487 Works

Data from: The early record of halysitid tabulate corals, and morphometrics of Catenipora from the Ordovician of north-central China

Kun Liang, Robert J. Elias & Dong-Jin Lee
Catenipora is one of the most common tabulate coral genera in the Upper Ordovician Jinghe and Beiguoshan formations on the southern margin of the Ordos Basin, north-central China. We distinguish and identify the species of Catenipora using multivariate morphometric procedures. Cluster analysis based on morphological characters of coralla yields a dendrogram showing five morphospecies. The validity and distinctiveness of the morphospecies are evaluated by discriminant analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling. To identify the species represented...

Data from: Using functional trait diversity patterns to disentangle the scale-dependent ecological processes in a subtropical forest

Hui Zhang, Han Y.H. Chen, Juyu Lian, Robert John, Ronghua Li, Hui Liu, Wanhui Ye, Frank Berninger, Qing Ye & Li Ronghua
1. Disentangling ecological processes that influence community assembly and species diversity across spatial scales remains a major goal of community ecology. Community assembly processes influence spatial patterns of species diversity through their interactions with key functional traits. Hence, quantifying spatial patterns of functional trait diversity (FD) represents a useful tool for disentangling the relative importance of abiotic filtering, biotic interactions, random assembly, and dispersal limitation across spatial scales. 2. Here we measured 12 traits of...

Data from: Multi-dimensional patterns of variation in root traits among coexisting herbaceous species in temperate steppes

Meng Zhou, Wenming Bai, Yushi Zhang, Wen‐Hao Zhang & Wen-Hao Zhang
1. Characterizing patterns of variation in plant traits across species and environmental gradients is critical for understanding performance of species in ecosystems. One-dimensional pattern of variation has been demonstrated in leaf traits, which is known as the leaf economic spectrum. However, it is unclear whether such a spectrum exists for root traits. 2. For roots of 15 species from temperate grasslands, we determined respiration rate, relative growth rate, lifespan as well as 10 morphological, chemical...

Data from: Maternal density stress and coccidian parasitism: synergistic effects on overwinter survival in root voles

Yan-Bin Yang, Guo-Zhen Shang, Shou-Yang Du, Xin Zhang, Yan Wu & Jiang-Hui Bian
1. Individuals in poor physiological condition are known to be more susceptible to infection that, once it occurs, further deteriorates the individuals’ conditions, making them even more susceptible to infection and leading to death. This vicious synergy between the host condition and infection has recently been proposed to be among the key factors determining the oscillation characteristics in natural populations. Field studies that directly test such a hypothesis, however, are currently scarce, and the physiological...

Data from: A global test of the cold-climate hypothesis for the evolution of viviparity of squamate reptiles

Liang Ma, Lauren B. Buckley, Raymond B. Huey & Wei-Guo Du
Aim The evolution of viviparity in squamate reptiles has attracted considerable scientific attention since the beginning of last century. The cold climate hypothesis posits that cold regions favor viviparity (and therefore the incidence of viviparous squamates is increased in these regions) because viviparous females can use thermoregulatory behavior to shorten embryonic developmental time and to reduce exposure of embryos to stressful temperatures. However, a rigorous global-scale test of the impact of viviparity on the developmental...

Data from: Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America

Duncan N. L. Menge, Ryan A. Chisholm, Stuart J. Davies, Kamariah Abu Salim, David Allen, Mauricio Alvarez, Norm Bourg, Warren Y. Brockelman, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Nathalie Butt, Min Cao, Wirong Chanthorn, Wei-Chun Chao, Keith Clay, Richard Condit, Susan Cordell, João Batista Da Silva, H. S. Dattaraja, Ana Cristina Segalin De Andrade, Alexandre A. Oliveira, Jan Den Ouden, Michael Drescher, Christine Fletcher, Christian P. Giardina, C. V. Savitri Gunatilleke … & Tak Fung
Symbiotic nitrogen (N)‐fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N‐fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N‐fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America...

Data from: Climatic-niche evolution follows similar rules in plants and animals

Hui Liu, Qing Ye & John Wiens
Climatic niches are essential in determining where species can occur and how they will respond to climate change. However, it remains unclear if climatic-niche evolution is similar in plants and animals, or intrinsically different. For example, previous authors have proposed that plants have broader environmental tolerances than animals but are more sensitive to climate change. Here we test ten predictions about climatic-niche evolution in plants and animals, using phylogenetic and climatic data for 19 plant...

Long-term shifts in the functional composition and diversity of a tropical dry forest: a 30-yr study

Nathan Swenson, Catherine Hulshof, Masatoshi Katabuchi & Brian Enquist
Over the past three decades there has been a concerted effort to study the long-term dynamics of tropical forests throughout the world. Data regarding temporal trends in species diversity, species composition and species-specific demographic rates have now been amassed. Such data can be utilized to test predictions regarding the roles the environment and demographic stochasticity play in driving forest dynamics. These analyses could be further refined by quantifying the temporal trends in the functional compostion...

Increasing flavonoid concentrations in root exudates enhance associations between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and an invasive plant

Baoliang Tian, Yingchun Pei, Wei Huang, Jianqing Ding & Evan Siemann
Many invasive plants have enhanced mutualistic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal associations, however, mechanisms underlying differences in AM fungal associations between introduced and native populations of invasive plants have not been explored. Here we test the hypothesis that variation in root exudate chemicals in invasive populations affects AM fungal colonization and then impacts plant performance. We examined flavonoids (quercetin and quercitrin) in root exudates of native and introduced populations of the invasive plant Triadica sebifera and...

Data from: Fewer new species colonize at low frequency N addition in a temperate grassland

Yunhai Zhang, Carly J. Stevens, Xiaotao Lü, Nianpeng He, Jianhui Huang & Xingguo Han
1. Biologically reactive nitrogen (Nr) enrichment threatens biodiversity in diverse ecosystems. Previous controlled N addition experiments may overestimate the effects of atmospheric Nr deposition on the rate of species loss, as it has been found that low frequency Nr additions, as used in traditional studies, lead to more rapid biodiversity loss. It remains unclear, however, whether the colonization of new species (gain) or extinction of old species (loss) is the cause of this difference. 2....

Data from: Differential impacts of nitrogen addition on rhizosphere and bulk-soil carbon sequestration in an alpine shrubland

Xiaomin Zhu, Ziliang Zhang, Dongyan Liu, Yongping Kou, Qian Zheng, Mei Liu, Juan Xiao, Qing Liu & Huajun Yin
1. Due to complex root-soil interactions, the responses of carbon (C) dynamics in the rhizosphere to elevated nitrogen (N) deposition may be different from those in bulk soil. However, the potentially different response of C dynamics in the rhizosphere and bulk soils and their contributions to soil C sequestration under N deposition is still not elucidated. 2. We conducted an N addition experiment in an alpine shrubland dominated by Sibiraea angustata located on the eastern...

Data from: ‘In and out of’ the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Himalayas: centers of origin and diversification compared across five clades of Eurasian montane and alpine passerine birds

Martin Päckert, Adrien Favre, Jan Schnitzler, Jochen Martens, Yue-Hua Sun, Dieter Thomas Tietze, Frank Hailer, Ingo Michalak & Patrick Strutzenberger
Encompassing some of the major hotspots of biodiversity on Earth, large mountain systems have long held the attention of evolutionary biologists. The region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) is considered a biogeographic source for multiple colonization events into adjacent areas including the northern Palearctic. The faunal exchange between the QTP and adjacent regions could thus represent a one-way street (‘out of’ the QTP). However, immigration into the QTP region has so far received only little...

Data from: Chromosome-level reference genome assembly and gene editing of the dead-leaf butterfly Kallima inachus

Jie Yang, Wenting Wan, Meng Xie, Junlai Mao, Zhiwei Dong, Sihan Lu, Jinwu He, Feiang Xie, Guihun Liu, Xuelei Dai, Zhou Chang, Ruoping Zhao, Ru Zhang, Shuting Wang, Yiming Zhang, Wei Zhang, Wen Wang & Xueyan Li
The leaf resemblance of Kallima (Nymphalidae) butterflies is an important ecological adaptive mechanism that increases survival. However, the genetic mechanism underlying ecological adaptation remains unclear owing to a dearth of genomic information. Herein, we revealed the karyotype (n = 31) of the dead-leaf butterfly Kallima inachus, assembled its high-quality chromosome-level reference genome (568.92 Mb; contig N50: 19.20 Mb), and identified its Z and candidate W chromosomes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to...

Processes at the soil-root interface determine the different responses of nutrient limitation and metal toxicity in forbs and grasses to nitrogen enrichment

Wen-Hao Zhang, Qiuying Tian, Peng Lu, Pengfei Ma, Huirong Zhou, Ming Yang, Xiufeng Zhai, Mengmeng Chen, Hong Wang, Wenchao Li, Wenming Bai & Hans Lambers
Nutrient limitation and metal toxicity have been implicated in changes of grassland communities by nitrogen (N) deposition. Belowground processes, especially those at the soil-root interface, play important roles in determining variation in nutrient concentrations in plants. However, few studies have specifically focused on the roles of these processes in mineral-element acquisition in grassland plants in response to N enrichment. Here we investigated the contributions of belowground processes at the soil-root interface to the differential acquisition...

Xylomelum occidentale (Proteaceae) accesses relatively mobile soil organic phosphorus without releasing carboxylates

Hongtao Zhong, Jun Zhou, Azrul Azmi, André Arruda, Ashlea Doolette, Ronald Smernik & Hans Lambers
1. Hundreds of Proteaceae species in Australia and South Africa typically grow on phosphorus (P)-impoverished soils, exhibiting a carboxylate-releasing P-mobilising strategy. In the Southwest Australian Biodiversity Hotspot, two Xylomelum (Proteaceae) species are widely distributed, but restricted within that distribution. 2. We grew X. occidentale in hydroponics at 1 μM P. Leaves, seeds, rhizosheath and bulk soil were collected in natural habitats. 3. Xylomelum occidentale did not produce functional cluster roots and occupied soils that are...

Nutrient resorption of Kandelia obovata in response to nutrient enrichment

Lili Wei
The impact of nutrient increase on nutrient resorption from senescent leaves is an important topic, which is not completely understood. Mangrove species are characterized by nutrient conservation mechanisms as a consequence of adaptation to nutrient-poor environments. The understanding of the response of the traits related to nutrient conservation strategies to nutrient availability is limited. This study aims to address whether nutrient resorption of mangrove species is responsive to long-term nutrient enrichment. Methods A field-based study...

Biological calcification rate and species-specific contributions of coccolithophores to total calcite inventory in the eastern Indian Ocean

Jun Sun, Haijiao Liu, Misun Yun, Guicheng Zhang, Xiaodong Zhang, Satheeswaran Thangaraj & Ke Huang
Coccolithophores are calcifying protists that have significant role in marine biological pump through calcite production (CP). We determined the biological calcification rate and ecologically key species (e.g. Gephyrocapsa oceanica) contribution to total calcite stocks in the eastern Indian Ocean (EIO) during spring intermonsoon, this region was quite under-sampled compared to other oceanic regions. Our results indicated that the numerically dominant species are of great importance to cell calcite even with low cellular calcite. CP rate...

Data from: An alternative approach to reduce algorithm-derived biases in monitoring soil organic carbon changes

Weixin Zhang, Yuanqi Chen, Leilei Shi, Xiaoli Wang, Yongwen Liu, Rong Mao, Xingquan Rao, Yongbiao Lin, Yuanhu Shao, Xiaobo Li, Cancan Zhao, Shengjie Liu, Shilong Piao, Weixing Zhu, Xiaoming Zou & Shenglei Fu
Quantifying soil organic carbon (SOC) changes is a fundamental issue in ecology and sustainable agriculture. However, the algorithm-derived biases in comparing SOC status have not been fully addressed. Although the methods based on equivalent soil mass (ESM) and mineral-matter mass (EMMM) reduced biases of the conventional methods based on equivalent soil volume (ESV), they face challenges in ensuring both data comparability and accuracy of SOC estimation due to unequal basis for comparison and using un-conserved...

Data from: A simulation-based evaluation of tip-dating under the fossilized birth-death process

Arong Luo, David A. Duchêne, Chi Zhang, Chao-Dong ZHU & Simon Ho
Bayesian molecular dating is widely used to study evolutionary timescales. This procedure usually involves phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequence data, with fossil-based calibrations applied as age constraints on internal nodes of the tree. An alternative approach is tip-dating, which explicitly includes fossil data in the analysis. This can be done, for example, through the joint analysis of molecular data from present-day taxa and morphological data from both extant and fossil taxa. In the context of...

Data from: Active information maintenance in working memory by a sensory cortex

Xiaoxing Zhang, Wenjun Yan, Wenliang Wang, Hongmei Fan, Ruiqing Hou, Yulei Chen, Zhaoqin Chen, Chaofan Ge, Shumin Duan, Albert Compte & Chengyucheng T. Li
Working memory is a critical brain function for maintaining and manipulating information over delay periods of seconds. It is debated whether delay-period neural activity in sensory regions is important for the active maintenance of information during the delay period. Here, we tackle this question by examining the anterior piriform cortex (APC), an olfactory sensory cortex, in head-fixed mice performing several olfactory working memory tasks. Active information maintenance is necessary in these tasks, especially in a...

Data from: The evolution of the modern avian digestive system – insights from paravian fossils from the Yanliao and Jehol biotas

Jingmai K. O'Connor & Zhonghe Zhou
The avian digestive system, like other aspects of avian biology, is highly modified relative to other reptiles. Together these modifications have imparted the great success of Neornithes, the most diverse clade of amniotes alive today. It is important to understand when and how aspects of the modern avian digestive system evolved among neornithine ancestors in order to elucidate the evolutionary success of this important clade and to understand the biology of stem birds and their...

Data from: A new tetraradial olivooid (Medusozoa) from the Lower Cambrian (Stage 2) Yanjiahe Formation, South China

Junfeng Guo, Jian Han, Heyo Van Iten, Zuchen Song, Yaqin Qiang, Wenzhe Wang, Zhifei Zhang, Guoxiang Li, Yifei Sun & Jie Sun
Octapyrgites elongatus n. gen. n. sp., a relatively rare, tetraradial olivooid (Cnidaria, Medusozoa), is described from Bed 5 of the Yanjiahe Formation (Cambrian Stage 2) near Yichang, China. Though similar to Olivooides and Quadrapyrgites from the Fortunian Stage in consisting of a partially corrugated (long.) periderm with a quadrate (transv.) apical portion and V-shaped apertural lobes, O. elongatus is substantially larger than other olivooids. The elongate apical region of O. elongatus is similar to four-sided...

Data from: Community carbon and water exchange responses to warming and precipitation enhancement in sandy grassland along a restoration gradient

Yayong Luo, Xiaoan Zuo, Yulin Li, Tonghui Zhang, Rui Zhang, Juanli Chen, Peng Lv & Xueyong Zhao
Temperature increasing and precipitation alteration are predicted to occur in arid and semi-arid lands, however, the response mechanism of carbon and water exchange at community level is still unclear in semi-arid sandy land. We investigated the responses of carbon and water exchanges to warming and precipitation enhancement along a sand-dune restoration gradient: mobile sand dunes (MD), semi-fixed sand dunes (SFD) and fixed sand dunes (FD). The average net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and evapotranspiration (ET) between...

Data from: Natural selection and repeated patterns of molecular evolution following allopatric divergence

Yibo Dong, Shichao Chen, Shifeng Cheng, Wenbin Zhou, Qing Ma, Zhiduan Chen, Cheng-Xin Fu, Xin Liu, Yun-Peng Zhao, Pamela S. Soltis, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Douglas E. Soltis & Jenny Xiang
Background: Geographic speciation is a major force in generating biodiversity. However, how genomes diverge over time after geographic isolation has halted gene flow has remained unclear. We examine genome-wide divergence of putatively single-copy orthologous genes (POGs) from transcriptomes in 20 allopatric species/variety pairs from diverse angiosperm clades. Sixteen of these pairs reflect the well-known eastern Asia – eastern North America floristic disjunction; these species have been isolated for different lengths of time, from the Miocene...

Data from: RADseq data reveal ancient, but not pervasive, introgression between Californian tree and scrub oak species (Quercus sect. Quercus: Fagaceae)

Bernard Y. Kim, Xinzeng Wei, Sorel Fitz-Gibbon, Kirk E. Lohmueller, Joaquin Ortego, Paul F. Gugger & Victoria L. Sork
A long-term debate in evolutionary biology is the extent to which reproductive isolation is a necessary element of speciation. Hybridizing plants in general are cited as evidence against this notion and oaks specifically have been used as the classic example of species maintenance without reproductive isolation. Here, we use thousands of SNPs generated by RAD sequencing to describe the phylogeny of a set of sympatric white oak species in California and then test whether these...

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