56 Works

Including dynamics in the equation: Tree growth rates and host specificity of vascular epiphytes

Katrin Wagner & Gerhard Zotz
1. The forest canopy is home to a rich biota. One salient feature are the dynamics of the habitat-building trees, which are growing and eventually vanishing. Tree species strongly differ in growth rates, final size and longevity. Nevertheless, these inherent dynamics have been a blind spot in studies on host specificity of vascular epiphytes (vascular plants dwelling on trees without parasitizing them) – not least because tree growth rates and longevity are usually unknown in...

Aquaculture at the crossroads of global warming and antimicrobial resistance

Miriam Reverter, Samira Sarter, Domenico Caruso, Jean-Christophe Avarre, Marine Combe, Elodie Pepey, Laurent Pouyaud, Hugues De Verdal, Sarahi Vega-Heredía & Rodolphe Gozlan
In many developing countries, aquaculture is key to ensuring food security for millions of people. It is thus important to measure the full implications of environmental changes on the sustainability of aquaculture. We conducted a double meta-analysis (460 articles) to explore how global warming and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) impacts aquaculture. We calculated a Multi-Antibiotic Resistance index (MAR) of aquaculture-related bacteria (11,274 strains) for 40 countries, of which mostly low- and middle-income countries present high AMR...

Nardus grasslands and wet heaths are affected differently by reintroduction of management and pH recovery

Leonie Mazalla, Gerhard Ludwig & Cord Peppler-Lisbach
Semi-natural habitats in temperate regions are local hotspots of biodiversity, but multiple stress-ors such as land-use change and atmospheric deposition pose a threat to the existence and function-ing of these ecosystems. We conducted a resurvey of Nardus grasslands and wet heaths in the Eifel mountains to monitor the development of these habitats under the influence of a long-term manage-ment regime and the above-mentioned stressors. Surveys of 50 plots of Nardus grasslands and 14 of wet...

Data from: Drivers of global pre-industrial patterns of species turnover in planktonic foraminifera

Marina C. Rillo, Skipton Woolley & Helmut Hillebrand
Anthropogenic climate change is altering global biogeographical patterns. However, it remains difficult to quantify how bioregions are changing because pre-industrial records of species distributions are rare. Marine microfossils, such as planktonic foraminifera, are preserved in seafloor sediments and allow the quantification of bioregions in the past. Using a recently compiled data set of pre-industrial species composition of planktonic foraminifera in 3802 worldwide seafloor sediments, we employed multivariate and statistical model-based approaches to study spatial turnover...

Alternate patterns of temperature variation bring about very different disease outcomes at different mean temperatures

Charlotte Kunze, Pepijn Luijckx, Andrew L. Jackson & Ian Donohui
The dynamics of host-parasite interactions are highly temperature-dependent and may be modified by increasing frequency and intensity of climate-driven heat events. Here, we show that altered patterns of temperature variance lead to an almost order-of-magnitude shift in thermal performance of host and pathogen life history traits over and above the effects of mean temperature and, moreover, that different temperature regimes affect these traits differently. We found that diurnal fluctuations of ±3°C lowered infection rates and...

Data from: Importance of mixotrophic bacterivory can be predicted by light and loss rates

Robert Fischer, Helge-Ansgar Giebel, Helmut Hillebrand & Robert Ptacnik
Recent observational studies form oligotrophic waters provide ample evidence that mixotrophic flagellates often account for the bulk of bacterivory. However, we lack a general framework that allows a mechanistic understanding of success of mixotrophs in the competition with heterotrophic bacterivores. This is especially needed for integrating mixotrophy in models of the microbial loop. Based on general tradeoffs linked to the combined resource use in mixotrophs (generalist versus specialist), we propose a concept where mixotrophs are...

Data from: Effects of experimental warming on biodiversity depend on ecosystem type and local species composition

Daniel S. Gruner, Matthew E. S. Bracken, Stella A. Berger, Britas Klemens Eriksson, Lars Gamfeldt, Birte Matthiessen, Stefanie Moorthi, Ulrich Sommer & Helmut Hillebrand
Climatic warming is a primary driver of change in ecosystems worldwide. Here, we synthesize responses of species richness and evenness from 187 experimental warming studies in a quantitative meta-analysis. We asked 1) whether effects of warming on diversity were detectable and consistent across terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems, 2) if effects on diversity correlated with intensity, duration, and experimental unit size of temperature change manipulations, and 3) whether these experimental effects on diversity interacted with...

Data from: Effects of sample fixation on specimen identification in biodiversity assemblies based on proteomic data (MALDI-TOF)

Sven Rossel & Pedro Martínez Arbizu
Recently, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry has been used to reliably identify taxonomically difficult harpacticoid copepods from sediment samples. In agreement with former studies, a negative impact of short storage periods was stated. Other studies reported inferior mass spectra quality from samples fixated in varying ethanol concentrations. Therefore, sediment samples from a mudflat sampling site in the North Sea were stored under different temperature conditions to explore a possible storage effect. Samples were fixated with either 70%...

Data from: Revisiting Brownian motion as a description of animal movement: a comparison to experimental movement data

Daniel Bearup, Carly M. Benefer, Sergei V. Petrovskii & Rod P. Blackshaw
Characterization of patterns of animal movement is a major challenge in ecology with applications to conservation, biological invasions and pest monitoring. Brownian random walks, and diffusive flux as their mean field counterpart, provide one framework in which to consider this problem. However, it remains subject to debate and controversy. This study presents a test of the diffusion framework using movement data obtained from controlled experiments. Walking beetles (Tenebrio molitor) were released in an open circular...

Data from: Is tropical montane forest heterogeneity promoted by a resource-driven feedback cycle? Evidence from nutrient relations, herbivory and litter decomposition along a topographical gradient

Florian A. Werner & Jürgen Homeier
1. Ridges of tropical mountains often differ strikingly from neighbouring ravines in terms of forest structure, productivity, and species composition. This heterogeneity is poorly understood despite its critical role in biodiversity maintenance, carbon and nutrient budgets. 2. We examined measures of tree biomass and productivity, foliage and litter quality (nutrient concentrations, specific leaf mass, phenolics), herbivory and leaf litter decomposition in each six plots laid out in upper and lower slope position in a tropical...

Data from: Biodiversity change is uncoupled from species richness trends: consequences for conservation and monitoring

Helmut Hillebrand, Bernd Blasius, Elizabeth T. Borer, Jonathan M. Chase, John Downing, Britas Klemens Eriksson, Christopher T. Filstrup, W. Stanley Harpole, Dorothee Hodapp, Stefano Larsen, Aleksandra M. Lewandowska, Eric W. Seabloom, Dedmer B. Van De Waal, Alexey B. Ryabov & John A. Downing
1. Global concern about human impact on biological diversity has triggered an intense research agenda on drivers and consequences of biodiversity change in parallel with international policy seeking to conserve biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions. Quantifying the trends in biodiversity is far from trivial, however, as recently documented by meta-analyses which report little if any net change of local species richness through time. 2. Here, we summarize several limitations of species richness as a metric...

Meta-analysis on pulse disturbances reveals differences in functional and compositional recovery across ecosystems

Helmut Hillebrand & Charlotte Kunze
Most ecosystems are affected by anthropogenic or natural pulse disturbances, which alter the community composition and functioning for a limited period of time. Whether and how quickly communities recover from such pulses is central to our understanding of biodiversity dynamics and ecosystem organization, but also to nature conservation and management. Here, we present a meta-analysis of 508 (semi-)natural field experiments globally distributed across marine, terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. We found recovery to be significant yet...

Gene Delivery to Neurons in the Auditory Brainstem of Barn Owls using Standard Recombinant Adeno-associated Virus Vectors

Nadine Thiele, K. Jannis Hildebrandt & Christine Köppl
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are a commonly used tool for gene delivery. There is a large choice of different serotypes whose transduction efficiency varies for different animal species. In this study, three rAAV vectors were tested for transduction efficiency in the auditory brainstem of adult barn owls (Tyto alba) which are not standard laboratory animals. Injections with rAAV serotypes 2/1 and 2/5 resulted in reliable expression in various nuclei of the auditory brainstem of...

Intraspecific trait variation alters the outcome of competition in freshwater ciliates

Sabine Floeder, Joanne Yong, Toni Klauschies, Ursula Gaedke, Tobias Poprick, Thorsten Brinkhoff & Stefanie Moorthi
Trait variation among heterospecific and conspecific organisms may substantially affect community and food web dynamics. While the relevance of competition and feeding traits have been widely studied for different consumer species, studies on intraspecific differences are more scarce, partly owing to difficulties in distinguishing different clones of the same species. Here, we investigate how intraspecific trait variation affects the competition between the freshwater ciliates Euplotes octocarinatus and Coleps hirtus in a nitrogen-limited chemostat system. The...

Data from: Putting vascular epiphytes on the traits map

Peter Hietz, Katrin Wagner, Flavio Nunes Ramos, Juliano Sarmento Cabral, Gerhard Zotz, Claudia Agudelo, Ana Maria Benavides, Manuel Cach Pérez, Catherine Cardelús, Nahelli Chilpa Galván, Lucas Costa, Rodolfo De Paula Oliveiras, Helena Einzmann, Rafael Farias, Valeria Guzmán Jacob, Michael Kessler, Catherine Kirby, Holger Kreft, Thorsten Krömer, Jamie Males, Samuel Monsalve Correa, Maria Moreno, Gunnar Petter, Casandra Reyes, Alfredo Saldaña … & Carrie Woods
Epiphyte trait data for the paper Hietz et al. 2021 Putting vascular epiphytes on the traits map. Journal of Ecology Plant functional traits impact the fitness and environmental niche of plants. Major plant functional types have been characterized by their trait spectrum, and the environmental and phylogenetic imprints on traits have advanced several ecological fields. Yet very few trait data on epiphytes, which represent almost 10% of vascular plants, are available. We collated >80,000 mostly...

Litter–trapping tank bromeliads in five different forests: carbon and nutrient pools and fluxes

Yonatan Aguilar Cruz, José G. García-Franco & Gerhard Zotz
Bromeliads are the most abundant litter–trapping plants in Neotropical forest canopies. By intercepting litter, bromeliads obtain and retain nutrients before they reach the pedosphere. Here, we analyzed the litter captured and stored by tank bromeliads (TB) in five different forests along an elevation gradient in Mexico. Among those forests, carbon and nutrient pools and nitrogen fluxes in TB were estimated in a mangrove (MF) and a semi–deciduous tropical forest (SDTF). The composition of the litter...

Community structure of vascular epiphytes: a neutral perspective

Thijs Janzen, Gerhard Zotz & Rampal Etienne
Vascular epiphytes form a diverse group of almost 30,000 species, yet theory concerning their community structure is still largely lacking. We therefore employed simple models of biodiversity, (near-)neutral models, to study to what extent they can explain their community structure. With recently developed tools for (near-)neutral models we analyzed species abundance data from many samples in Central and South America which we divided into four metacommunities (Mesoamerica, Central America, Amazonia and Paraná). For each metacommunity...

Data from: Potential age differences in the migratory behaviour of a nocturnal songbird migrant during autumn and spring

Heiko Schmaljohann, Florian Müller, Thomas Klinner & Cas Eikenaar
In migratory songbirds, older individuals are thought to be more efficient migrants than younger individuals. Age-specific differences in migratory efficiency have been reported mainly in respect of arrival timing, energy stores, rate of energy accumulation, departure behaviour, and departure direction. Yet, these traits were rarely assessed simultaneously in a single species. We further lack information whether age-specific differences in behavioural traits present in autumn still manifest to the same degree in spring. Here we used...

Data from: Interspecific competition alters leaf stoichiometry in 20 grassland species

Jordan Guiz, Anne Ebeling, Nico Eisenhauer, Nina Hacker, Lionel Hertzog, Yvonne Oelmann, Christiane Roscher, Cameron Wagg & Helmut Hillebrand
The extensive use of traits in ecological studies over the last few decades to predict community functions has revealed that plant traits are plastic and respond to various environmental factors. These plant traits are assumed to predict how plants compete and capture resources. Variation in stoichiometric ratios both within and across species reflects resource capture dynamics under competition. However, the impact of local plant diversity on species-specific stoichiometry remains poorly studied. Here, we analyze how...

Data from: Nocturnal departure timing in songbirds facing distinct migratory challenges

Florian Müller, Cas Eikenaar, Zoe J. Crysler, Philip D. Taylor & Heiko Schmaljohann
1. Most migratory songbirds travel between their breeding areas and wintering grounds through a series of nocturnal flights. The timing of their departures defines the potential flight duration and thus the distance covered during a migratory night. Yet, migratory songbirds show substantial variation in their nocturnal departure timing. 2. With this study we aim to assess whether the respective challenges of the migration route, namely its distance and nature, help to explain this variation. 3....

Data from: Historical contingency and productivity effects on food-chain length

Hideyuki Doi & Helmut Hillebrand
Food-chain length (FCL) is a fundamental ecosystem attribute, integrating information on both food web composition and ecosystem processes. It remains untested whether FCL also reflects the history of community assembly known to affect community composition and ecosystem functioning. Here, we performed microcosm experiments with a copepod (top predator), two ciliate species (intermediate consumers), and bacteria (producers), and modified the sequence of species introduction into the microcosm at four productivity levels to jointly test the effects...

Maintaining genetic integrity with high promiscuity: Frequent hybridization with low introgression in multiple hybrid zones of Melocactus(Cactaceae)

Khan Gulzar, Evandro Marsola De Moraes, Fernando Faria Franco, Gislaine A.R. Silva, Juliana R. Bombonato, Marlon Machado, Diego P. Alonso, Paulo E.M. Ribolla & Dirk C. Albach
Hybridization and introgression between species in contact/hybrid zones provide important insight into the genetic and ecological mechanisms of speciation. Cactaceae represents the most important radiation of true succulent angiosperms in the New World. This diversification continues to date, with species experiencing few intrinsic barriers to gene flow and the frequent occurrence of natural hybridization. Here, we used RAD-Seq single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to investigate the genetic architecture of hybridization in four hybrid zones hosting Melocactus...

Scale dependence of temporal biodiversity change in modern and fossil marine plankton

Aleksandra Lewandowska, Lukas Jonkers, Holger Auel, Jan Freund, Wilhelm Hagen, Michal Kucera & Helmut Hillebrand
Aim Biodiversity dynamics comprise evolutionary and ecological changes on multiple temporal scales from millions of years to decades, but they are often interpreted within a single time frame. Planktonic foraminifera communities offer a unique opportunity for analyzing the dynamics of marine biodiversity over different temporal scales. Our study aims to provide a baseline for assessments of biodiversity patterns over multiple time scales, which is urgently needed to interpret biodiversity responses to increasing anthropogenic pressure. Location...

Rhododendron smokianum Ralf Bauer & Albach, a new species from the Great Smoky Mountains

Dirk Albach & Ralf Bauer
Species delimitation in Rhododendron subsect. Caroliniana (Ericaceae) has been disputed in the past with one or three species accepted. Here we report a fourth species, Rh. smokianum, a narrow endemic from the Great Smoky Mountains (Tennessee/North Carolina, USA). It is characterized by short-tubed corollas and small, compact growth. We support our conclusion by phylogenetic analyses of ITS and plastid trnL-F sequence data. The new species is a specialist of open mafic rock slopes and maintains...

Data from: Genome-wide patterns of transposon proliferation in an evolutionary young hybrid fish

Stefan Dennenmoser, Fritz J. Sedlazeck, Michael C. Schatz, Janine Altmüller, Matthias Zytnicki & Arne W. Nolte
Hybridization can induce transposons to jump into new genomic positions, which may result in their accumulation across the genome. Alternatively, transposon copy numbers may increase through non-allelic (ectopic) homologous recombination in highly repetitive regions of the genome. The relative contribution of transposition bursts versus recombination-based mechanisms to evolutionary processes remains unclear because studies on transposon dynamics in natural systems are rare. We assessed the genome-wide distribution of transposon insertions in a young hybrid lineage (“invasive...

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