17 Works

Data from: Distribution of alien animal species richness in the Czech Republic

Radek Gebauer, Jan Divíšek, Miloš Buřič, Martin Večeřa, Antonín Kouba & Bořek Drozd
Biogeographical barriers formed by natural forces over billions of years have been substantially disrupted by human activity, particularly in recent centuries. In response to these anthropogenic changes, global homogenization of biota is observed at an ever‐increasing rate, causing environmental and economic losses as well as emerging health risks. Identifying factors underlying alien species richness is essential for prevention of future introductions and subsequent spread. In this study, we examined the effects of environmental and human‐related...

Data from: Contrasting evolutionary history, anthropogenic declines and genetic contact in the northern and southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum)

Yoshan Moodley, Isa-Rita M. Russo, Jan Robovský, Desire Lee Dalton, Antoinette Kotze, Steve Smith, Jan Stejskal, Oliver A. Ryder, Robert Hermes, Chris Walzer & Michael W. Bruford
The white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) has a discontinuous African distribution, which is limited by the extent of sub-Saharan grasslands. The southern population (SWR) declined to its lowest number around the turn of the 19th century, but recovered to become the world’s most numerous rhinoceros. In contrast, the northern population (NWR) was common during much of the 20th century, declining rapidly since the 1970s, and now only two post-reproductive individuals remain. Despite this species’ conservation status,...

Data from: Host-plant dissections reveal contrasting distributions of Crematogaster ants and their symbionts in two myrmecophytic Macaranga species

Mickal Y.I. Houadria, Petr Klimes, Tom M. Fayle & Penny J. Gullan
1. Ant–plant mutualisms are among the most widespread and ecologically important insect–plant interactions in the tropics. The multitrophic mutualism involving Macaranga plants (Euphorbiaceae) and Crematogaster ants (Formicidae) is the most diverse in Southeast Asia. This interaction also includes trophobiotic scale insects (Coccidae) and nematodes inhabiting ant refuse piles. 2. Here we compared two myrmecophytic systems, Macaranga trachyphylla with Crematogaster captiosa (Mt+Cc) and M. beccariana with C. decamera (Mb+Cd), using a fine-scale dissection of the stems....

Data from: The nest defence by the red-backed shrike (Lanius collurio) - support for the vulnerability hypothesis

Irena Strnadová, Michal Němec, Martin Strnad, Petr Veselý & Roman Fuchs
The majority of altricial bird species defend their brood against predators more intensively in nestlings rather than eggs stage. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this difference. The majority of existing experimental studies have recorded a gradually increasing intensity of nest defence supporting the reproductive value hypothesis. We have compared nest defence in two nesting stages of the red-backed shrike against two predators of adult birds and against two predators of nests. While the...

Data from: Seasonality promotes grassland diversity: interactions with mowing, fertilization and removal of dominant species

Jiri Dolezal, Vojtech Lanta, Ondrej Mudrak & Jan Leps
1. Current biodiversity declines in species-rich grasslands are connected with the cessation of management, eutrophication and the expansion of dominant grass species. One of the theoretical mechanisms limiting biodiversity loss is the ability of subordinate species to avoid competitive exclusion by seasonal niche separation from dominant species. Here we explore how seasonality underpins the maintenance of diversity in temperate meadows under different management regimes and competition intensities in relation to species functional traits. 2. We...

Data from: The balance of canopy and soil effects determines intraspecific differences in foundation species’ effects on associated plants

Nuria Pistón, Richard Michalet, Christian Schöb, Petr Macek, Cris Armas & Francisco I. Pugnaire
1. The impact of plant-plant interactions on species diversity patterns has been broadly addressed in stressful environments, such as alpine ecosystems, where foundation species promote species richness by creating habitat for other species. However, foundation species with contrasting phenotypes might modify the microhabitat differently, which would alter the subordinate community composition, and coincide with distinct feedback effects of those subordinate species on the foundation species. However, the precise interaction mechanisms that facilitate species are not...

Data from: Daphnia galeata and D. dentifera are geographically and ecologically separated whereas their hybrids occur in intermediate habitats: a survey of 44 Chinese lakes

Xiaolin Ma, Wei Hu, Petr Smilauer, Mingbo Yin & Justyna Wolinska
The idea that hybridization promotes range expansion has received recent attention, but support from field studies is limited. We hypothesized that in the cladoceran waterflea Daphnia, parental species are geographically and ecologically separated, whereas hybrids occupy intermediate or occasionally extreme environments, potentially facilitating range expansion of parental species. We assessed the distribution of Daphnia dentifera, D. galeata and their interspecific hybrids across 44 lakes in China (using mitochondrial and microsatellite markers), and related it to...

Data from: Biochemical determinants of litter quality in 15 species of Sphagnum

Fia Bengtsson, Håkan Rydin & Tomáš Hájek
Background and aims: Sphagnum mosses are ecosystem engineers that create and maintain boreal peatlands. With unique biochemistry, waterlogging and acidifying capacities, they build up meters-thick layers of peat, reducing competition and impeding decomposition. We quantify within-genus differences in biochemical composition to make inferences about decay rates, related to hummock–hollow and fen–bog gradients and to phylogeny.Methods: We sampled litter from 15 Sphagnum species, abundant over the whole northern hemisphere. We used regression and Principal Components Analysis...

Data from: Taxon cycle predictions supported by model-based inference in Indo-Pacific trap-jaw ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Odontomachus)

Pável Matos-Maraví, Nicholas J. Matzke, Fredrick J. Larabee, Ronald M. Clouse, Ward C. Wheeler, Daniela Magdalena Sorger, Andrew V. Suarez & Milan Janda
Non-equilibrium dynamics and non-neutral processes, such as trait-dependent dispersal, are often missing from quantitative island biogeography models despite their potential explanatory value. One of the most influential non-equilibrium models is the taxon cycle, but it has been difficult to test its validity as a general biogeographical framework. Here, we test predictions of the taxon-cycle model using six expected phylogenetic patterns and a time-calibrated phylogeny of Indo-Pacific Odontomachus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae), one of the ant genera...

Data from: Ant mosaics in Bornean primary rain forest high canopy depend on spatial scale, time of day, and sampling method

Kalsum M. Yusah, William A. Foster, Glen Reynolds & Tom M. Fayle
Background: Competitive interactions in biological communities can be thought of as giving rise to “assembly rules” that dictate the species that are able to co-exist. Ant communities in tropical canopies often display a particular pattern, an “ant mosaic”, in which competition between dominant ant species results in a patchwork of mutually exclusive territories. Although ant mosaics have been well-documented in plantation landscapes, their presence in pristine tropical forests remained contentious until recently. Here we assess...

Data from: European ornamental garden flora as an invasion debt under climate change

Emily Haeuser, Wayne Dawson, Wilfried Thuiller, Stefan Dullinger, Svenja Block, Oliver Bossdorf, Marta Carboni, Luisa Conti, Iwona Dullinger, Franz Essl, Günther Klonner, Dietmar Moser, Tamara Muenkemueller, Madalin Parepa, Matthew V. Talluto, Holger Kreft, Jan Pergl, Petr Pyšek, Patrick Weigelt, Marten Winter, Martin Hermy, Sebastiaan Van Der Veken, Cristina Roquet & Mark Van Kleunen
1.Most naturalized and invasive alien plant species were originally introduced to regions for horticultural purposes. However, many regions now face an invasion debt from ornamental alien species, which have not yet naturalized. In this regard, climate change represents a threat as it may lower the barriers to naturalization for some ornamental alien species. Identifying those species is extremely important for anticipating impending invasions. 2.To identify predictors of naturalization, we modelled the effects of climate, nursery...

Data from: Flying between raindrops: strong seasonal turnover of several Lepidoptera groups in lowland rainforests of Mount Cameroon

Vincent Maicher, Szabolcs Sáfián, Mercy Murkwe, Łukasz Przybyłowicz, Štěpán Janeček, Eric B. Fokam, Tomasz Pyrcz & Robert Tropek
1. Although seasonality in the tropics is often less pronounced than in temperate areas, tropical ecosystems show seasonal dynamics as well. Nevertheless, individual tropical insects’ phenological patterns are still poorly understood, especially in the Afrotropics. To fill this gap, we investigated biodiversity patterns of Lepidoptera communities at three rainforest localities in the foothills of Mount Cameroon, West Africa, one of the wettest places in the world. 2. Our multi-taxa approach covered six lepidopteran groups (fruit-feeding...

Data from: Resource use and food preferences in understorey ant communities along a complete elevational gradient in Papua New Guinea

Jerome Orivel, Petr Klimes, Vojtech Novotny & Maurice Leponce
Elevational gradients provide an interesting opportunity for studying the effect of climatic drivers over short distances on the various facets of biodiversity. It is globally assumed that the decrease in species richness with increasing elevation follows mainly the decrease in ecosystem productivity, but studies on functional diversity still remain limited. Here, we investigated how resource use and food preferences by both individual ant species and communities foraging in the understorey vary with elevation along a...

Data from: Drivers of vegetative dormancy across herbaceous perennial plant species

Richard P. Shefferson, Tiiu Kull, Michael J. Hutchings, Marc-André Selosse, Hans Jacquemyn, Kimberly M. Kellett, Eric S. Menges, Richard B. Primack, Juha Tuomi, Kirsi Alahuhta, Sonja Hurskainen, Helen M. Alexander, Derek S. Anderson, Rein Brys, Emilia Brzosko, Slavomir Dostálik, Katharine Gregg, Zdeněk Ipser, Anne Jäkäläniemi, Jana Jersáková, W. Dean Kettle, Melissa K. McCormick, Ana Mendoza, Michael T. Miller, Asbjørn Moen … & Dennis F. Whigham
Vegetative dormancy, that is the temporary absence of aboveground growth for ≥ 1 year, is paradoxical, because plants cannot photosynthesise or flower during dormant periods. We test ecological and evolutionary hypotheses for its widespread persistence. We show that dormancy has evolved numerous times. Most species displaying dormancy exhibit life‐history costs of sprouting, and of dormancy. Short‐lived and mycoheterotrophic species have higher proportions of dormant plants than long‐lived species and species with other nutritional modes. Foliage...

Data from: The insect-focused classification of fruit syndromes in tropical rainforests: an inter-continental comparison

Chris Dahl, Richard Ctvrtecka, Sofia Gripenberg, Owen T. Lewis, Simon T. Segar, Petr Klimes, Katerina Sam, Dominic Rinan, Jonah Filip, Roll Lilip, Pitoon Kongnoo, Montarika Panmeng, Sutipun Putnaul, Manat Reungaew, Marleny Rivera, Hector Barrios, Stuart J. Davies, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Joseph S. Wright, George D. Weiblen, Vojtech Novotny & Yves Basset.
We propose a new classification of rainforest plants into eight fruit syndromes, based on fruit morphology and other traits relevant to fruit-feeding insects. This classification is compared with other systems based on plant morphology or traits relevant to vertebrate fruit dispersers. Our syndromes are based on fruits sampled from 1,192 plant species at three Forest Global Earth Observatory plots: Barro Colorado Island (Panama), Khao Chong (Thailand) and Wanang (Papua New Guinea). The three plots differed...

Data from: Pollination along an elevational gradient mediated both by floral scent and pollinator compatibility in the fig and fig‐wasp mutualism

Daniel Souto-Vilarós, Magali Proffit, Bruno Buatois, Michal Rindos, Mentap Sisol, Thomas Kuyaiva, Jan Michalek, Clive T. Darwell, Martine Hossaert-Mckey, George D. Weiblen, Vojtech Novotny, Simon T. Segar & Brus Isua
In the fig (Moraceae) and fig‐wasp (Agaonidae) mutualism, scent is believed to be of primary importance in pollinator attraction and maintenance of species specificity. Scent divergence between closely related Ficus species seems sufficient in promoting reproductive isolation through pollinator behaviour, starting the process of speciation. We investigated volatile organic compound (VOC) variation from figs in several Ficus species endemic to Papua New Guinea. Sister species of section Papuacyse and subspecies of Ficus trichocerasa substitute each...

Data from: Sperm divergence in a passerine contact zone: indication of reinforcement at the gametic level

Tomas Albrecht, Kamila Opletalova, Jiří Reif, Vaclav Janousek, Lubomir Pialek, Emily Rebecca Alison Cramer, Arild Johnsen & Radka Reifová
Postcopulatory sexual selection may promote evolutionary diversification in sperm form, but the contribution of between-species divergence in sperm morphology to the origin of reproductive isolation and speciation remains little understood. To assess the possible role of sperm diversification in reproductive isolation, we studied sperm morphology in two closely related species, the common nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos) and the thrush nightingale (L. luscinia), that hybridize in a secondary contact zone spanning Central and Eastern Europe. We found:...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    17

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    17

Affiliations

  • University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice
    17
  • Institute of Entomology
    6
  • Charles University
    4
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • Australian National University
    2
  • New Guinea Binatang Research Center
    2
  • Uppsala University
    2
  • University of Kansas
    1
  • Universidad De Panama
    1
  • University of the Free State
    1