomír Tichý
1. Dominance of native or alien competitive plants causes competitive exclusion of subordinate species and represents a major mechanism reducing biodiversity following land-use changes. The successful competitive strategies may however be interfered with by parasitic plants, which withdraw resources from other plants’ vasculature. Parasitism may strongly reduce the growth of the dominants, which may facilitate regeneration of other species and consequently trigger restoration of natural communities of high diversity. 2. Here, we aim to provide...

Data from: Improved demethylation in ecological epigenetic experiments: testing a simple and harmless foliar demethylation application

Javier Puy, Hana Dvořáková, Carlos P. Carmona, Francesco De Bello, Inga Hiiesalu & Vitek Latzel
1. Experimental demethylation of plant DNA enables testing for epigenetic effects in a simple and straightforward way without the use of expensive and laborious DNA sequencing. Plants are commonly demethylated during their germination with the application of agents such as 5-azacytidine (5-azaC). However, this approach can cause unwanted effects such as underdeveloped root systems and high mortality of treated plants, hindering a full comparison with untreated plants, and can be applied only on plant reproducing...

Data from: Highly divergent 16S rRNA sequences in ribosomal operons of Scytonema hyalinum (Cyanobacteria)

Jeffrey R. Johansen, Jan Mareš, Nicole Pietrasiak, Markéta Bohunická, , Lenka Štenclová & Tomáš Hauer
A highly divergent 16S rRNA gene was found in one of the five ribosomal operons present in a species complex currently circumscribed as Scytonema hyalinum (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria) using clone libraries. If 16S rRNA sequence macroheterogeneity among ribosomal operons due to insertions, deletions or truncation is excluded, the sequence heterogeneity observed in S. hyalinum was the highest observed in any prokaryotic species thus far (7.3–9.0%). The secondary structure of the 16S rRNA molecules encoded by the...

Data from: Morphological and molecular characterization within 26 strains of the genus Cylindrospermum (Nostocaceae, Cyanobacteria), with descriptions of three new species

Jeffrey R. Johansen, Marketa Bohunicka, Alena Lukesova, Kristyna Hreckova, Melissa A. Vaccarino & Nicholas M. Chesarino
Twenty-six strains morphologically identified as Cylindrospermum as well as the closely related taxon Cronbergia siamensis were examined microscopically as well as phylogenetically using sequence data for the 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S ITS region. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA revealed three distinct clades. The clade we designate as Cylindrospermum sensu stricto had all five of the foundational species, C. maius, C. stagnale, C. licheniforme, C. muscicola, and C. catenatum. In addition to these...

Data from: Varyingly hungry caterpillars: predictive models and foliar chemistry suggest how to eat a rainforest

Simon T. Segar, Martin Volf, Brus Isua, Mentap Sisol, Conor M. Redmond, Margaret E. Rosati, Bradley Gewa, Kenneth Molem, Chris Dahl, Jeremy D. Holloway, Yves Basset, Scott E. Miller, George D. Weiblen, Juha-Pekka Salminen & Vojtech Novotny
A long-term goal in evolutionary ecology is to explain the incredible diversity of insect herbivores and patterns of plant host use in speciose groups like tropical Lepidoptera. Here we used standardised food-web data, multigene phylogenies of both trophic levels and plant chemistry data to model interactions between Lepidoptera larvae (caterpillars) from two lineages (Geometridae and Pyraloidea) and plants in species-rich lowland rainforest in New Guinea. Model parameters were used to make and test blind predictions...

Data from: Extinctions, genetic erosion and conservation options for the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)

Yoshan Moodley, Isa-Rita M. Russo, Desiré L. Dalton, Antoinette Kotzé, Shadrack Muya, Patricia Haubensak, Boglárka Bálint, Gopi K. Munimanda, Caroline Deimel, Andrea Setzer, Kara Dicks, Barbara Herzig-Straschil, Daniela C. Kalthoff, Hans R. Siegismund, Jan Robovský, Paul O’Donoghue & Michael W. Bruford
The black rhinoceros is again on the verge of extinction due to unsustainable poaching in its native range. Despite a wide historic distribution, the black rhinoceros was traditionally thought of as depauperate in genetic variation, and with very little known about its evolutionary history. This knowledge gap has hampered conservation efforts because hunting has dramatically reduced the species’ once continuous distribution, leaving five surviving gene pools of unknown genetic affinity. Here we examined the range-wide...

Data from: Seasonal and spatial dynamics of gas ebullition in a temperate water-storage reservoir

Michal Tušer, Tomáš Picek, Zuzana Sajdlová, Tomáš Jůza, Milan Muška & Jaroslava Frouzova
Gas ebullition of river impoundments plays an increasingly significant role, particularly in transporting methane CH4 from their sediments to the atmosphere, and contributing to the global carbon budget and global warming. Quantifying stochastic and episodic nature of gas ebullition is complicated especially when conventionally conducted by using coverage-limited gas traps. Current knowledge of seasonality in a reservoir’s gas ebullition is lacking in the literature. For this reason, advanced acoustic surveying was intensively applied to determine...

Data from: Effects of prey density, temperature and predator diversity on nonconsumptive predator-driven mortality in a freshwater food web

Veselý Lukáš, David Boukal, Miloš Buřič, Pavel Kozák, Antonín Kouba & Arnaud Sentis
Nonconsumptive predator-driven mortality (NCM), defined as prey mortality due to predation that does not result in prey consumption, is an underestimated component of predator-prey interactions with possible implications for population dynamics and ecosystem functioning. However, the biotic and abiotic factors influencing this mortality component remain largely unexplored, leaving a gap in our understanding of the impacts of environmental change on ecological communities. We investigated the effects of temperature, prey density, and predator diversity and density...

Data from: Are pollinators the agents of selection on flower colour and size in irises?

Daniel Souto-Vilarósa, Ana Vuleta, Sanja Manitašević Jovanović, Sanja Budečević, Hui Wang, Yuval Sapir & Eric Imbert
Plant-pollinator interactions are believed to play a major role in the evolution of floral traits. Flower colour and flower size are important for attracting pollinators, directly influencing reproduction, and thus expected to be under pollinator-mediated selection. Pollinator-mediated selection is also proposed to play a role in maintaining flower colour polymorphism within populations. However, pigment concentrations, and thus flower colour, are also under selective pressures independent of pollinators. We quantified phenotypic pollinator-mediated selection on flower colour...

Data from: Island- and lake-like parallel adaptive radiations replicated in rivers

Edward D. Burress, Lubomír Piálek, Jorge R. Casciotta, Adriana Almirón, Milton Tan, Jonathan W. Armbruster & Oldřich Říčan
Parallel adaptive radiations have arisen following the colonization of islands by lizards and lakes by fishes. In these classic examples, adaptive radiation is a response to the ecological opportunities afforded by the colonization of novel ecosystems and similar adaptive landscapes that favor the evolution of similar suites of ecomorphs despite independent evolutionary histories. Here, we demonstrate that parallel adaptive radiations of cichlid fishes arose in South American rivers. Speciation-assembled assemblages of pike cichlids (Crenicichla) have...

Data from: Active farmsteads are year-round strongholds for farmland birds

Martin Šálek, Miroslav Bažant & Michał Żmihorski
1. Farmland birds have experienced substantial declines over recent decades and various conservation measures have been designed to halt their massive decrease. The effectiveness of these measures is however limited, due to inappropriate identification of crucial breeding and wintering habitats. Identification of appropriate habitats, like farmsteads, and understanding seasonal changes in species richness and abundance of farmland birds within these habitats may therefore be key for farmland bird conservation. 2. We investigated the effect of...

Data from: Phylogenetic composition of host plant communities drives plant-herbivore food web structure

Martin Volf, Petr Pyszko, Tomokazu Abe, Martin Libra, Nela Kotaskova, Martin Šigut, Rajesh Kumar, Ondrej Kaman, Philip Butterill, Jan Šipoš, Haruka Abe, Hiroaki Fukushima, Pavel Drozd, Naoto Kamata, Masashi Murakami, Vojtech Novotny & Philip T. Butterill
1. Insects tend to feed on related hosts. The phylogenetic composition of host plant communities thus plays a prominent role in determining insect specialization, food web structure, and diversity. Previous studies showed a high preference of insect herbivores for congeneric and confamilial hosts suggesting that some levels of host plant relationships may play more prominent role that others. 2. We aim to quantify the effects of host phylogeny on the structure of quantitative plant-herbivore food...

Registration Year

  • 2017

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice
  • John Carroll University
  • Institute of Hydrobiology
  • Chiba University
  • Masaryk University
  • University of Tartu
  • Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
  • Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research
  • Universidade Federal de Goiás
  • North West Agriculture and Forestry University