52 Works

Community structure of vascular epiphytes: a neutral perspective

Thijs Janzen, Gerhard Zotz & Rampal Etienne
Vascular epiphytes form a diverse group of almost 30,000 species, yet theory concerning their community structure is still largely lacking. We therefore employed simple models of biodiversity, (near-)neutral models, to study to what extent they can explain their community structure. With recently developed tools for (near-)neutral models we analyzed species abundance data from many samples in Central and South America which we divided into four metacommunities (Mesoamerica, Central America, Amazonia and Paraná). For each metacommunity...

Gene Delivery to Neurons in the Auditory Brainstem of Barn Owls using Standard Recombinant Adeno-associated Virus Vectors

Nadine Thiele, K. Jannis Hildebrandt & Christine Köppl
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are a commonly used tool for gene delivery. There is a large choice of different serotypes whose transduction efficiency varies for different animal species. In this study, three rAAV vectors were tested for transduction efficiency in the auditory brainstem of adult barn owls (Tyto alba) which are not standard laboratory animals. Injections with rAAV serotypes 2/1 and 2/5 resulted in reliable expression in various nuclei of the auditory brainstem of...

Meta-analysis on pulse disturbances reveals differences in functional and compositional recovery across ecosystems

Helmut Hillebrand & Charlotte Kunze
Most ecosystems are affected by anthropogenic or natural pulse disturbances, which alter the community composition and functioning for a limited period of time. Whether and how quickly communities recover from such pulses is central to our understanding of biodiversity dynamics and ecosystem organization, but also to nature conservation and management. Here, we present a meta-analysis of 508 (semi-)natural field experiments globally distributed across marine, terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. We found recovery to be significant yet...

Data from: Biodiversity change is uncoupled from species richness trends: consequences for conservation and monitoring

Helmut Hillebrand, Bernd Blasius, Elizabeth T. Borer, Jonathan M. Chase, John Downing, Britas Klemens Eriksson, Christopher T. Filstrup, W. Stanley Harpole, Dorothee Hodapp, Stefano Larsen, Aleksandra M. Lewandowska, Eric W. Seabloom, Dedmer B. Van De Waal, Alexey B. Ryabov & John A. Downing
1. Global concern about human impact on biological diversity has triggered an intense research agenda on drivers and consequences of biodiversity change in parallel with international policy seeking to conserve biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions. Quantifying the trends in biodiversity is far from trivial, however, as recently documented by meta-analyses which report little if any net change of local species richness through time. 2. Here, we summarize several limitations of species richness as a metric...

Data from: Effects of experimental warming on biodiversity depend on ecosystem type and local species composition

Daniel S. Gruner, Matthew E. S. Bracken, Stella A. Berger, Britas Klemens Eriksson, Lars Gamfeldt, Birte Matthiessen, Stefanie Moorthi, Ulrich Sommer & Helmut Hillebrand
Climatic warming is a primary driver of change in ecosystems worldwide. Here, we synthesize responses of species richness and evenness from 187 experimental warming studies in a quantitative meta-analysis. We asked 1) whether effects of warming on diversity were detectable and consistent across terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems, 2) if effects on diversity correlated with intensity, duration, and experimental unit size of temperature change manipulations, and 3) whether these experimental effects on diversity interacted with...

Data from: Revisiting Brownian motion as a description of animal movement: a comparison to experimental movement data

Daniel Bearup, Carly M. Benefer, Sergei V. Petrovskii & Rod P. Blackshaw
Characterization of patterns of animal movement is a major challenge in ecology with applications to conservation, biological invasions and pest monitoring. Brownian random walks, and diffusive flux as their mean field counterpart, provide one framework in which to consider this problem. However, it remains subject to debate and controversy. This study presents a test of the diffusion framework using movement data obtained from controlled experiments. Walking beetles (Tenebrio molitor) were released in an open circular...

Data from: Importance of mixotrophic bacterivory can be predicted by light and loss rates

Robert Fischer, Helge-Ansgar Giebel, Helmut Hillebrand & Robert Ptacnik
Recent observational studies form oligotrophic waters provide ample evidence that mixotrophic flagellates often account for the bulk of bacterivory. However, we lack a general framework that allows a mechanistic understanding of success of mixotrophs in the competition with heterotrophic bacterivores. This is especially needed for integrating mixotrophy in models of the microbial loop. Based on general tradeoffs linked to the combined resource use in mixotrophs (generalist versus specialist), we propose a concept where mixotrophs are...

Data from: Effects of sample fixation on specimen identification in biodiversity assemblies based on proteomic data (MALDI-TOF)

Sven Rossel & Pedro Martínez Arbizu
Recently, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry has been used to reliably identify taxonomically difficult harpacticoid copepods from sediment samples. In agreement with former studies, a negative impact of short storage periods was stated. Other studies reported inferior mass spectra quality from samples fixated in varying ethanol concentrations. Therefore, sediment samples from a mudflat sampling site in the North Sea were stored under different temperature conditions to explore a possible storage effect. Samples were fixated with either 70%...

Data from: Is tropical montane forest heterogeneity promoted by a resource-driven feedback cycle? Evidence from nutrient relations, herbivory and litter decomposition along a topographical gradient

Florian A. Werner & Jürgen Homeier
1. Ridges of tropical mountains often differ strikingly from neighbouring ravines in terms of forest structure, productivity, and species composition. This heterogeneity is poorly understood despite its critical role in biodiversity maintenance, carbon and nutrient budgets. 2. We examined measures of tree biomass and productivity, foliage and litter quality (nutrient concentrations, specific leaf mass, phenolics), herbivory and leaf litter decomposition in each six plots laid out in upper and lower slope position in a tropical...

Intraspecific trait variation alters the outcome of competition in freshwater ciliates

Sabine Floeder, Joanne Yong, Toni Klauschies, Ursula Gaedke, Tobias Poprick, Thorsten Brinkhoff & Stefanie Moorthi
Trait variation among heterospecific and conspecific organisms may substantially affect community and food web dynamics. While the relevance of competition and feeding traits have been widely studied for different consumer species, studies on intraspecific differences are more scarce, partly owing to difficulties in distinguishing different clones of the same species. Here, we investigate how intraspecific trait variation affects the competition between the freshwater ciliates Euplotes octocarinatus and Coleps hirtus in a nitrogen-limited chemostat system. The...

Data from: Putting vascular epiphytes on the traits map

Peter Hietz, Katrin Wagner, Flavio Nunes Ramos, Juliano Sarmento Cabral, Gerhard Zotz, Claudia Agudelo, Ana Maria Benavides, Manuel Cach Pérez, Catherine Cardelús, Nahelli Chilpa Galván, Lucas Costa, Rodolfo De Paula Oliveiras, Helena Einzmann, Rafael Farias, Valeria Guzmán Jacob, Michael Kessler, Catherine Kirby, Holger Kreft, Thorsten Krömer, Jamie Males, Samuel Monsalve Correa, Maria Moreno, Gunnar Petter, Casandra Reyes, Alfredo Saldaña … & Carrie Woods
Epiphyte trait data for the paper Hietz et al. 2021 Putting vascular epiphytes on the traits map. Journal of Ecology Plant functional traits impact the fitness and environmental niche of plants. Major plant functional types have been characterized by their trait spectrum, and the environmental and phylogenetic imprints on traits have advanced several ecological fields. Yet very few trait data on epiphytes, which represent almost 10% of vascular plants, are available. We collated >80,000 mostly...

Data from: Phylogeographic analysis of Ligia oceanica (Crustacea: Isopoda) reveals two deep divergent mitochondrial lineages

Michael Raupach, Olaf Bininda-Emonds, Thomas Knebelsberger, Silke Laakmann, Jobst Pfaender & Florian Leese
Isopods of the species Ligia oceanica are typical inhabitants of the rocky intertidal of the northern European coastline. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic structure of this species using mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data. We analysed partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CO1) and 16S rRNA gene sequence data of 161 specimens collected from ten sites ranging from Spain to Norway. For selected specimens, we also sequenced the hypervariable V7...

Aquaculture at the crossroads of global warming and antimicrobial resistance

Miriam Reverter, Samira Sarter, Domenico Caruso, Jean-Christophe Avarre, Marine Combe, Elodie Pepey, Laurent Pouyaud, Hugues De Verdal, Sarahi Vega-Heredía & Rodolphe Gozlan
In many developing countries, aquaculture is key to ensuring food security for millions of people. It is thus important to measure the full implications of environmental changes on the sustainability of aquaculture. We conducted a double meta-analysis (460 articles) to explore how global warming and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) impacts aquaculture. We calculated a Multi-Antibiotic Resistance index (MAR) of aquaculture-related bacteria (11,274 strains) for 40 countries, of which mostly low- and middle-income countries present high AMR...

Including dynamics in the equation: Tree growth rates and host specificity of vascular epiphytes

Katrin Wagner & Gerhard Zotz
1. The forest canopy is home to a rich biota. One salient feature are the dynamics of the habitat-building trees, which are growing and eventually vanishing. Tree species strongly differ in growth rates, final size and longevity. Nevertheless, these inherent dynamics have been a blind spot in studies on host specificity of vascular epiphytes (vascular plants dwelling on trees without parasitizing them) – not least because tree growth rates and longevity are usually unknown in...

Data from: Morphological and molecular diagnostic species characters of Staurozoa (Cnidaria) collected on the coast of Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea)

Sabine Holst, Anneke Heins & Silke Laakmann
Scientific knowledge and records on staurozoans are limited probably because of their inconspicuous life habit and the small number of specialists for this taxon. To increase the awareness for Staurozoa, we identified morphological and molecular features of the three staurozoan species Haliclystus tenuis Kishinouye, 1910, Haliclystus auricula Clark, 1863, and Craterolophus convolvulus (Johnston, 1835) collected on the coast of the island Helgoland to evaluate their suitability as diagnostic characters. Useful macromorphological diagnostic features were the...

Data from: A barrier island perspective on species-area-relationships

Christoph Scherber, Hagen Andert, Rolf Niedringhaus & Teja Tscharntke
Predictions of species richness by island area are a classical cornerstone in ecology, while the specific features of barrier islands have been little appreciated. Many shorelines are occupied by barrier islands, which are shaped by offshore sedimentation processes and annual storm tide events. Hence, the appearance of these islands may vary between years if they are not protected by dykes. Here, we analyzed more than 2,990 species across 36 taxonomic groups (including vertebrates, invertebrates and...

Data from: Drought, post-dispersal seed predation and the establishment of epiphytic bromeliads (Tillandsia spp.)

Nahlleli Chilpa-Galván, Gerhard Zotz, Guillermo J. Sánchez-Fuente, Celene Espadas-Manrique, José Luis Andrade & Casandra Reyes-García.
Post-dispersal predation in epiphytes is poorly documented. In the course of a study on in situ germination of two Tillandsia species in a deciduous forest in Yucatan, Mexico, post-dispersal seed predation rates by the Yucatan deer mouse (Peromyscus yucatanicus) averaged 90%. Post-dispersal predation was thus more limiting than drought.

Data from: Functional genomic analysis of corals from natural CO2-seeps reveals core molecular responses involved in acclimatization to ocean acidification

Carly D. Kenkel, Aurelie Moya, Julia Strahl, Craig Humphrey & Line K. Bay
Little is known about the potential for acclimatization or adaptation of corals to ocean acidification and even less about the molecular mechanisms underpinning these processes. Here we examine global gene expression patterns in corals and their intracellular algal symbionts from two replicate population pairs in Papua New Guinea that have undergone long-term acclimatization to natural variation in pCO2. In the coral host, only 61 genes were differentially expressed in response to pCO2 environment, but the...

Alternate patterns of temperature variation bring about very different disease outcomes at different mean temperatures

Charlotte Kunze, Pepijn Luijckx, Andrew L. Jackson & Ian Donohui
The dynamics of host-parasite interactions are highly temperature-dependent and may be modified by increasing frequency and intensity of climate-driven heat events. Here, we show that altered patterns of temperature variance lead to an almost order-of-magnitude shift in thermal performance of host and pathogen life history traits over and above the effects of mean temperature and, moreover, that different temperature regimes affect these traits differently. We found that diurnal fluctuations of ±3°C lowered infection rates and...

Institutioneller Kinderschutz in Krippe und Kita als Gelingensfaktor für Partizipation im pädagogischen Alltag

Dennis Epping & Jasmin Luthardt
Der Artikel thematisiert die Notwendigkeit eines institutionell verankerten Schutzkonzepts zur Wahrung und Umsetzung der Kinderrechte in Krippen und Kitas. Dies kann nur gelingen, wenn a) die pädagogischen Fachkräfte ihre pädagogischen Handlungen hinsichtlich Übergriffigkeit, Macht und Missbrauch reflektieren und b) die Partizipation der Kinder entsprechend der international und national geltenden Gesetze im Alltag umgesetzt wird. Im Anschluss stellen wir ein Modell des institutionellen Kinderschutzes für Krippen und Kitas (IKS) vor, welches der pädagogischen Praxis dahingehend Orientierung...

Population structure of Rosa spinosissima L. on the Frisian Islands and introgression from cultivated material

Eike Mayland-Quellhorst & Volker Wissemann
Rosa spinosissima L. is part of the highly dynamic coastal habitat of the Wadden Sea, between the coast of northwestern continental Europe and the Frisian Islands. Plants of this species grow clonally via root suckers to form large patches, which stabilize dunes and help to protect the islands and used for this purpose locally on the island Sylt. Rosa spinosissima plants are affected by both water and wind in their harsh environment, and are threatened...

Data from: Ontogenetic resource utilization and migration reconstruction with δ13C values of essential amino acids in the Cynoscion acoupa otolith

Kim Vane, Thomas Larsen, Barbara M. Scholz-Böttcher, Bernd Kopke & Werner Ekau
1. With the increasing anthropogenic impacts on fish habitats, it has become more important to understand which primary resources sustain fish populations. This resource utilization can differ between fish life stages and individuals can migrate between habitats in search of resources. Such lifetime information is difficult to obtain due to the large spatial and temporal scales of fish behaviour. The otolith organic matrix has the potential to indicate this resource utilization and migration with δ13C...

Data from: Trait correlation network analysis identifies biomass allocation traits and stem specific length as hub traits in herbaceous perennial plants

Michael Kleyer, Juliane Trinogga, Miguel A. Cebrián-Piqueras, Anastasia Trenkamp, Camilla Fløjgaard, Rasmus Ejrnæs, Tjeerd J. Bouma, Vanessa Minden, Martin Maier, Jasmin Mantilla-Contreras, Dirk C. Albach, Bernd Blasius & Rasmus Ejrnaes
Correlations among plant traits often reflect important trade‐offs or allometric relationships in biological functions like carbon gain, support, water uptake, and reproduction that are associated with different plant organs. Whether trait correlations can be aggregated to “spectra” or “leading dimensions,” whether these dimensions are consistent across plant organs, spatial scale, and growth forms are still open questions. To illustrate the current state of knowledge, we constructed a network of published trait correlations associated with the...

Data from: Antarctic krill population genomics: apparent panmixia, but genome complexity and large population size muddies the water

Bruce E. Deagle, Cassandra Faux, So Kawaguchi, Bettina Meyer & Simon N. Jarman
Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba; hereafter krill) are an incredibly abundant pelagic crustacean which has a wide, but patchy, distribution in the Southern Ocean. Several studies have examined the potential for population genetic structuring in krill, but DNA-based analyses have focused on a limited number of markers and have covered only part of their circum-Antarctic range. We used mitochondrial DNA and restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) to investigate genetic differences between krill from five sites, including...

Data from: The influence of balanced and imbalanced resource supply on biodiversity-functioning relationship across ecosystems

Aleksandra M. Lewandowska, Antje Biermann, Elizabeth T. Borer, Miguel A. Cebrian-Piqueras, Steven A. J. Declerck, Luc De Meester, Ellen Van Donk, Lars Gamfeldt, Daniel S. Gruner, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Kevin P. Kirkman, Christopher A. Klausmeier, Michael Kleyer, Johannes M. H. Knops, Pieter Lemmens, Eric M. Lind, Elena Litchman, Jasmin Mantilla-Contreras, Koen Martens, Sandra Meier, Vanessa Minden, Joslin L. Moore, Harry Olde Venterink, Eric W. Seabloom … & Helmut Hillebrand
Numerous studies show that increasing species richness leads to higher ecosystem productivity. This effect is often attributed to more efficient portioning of multiple resources in communities with higher numbers of competing species, indicating the role of resource supply and stoichiometry for biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships. Here, we merged theory on ecological stoichiometry with a framework of biodiversity–ecosystem functioning to understand how resource use transfers into primary production. We applied a structural equation model to define patterns...

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