500 Works

Field evidence reveals conservative water use of poplars under high aerosol conditions in Beijing

Bin Wang, Zhenhua Wang, Chengzhang Wang, Xin Wang, Jing Li, Zhou Jia, Ping Li, Jin Wu, Min Chen & Lingli Liu
Anthropogenic aerosols could alter multiple meteorological processes such as radiation regime and air temperature, thereby modifying plant transpiration. However, the lack of field observations at the leaf- and plant-level hinders our ability to understand how aerosols could affect plant water use. Aerosol concentrations in northern China fluctuates periodically over a wide range. Taking advantage of this unique natural experiment opportunity, we conducted a full series of supporting physiological and environmental measurements to explore aerosols' effect...

Spatial patterns and ecological drivers of soil nematode β-diversity in natural grasslands vary among vegetation types and trophic position

Dan Xiong, Cunzheng Wei, Xugao Wang, Xiaotao Lü, Shuai Fang, Yingbin Li, Xiaobo Wang, Wenju Liang, Xingguo Han, T. Martijn Bezemer & Qi Li
1. Understanding biogeographic patterns of community assemblages is a core objective in ecology, but for soil communities these patterns are poorly understood. To understand the spatial patterns and underlying mechanisms of β-diversity in soil communities, we investigated the β-diversity of soil nematode communities along a 3200 km transect across semi-arid and arid grasslands. 2. Spatial turnover and nested-resultant are the two fundamental components of β-diversity, which have been attributed to various processes of community assembly....

Multisensory integration facilitates perceptual restoration of an interrupted call in frog

Bicheng Zhu, Yue Yang, Ya Zhou, Ke Deng, Tongliang Wang, Jichao Wang, Yezhong Tang, Michael J. Ryan & Jianguo Cui
How to render an interrupted sound as a complete signal is a common challenge faced by human and non-human animals during vocal communication. Using video and audio playbacks, we showed that neither inserting white noise into the silent gap of an interrupted call nor displaying the dynamic inflating-deflating vocal sac in that same gap restored attraction of the call equivalent to that of a complete call. Simultaneously presenting a dynamic vocal sac along with white...

An Improved CamShift Algorithm for Target Tracking in Video Surveillance

Chunrong Zhang, Yuansong Qiao, Enda Fallon & Chiangqiao Xu

Genome-wide investigation and transcriptional profiling of the oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Changfeng Guo, Xingchen Xiong, Huan Dong & Xiaoquan Qi
Triterpene scaffolds are cyclized by differential functional genes of the oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) gene family, which are widely present in plant species. Thirty-nine OSCs genes were identified from the hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genome. The gene structure organization and the distribution of conserved motifs of OSCs gene family revealed that the TaOSC proteins are highly conserved. By phylogenetic analysis, all OSC proteins from wheat and other cereal crops were clustered into eleven subfamilies...

Data from: Latitudinal embryonic thermal tolerance and plasticity shape the vulnerability of oviparous species to climate change

Bao-Jun Sun, Liang Ma, Yang Wang, Chun-Rong Mi, Lauren Buckley, Ofir Levy, Hong-Liang Lu & Wei-Guo Du
Heat tolerance at the immobile embryonic stage is expected to be critical in determining species vulnerability to climate change. However, how the mean and developmental plasticity of embryonic heat tolerance vary geographically, and how these geographic variations affect species’ vulnerability under climate change remain unknown. We experimentally determined the mean and developmental plasticity of embryonic acute heat tolerance (EAHT, i.e., heat shock temperature at which embryonic heartbeats ceased) for three latitudinally-distributed populations of an oviparous...

Biogeographic diversification of Eranthis (Ranunculaceae) reflects the geological history of the three great Asian plateaus

Kun-Li Xiang, Andrey S. Erst, Jian Yang, Huan-Wen Peng, Rosa Del C. Ortiz, Florian Jabbour, Tatyana V. Erst & Wei Wang
The evolutionary history of organisms with poor dispersal abilities usually parallels geological events. Collisions of the Indian and Arabian plates with Eurasia greatly changed Asian topography and affected regional and global climate as well as biotic evolution. However, the geological evolution of Asia related to these two collisions remains debated. Here, we used Eranthis, an angiosperm genus with poor seed dispersal ability and a discontinuous distribution across Eurasia , to shed light on the orogenesis...

Fat storage influences fasting endurance more than body size in an ungulate

L. Monica Trondrud, Gabriel Pigeon, Elżbieta Król, Steve Albon, Alina L. Evans, Walter Arnold, Catherine Hambly, R. Justin Irvine, Erik Ropstad, Audun Stien, Vebjørn Veiberg, John R. Speakman & Leif Egil Loe
1. The fasting endurance hypothesis (FEH) predicts strong selection for large body size in mammals living in environments where food supply is interrupted over prolonged periods of time. The Arctic is a highly seasonal and food restricted environment, but contrary to predictions from the FEH, empirical evidence shows that Arctic mammals are often smaller than their temperate conspecifics. Intraspecific studies integrating physiology and behaviour of different-sized individuals, may shed light on this paradox. 2. We...

Data from: Sex-biased gene expression in dioecious garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis)

Alex Harkess, Francesco Mercati, Hong-Yan Shan, Francesco Sunseri, Agostino Falavigna & Jim Leebens-Mack
Sex chromosomes have evolved independently in phylogenetically diverse flowering plant lineages. The genes governing sex determination in dioecious species remain unknown, but theory predicts that the linkage of genes influencing male and female function will spur the origin and early evolution of sex chromosomes. For example, in an XY system, the origin of an active Y may be spurred by the linkage of female suppressing and male promoting genes. Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) serves as...

Global biogeography of fungal and bacterial biomass carbon in topsoil

Liyuan He, Jorge Rodrigues, Nadejda Soudzilovskaia, Milagros Barceló, Pål Axel Olsson, Changchun Song, Leho Tedersoo, Fenghui Yuan, Fengming Yuan, David Lipson & Xiaofeng Xu
Bacteria and fungi, representing two major soil microorganism groups, play an important role in global nutrient biogeochemistry. Biogeographic patterns of bacterial and fungal biomass are of fundamental importance for mechanistically understanding nutrient cycling. We synthesized 1323 data points of phospholipid fatty acid-derived fungal biomass C (FBC), bacterial biomass C (BBC), and fungi:bacteria (F:B) ratio in topsoil, spanning 11 major biomes. The FBC, BBC, and F:B ratio display clear biogeographic patterns along latitude and environmental gradients...

Data from: Global signal of top-down control of terrestrial plant communities by herbivores

Shihong Jia, Xugao Wang, Zuoqiang Yuan, Fei Lin, Ji Ye, Zhanqing Hao & Matthew Scott Luskin
The theory of “top-down” ecological regulation predicts that herbivory suppresses plant abundance, biomass, and survival but increases diversity through the disproportionate consumption of dominant species, which inhibits competitive exclusion. To date, these outcomes have been clear in aquatic ecosystems but not on land. We explicate this discrepancy using a meta-analysis of experimental results from 123 native animal exclusions in natural terrestrial ecosystems (623 pairwise comparisons). Consistent with top-down predictions, we found that herbivores significantly reduced...

Data from: 5′-(CGA)n sequence-assisted pH-controlled assembly of supramolecular DNA nanostructure

Yuting Yan, Yanwei Cao, Chunsheng Xiao, Yang Li, Xiaoxuan Xiang & Xinhua Guo
Herein, the DNA strands containing 5'-(CGA)n and consecutive guanines are used to construct supramolecular DNA nanostructures that are size-controlled by pH values. Additionally, the introduction of thymine linkers within DNA nanostructures is necessary to maintain the stability of long sized nanostructures. This work also demonstrates a method for accurately building DNA nanostructures.

Data from: Livestock grazing regulates ecosystem multifunctionality in semi‐arid grassland

Haiyan Ren, Valerie T. Eviner, Weiyang Gui, Gail W.T. Wilson, Adam B. Cobb, Gaowen Yang, Yingjun Zhang, Shuijin Hu, Yongfei Bai & Gail W. T. Wilson
1. Ecological theories and experimental evidence indicate that human activity induced losses in biodiversity can have substantial impacts on multiple ecosystem functions. It remains unclear, however, how grazing affects grassland biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionallity (EMF). 2. Here, we assessed the grazing effects on different dimensions of biodiversity (i.e. plants and soil microbes) and EMF based on a 11-year field experiment in a semi-arid grassland. 3. We found that soil organic C, available nitrogen, and plant...

Data from: Multiple facets of stream macroinvertebrate alpha diversity are driven by different ecological factors across an extensive altitudinal gradient

Zhengfei Li, Xiaoming Jiang, Jun Wang, Xingliang Meng, Jani Heino & Zhicai Xie
Environmental filtering and spatial structuring are important ecological processes for the generation and maintenance of biodiversity. However, the relative importance of these ecological drivers for multiple facets of diversity is still poorly understood in highland streams. Here, we examined the responses of three facets of stream macroinvertebrate alpha diversity to local environmental, landscape-climate and spatial factors in a near-pristine highland riverine ecosystem. Taxonomic (species richness, Shannon diversity and evenness), functional (functional richness, evenness, divergence and...

From canopy complementarity to asymmetric competition: The negative structure-productivity relationship over the succession of a subtropical forest

Xiaoxia Yi, Ningning Wang, Haibao Ren, Tianyu Hu, Yanjun Su, Xiangcheng Mi, Qinghua Guo & Keping Ma
1. Structure and diversity-productivity relationships are central to many ecological questions. While positive structure and diversity-productivity relationships have been widely documented in controlled experiments and early secondary forests, negative structure-productivity relationships have also been found in late successional forests. Generally, the mechanisms causing observed structure and diversity-productivity relationships are not well established. 2. We examined structure and diversity-productivity relationships from by combining LiDAR and repeated census data from nine 1-ha subtropical forest plots along a...

Data from: Pathogen richness and abundance predict patterns of adaptive MHC variation in insular amphibians

Supen Wang, Conghui Liu, Anthony B. Wilson, Na Zhao, Xianping Li, Wei Zhu, Xu Gao, Xuan Liu & Yiming Li
The identification of the factors responsible for genetic variation and differentiation at adaptive loci can provide important insights into the evolutionary process, and is crucial for the effective management of threatened species. We studied the impact of environmental viral richness and abundance on functional diversity and differentiation of the MHC class Ia locus in populations of the black-spotted pond frog (Pelophylax nigromaculatus), an IUCN-listed species, on 24 land-bridge islands of the Zhoushan Archipelago and 3...

Data from: Species richness and phylogenetic diversity of seed plants across vegetation zones of Mount Kenya, East Africa

Yadong Zhou, Sichong Chen, Guangwan Hu, Geoffrey Mwachala, Xue Yan, Qing-Feng Wang & Qingfeng Wang
Mount Kenya is of ecological importance in tropical east Africa due to the dramatic gradient in vegetation types that can be observed from low to high elevation zones. However, species richness and phylogenetic diversity of this mountain have not been well studied. Here, we surveyed distribution patterns for a total of 1,335 seed plants of this mountain and calculated species richness and phylogenetic diversity across seven vegetation zones. We also measured phylogenetic structure using the...

Data from: Nonlinear response of ecosystem respiration to multiple levels of temperature increases

Ning Chen, Juntao Zhu, Yangjian Zhang, Yaojie Liu, Junxiang Li, Jiaxing Zu & Ke Huang
Global warming exerts profound impacts on terrestrial carbon cycles and feedback to climates. Ecosystem respiration (ER) is one of the main components of biosphere CO2 fluxes. However, knowledge regarding how ER responds to warming is still lacking. In this study, a manipulative experiment with five simulated temperature increases (Control, Warming 1, Warming 2, Warming 3, Warming 4) was conducted to investigate ER responses to warming in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau. The results...

Data from: Chemically-mediated sexual signals restrict hybrid speciation in a flea beetle

Huai-Jun Xue, Kari A. Segraves, Jing Wei, Bin Zhang, Rui-E Nie, Wen-Zhu Li & Xing-Ke Yang
The evolution of reproductive isolation following hybridization is a major obstacle that may limit the prevalence of hybrid speciation among specific groups of organisms. Here we use a flea beetle system to offer a behavioral hypothesis for why there are so few examples of homoploid hybrid speciation among insects. Specifically, we examined cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) mating signals and mate choice decisions of Altica fragariae and A. viridicyanea to test whether the signals produced by hybrids...

Data from: Reticulate evolution within a spruce (Picea) species complex revealed by population genomic analysis

Yongshuai Sun, Richard J. Abbott, Zhiqiang Lu, Kangshan Mao, Lei Zhang, Xiaojuan Wang, Dafu Ru & Jianquan Liu
The role of reticulation in the rapid diversification of organisms is attracting greater attention in evolutionary biology. Here, we report a population genomics approach to test the role of hybridization and introgression in the evolution of the Picea likiangensis species complex. Based on 84,793 SNPs detected in transcriptomes of 82 trees collected from 35 localities, we identified 18 hybrids (including backcrosses) distributed within the range boundaries of the four taxa. Coalescent simulations, for each pair...

Data from: New Crystal Forms and Amorphous Phase of Sophoricoside: X-Ray Structures and Characterization

Cheng Xing, Guo Shun Zhang, Ning Bo Gong, Guan Hua Du & Yang Lu
Sophoricoside, which is an isoflavone glycoside found in many plant species, has recently attracted attention because of its anti-fertility activity. One solvent-free form, two solvatomorphs and an amorphous phase of sophoricoside are reported for the first time. X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, thermal gravimetric analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the different forms. The results show that factors such as crystal symmetry, intermolecular arrangement, conformational flexibility, hydrogen-bonding interactions and solvent incorporation lead...

Data from: Richness of plant communities plays a larger role than climate in determining responses of species richness to climate change

Qi Wang, Zhenhua Zhang, Rui Du, Shiping Wang, Jichuang Duan, Amy Iler, Shilong Piao, Luo Caiyun, Jiang Lili, Lv Wangwang, Zhang Lirong, Meng Fandong, Suonan Ji, Li Yaoming, Li Bowen, Liu Peipei, Tsechoe Dorji, Wang Zhezhen, Li Yinnnian, Du Mingyuan, Zhou Huakun, Zhao Xinquan & Wang Yanfen
1. Experimental warming in situ suggests that warming could lead to a loss of biodiversity. However, species that remain in situ and experience climate change will interact with species tracking climate change, which could also affect patterns of biodiversity. The relative contribution of species gains and losses to net changes in species richness is still unclear. 2. We use transplanted plant communities to test the hypothesis that both the change in climate and ecological communities...

Data from: Parallel Miocene dispersal events explain the cosmopolitan distribution of the Hypogymnioid lichens

Pradeep K. Divakar, Xin-Li Wei, Bruce McCune, Paloma Cubas, Carlos D. Boluda, Steven G. Leavitt, H. Ana Crespo, Svetlana Tchabanenko & H. Thorsten Lumbsch
Aim: Contemporary species’ distributions are shaped by both geography and historical events, such as extinction, diversification in specific areas and long-distance dispersals. In the most diverse family of lichen-forming fungi, Parmeliaceae, the Hypogymnioid clade, is an example of an evolutionary lineage comprised of species occurring in temperate to subpolar regions in both hemispheres. Here, we elucidate the timing of diversification events and the impact of historical events on the species distribution in this lineage. Location:...

Data from: Association of in utero persistent organic pollutant exposure with placental thyroid hormones

Zhong-Min Li, David Hernandez-Moreno, Katharina Maria Main, Niels Erik Skakkebæk, Hannu Kiviranta, Jorma Toppari, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Heqing Shen, Karl-Werner Schramm & Meri De Angelis
In utero exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can result in thyroid function disorder, leading to concerns about their impact on fetal and neonatal development. The present study was performed to investigate the associations between placental levels of various POPs and thyroid hormones (THs). In a prospective Danish study initially established for assessing congenital cryptorchidism, 58 placenta samples were collected from mothers of boys born with (28) and without (30) cryptorchidism. The concentrations of polybrominated...

Data from: The differential contributions of herkogamy and dichogamy as mechanisms of avoiding self-interference in four self-incompatible Epimedium species

Xiao-Xia Li, Yuan Zou, Chang-Long Xiao, Robert W. Gituru, You-Hao Guo, Chun-Feng Yang, X.-X. Li, C.-L. Xiao, Y.-H. Guo & C.-F. Yang
Self-interference is one of the most important selective forces in shaping floral evolution. Herkogamy and dichogamy both can achieve reductions in the extent of self-interference, but they may have different roles in minimizing self-interference in a single species. We used four self-incompatible Epimedium species to explore the roles of herkogamy and dichogamy in avoiding self-interference and to test the hypothesis that herkogamy and dichogamy may be separated and become selected preferentially in the taxa. Two...

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