376 Works

Seismic Sources and Source Parameters

Peter Bormann, Michael Baumbach, Günther Bock, Helmut Grosser, George Choy & John Boatwright

The distribution of tritium, helium isotopes, and neon in shallow groundwater

Peter Schlosser, Martin Stute, Robert Newton, Brent Turrin & L. Niel Plummer

Riparian buffers provide refugia during secondary forest succession

Michelle E. Thompson, Brian J. Halstead & Maureen A. Donnelly
Aim Secondary forests regenerating from human disturbance are increasingly becoming a predominant forest type in many regions, and they play a significant role in forest community dynamics. Understanding the factors that underlie the variation in species responses during secondary succession is important for understanding community assembly and biodiversity monitoring and management. Because species vary in ecology and behavior, responses to ecosystem change should vary among species. Here, we show that habitat type (riparian, upland), phylogeny,...

Data from: Mismatches between breeding phenology and resource abundance of resident alpine ptarmigan negatively affect chick survival

Gregory T. Wann, Cameron L. Aldridge, Amy E. Seglund, Sara J. Oyler-McCance, Boris C. Kondratieff & Clait E. Braun
1. Phenological mismatches – defined here as the difference in reproductive timing of an individual relative to the availability of its food resources – occur in many avian species. Mistiming breeding activities in environments with constrained breeding windows may have severe fitness costs due to reduced opportunities for repeated breeding attempts. Therefore, species occurring in alpine environments may be particularly vulnerable. 2. We studied fitness consequences of timing of breeding in an alpine-endemic species, the...

Data from: Climate variables explain neutral and adaptive variation within salmonid metapopulations: the importance of replication in landscape genetics

Brian Hand, Ryan Kovach, Clint C. Muhlfeld, Alisa A. Wade, Diane Whited, Shawn Narum, Andrew Matala, Mike Ackerman, Brittany Garner, John Kimball, Jack Stanford, Gordon Luikart, Brian K. Hand, Diane C. Whited, Brittany A. Garner, Jack A. Stanford, John S. Kimball, Shawn R. Narum & Andrew P. Matala
Understanding how environmental variation influences population genetic structure is important for conservation management because it can reveal how human stressors influence population connectivity, genetic diversity, and persistence. We used riverscape genetics modeling to assess whether climatic and habitat variables were related to neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation (population specific and pairwise FST) within five metapopulations (79 populations, 4,583 individuals) of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Columbia River Basin, USA. Using 151 putatively...

Data from: Testing the depth-differentiation hypothesis in a deepwater octocoral

Andrea M. Quattrini, Iliana B. Baums, Timothy M. Shank, Cheryl L. Morrison & Erik E. Cordes
The depth-differentiation hypothesis proposes that the bathyal region is a source of genetic diversity and an area where there is a high rate of species formation. Genetic differentiation should thus occur over relatively small vertical distances, particularly along the upper continental slope (200–1000 m) where oceanography varies greatly over small differences in depth. To test whether genetic differentiation within deepwater octocorals is greater over vertical rather than geographical distances, Callogorgia delta was targeted. This species...

Data from: Monarch butterfly population decline in North America: identifying the threatening processes

Wayne E. Thogmartin, Ruscena Wiederholt, Karen Oberhauser, Ryan G. Drum, Jay E. Diffendorfer, Sonia Altizer, Orley R. Taylor, John Pleasants, Darius Semmens, Brice Semmens, Richard Erickson, Kaitlin Libby & Laura Lopez-Hoffman
The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) population in North America has sharply declined over the last two decades. Despite rising concern over the monarch butterfly's status, no comprehensive study of the factors driving this decline has been conducted. Using partial least-squares regressions and time-series analysis, we investigated climatic and habitat-related factors influencing monarch population size from 1993 to 2014. Potential threats included climatic factors, habitat loss (milkweed and overwinter forest), disease and agricultural insecticide use (neonicotinoids)....

Data from: Variable effects of climate on forest growth in relation to climate extremes, disturbance, and forest dynamics

Malcolm S. Itter, Andrew O. Finley, Anthony W. D'Amato, Jane R. Foster & John B. Bradford
Changes in the frequency, duration, and severity of climate extremes are forecast to occur under global climate change. The impacts of climate extremes on forest productivity and health remain difficult to predict due to potential interactions with disturbance events and forest dynamics—changes in forest stand composition, density, size and age structure over time. Such interactions may lead to non-linear forest growth responses to climate involving thresholds and lag effects. Understanding how forest dynamics influence growth...

Data from: Sora (Porzana carolina) autumn migration habitat use

Auriel M.V. Fournier, Doreen C. Mengel, David G. Krementz & Auriel M. V. Fournier
Palustrine wetland management across the United States is often conducted under a moist soil management framework aimed at providing energetic resources for non-breeding waterfowl. Moist soil management techniques typically include seasonal water-level manipulations and mechanical soil disturbance to create conditions conducive to germination and growth of early successional, seed-producing wetland plants. The assumption is that providing stopover and wintering habitat for non-breeding waterfowl will also accommodate life history needs of a broader suite of migratory...

Data from: Inferring epidemiologic dynamics from viral evolution: 2014–2015 Eurasian/North American highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses exceed transmission threshold, R0 = 1, in wild birds and poultry in North America

Daniel A. Grear, Jeffrey S. Hall, Robert J. Dusek & Hon S. Ip
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a multi-host pathogen with lineages that pose health risks for domestic birds, wild birds, and humans. One mechanism of intercontinental HPAIV spread is through wild bird reservoirs and wild birds were the likely sources of a Eurasian (EA) lineage HPAIV into North America in 2014. The introduction resulted in several reassortment events with North American (NA) lineage low pathogenic avian influenza viruses and the reassortant EA/NA H5N2 went...

Data from: Population divergence and gene flow in an endangered and highly mobile seabird

Andreanna J. Welch, Robert C. Fleischer, Helen F. James, Anne E. Wiley, Peggy H. Ostrom, Josh Adams, Fern Duvall, Nick Holmes, Jay Penniman, Keith A. Swindle & Darcy Hu
Seabirds are highly vagile and can disperse up to thousands of kilometers, therefore it can be difficult to identify the factors that promote isolation between populations. The endemic Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis) is one such species. Today it is endangered, and known to breed only on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Lanai, and Kauai. Historical records indicate that a large population formerly bred on Molokai as well, but this population has recently been extirpated. Given...

Data from: Evolutionary hotspots in the Mojave Desert

Amy G. Vandergast, Richard D. Inman, Kelly R. Barr, Kenneth E. Nussear, Todd C. Esque, Stacie A. Hathaway, Dustin A. Wood, Philip A. Medica, Jesse W. Breinholt, Catherine L. Stephen, Andrew D. Gottscho, Sharyn B. Marks, W. Bryan Jennings, Robert N. Fisher, Jesse Breinholt, Andrew Gottscho, Sharyn Marks, W. Jennings, Amy Vandergast, Richard Inman, Kelly Barr, Kenneth Nussear, Todd Esque, Stacie Hathaway, Dustin Wood … & Catherine Stephen
Genetic diversity within species provides the raw material for adaptation and evolution. Just as regions of high species diversity are conservation targets, identifying regions containing high genetic diversity and divergence within and among populations may be important to protect future evolutionary potential. When multiple co-distributed species show spatial overlap in high genetic diversity and divergence, these regions can be considered evolutionary hotspots. We mapped spatial population genetic structure for 17 animal species across the Mojave...

Data from: Carrying capacity in a heterogeneous environment with habitat connectivity

Bo Zhang, Alex Kula, Keenan M.L. Mack, Lu Zhai, Arrix L. Ryce, Wei-Ming Ni, Donald L. DeAngelis & J. David Van Dyken
A large body of theory predicts that populations diffusing in heterogeneous environments reach higher total size than if non-diffusing, and, paradoxically, higher size than in a corresponding homogeneous environment. However, this theory and its assumptions have not been rigorously tested. Here, we extended previous theory to include exploitable resources, proving qualitatively novel results, which we tested experimentally using spatially diffusing laboratory populations of yeast. Consistent with previous theory, we predicted and experimentally observed that spatial...

Data from: RAD sequencing yields a high success rate for westslope cutthroat and rainbow trout species-diagnostic SNP assays

Stephen J. Amish, Paul A. Hohenlohe, Sally Painter, Robb F. Leary, Clint Muhlfeld, Fred W. Allendorf & Gordon Luikart
Hybridization with introduced rainbow trout threatens most native westslope cutthroat trout populations. Understanding the genetic effects of hybridization and introgression requires a large set of high-throughput, diagnostic genetic markers to inform conservation and management. Recently, we identified several thousand candidate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers based on RAD sequencing of 11 westslope cutthroat trout and 13 rainbow trout individuals. Here we used flanking sequence for 56 of these candidate SNP markers to design high-throughput genotyping...

Data from: Phylogenetic distribution of a male pheromone that may exploit a nonsexual preference in lampreys

Tyler J. Buchinger, Ugo Bussy, Ke Li, Huiyong Wang, Mar Huertas, Cindy F. Baker, Liang Jia, Michael C. Hayes, Weiming Li & Nicholas S. Johnson
Pheromones are among the most important sexual signals used by organisms throughout the animal kingdom. However, few are identified in vertebrates, leaving the evolutionary mechanisms underlying vertebrate pheromones poorly understood. Pre-existing biases in receivers’ perceptual systems shape visual and auditory signaling systems, but studies on how receiver biases influence the evolution of pheromone communication remain sparse. The lamprey Petromyzon marinus uses a relatively well-understood suite of pheromones and offers a unique opportunity to study the...

Data from: Experimental evidence of long-term reproductive costs in a colonial nesting seabird

Aly McKnight, Erik J. Blomberg, Gregory H. Golet, David B. Irons, Cynthia S. Loftin & Shawn T. McKInney
Trade-offs between current and future reproduction are central to the evolution of life histories. Experiments that manipulate brood size provide an effective approach to investigating future costs of current reproduction. Most manipulative studies to date, however, have addressed only the short-term effects of brood size manipulation. Our goal was to determine whether survival or breeding costs of reproduction in a long-lived species manifest beyond the subsequent breeding season. To this end, we investigated long-term survival...

Data from: Large birds travel farther in homogeneous environments

Marlee A. Tucker, Olga Alexandrou, , Keith L. Bildstein, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Chloe Bracis, John N. Brzorad, Evan R. Buechley, David Cabot, Justin M. Calabrese, Carlos Carrapato, André Chiaradia, Lisa C. Davenport, Sarah C. Davidson, Mark Desholm, Christopher R. DeSorbo, Robert Domenech, Peter Enggist, William F. Fagan, Nina Farwig, Wolfgang Fiedler, Christen H. Fleming, Alastair Franke, John M. Fryxell, Clara García-Ripollés … & João Paulo Silva
Aim: Animal movement is an important determinant of individual survival, population dynamics, and ecosystem structure and function. Yet it is still unclear how local movements are related to resource availability and the spatial arrangement of resources. Using resident bird species and migratory bird species outside of the migratory period, we examined how the distribution of resources affect the movement patterns of both large terrestrial birds (e.g., raptors, bustards, hornbills) and waterbirds (e.g., cranes, storks, ducks,...

Data from: Food web heterogeneity and succession in created saltmarshes

Marie C. Nordström, Amanda W. J. Demopoulos, Christine R. Whitcraft, Andrea Rismondo, Patricia McMillan, Jennifer P. Gonzalez & Lisa A. Levin
Ecological restoration must achieve functional as well as structural recovery. Functional metrics for re-establishment of trophic interactions can be used to complement traditional monitoring of structural attributes. In addition, topographic effects on food web structure provide added information within a restoration context; often, created sites may require spatial heterogeneity to effectively match structure and function of natural habitats. We addressed both of these issues in our study of successional development of benthic food web structure,...

Data from: Insular biogeographic origins and high phylogenetic distinctiveness for a recently depleted lizard fauna from Christmas Island, Australia

Paul M. Oliver, Mozes P.K. Blom, Harold G. Cogger, Robert N. Fisher, Jonathan Q. Richmond, John C.Z. Woinarski & John C. Z. Woinarski
Striking faunal turnover across Asia and Australasia, most famously along the eastern edge of the Sunda Shelf or ‘Wallace’s Line’, has been a focus of biogeographic research for over 150 years. Here we investigate the origins of a highly threatened endemic lizard fauna (4 species) on Christmas Island. Despite occurring less 350 km south of the Sunda Shelf, this fauna mostly comprises species from clades centred on the more distant regions of Wallacea, the Pacific...

Xenon hydrate as an analogue of methane hydrate in geologic systems out of thermodynamic equilibrium

Xiaojing Fu, William Waite, Luis Cueto-Felgueroso & Ruben Juanes
This data set contains simulation results of hydrate growth on a gas-liquid interface for both methane and xenon hydrate systems. The simulations are performed on a 1D domain of 115 micron in length and for a duration of 40 minutes. The data set contains two MATLAB data files (methane_data.mat and xenon_data.mat) and one file to help users to visualize the data (plot_data.m). In the file plot_data.m, we also use experimental data from Taylor et al....

Sharing land via keystone structure: retaining naturally regenerated trees can efficiently benefit birds in plantations

Yuichi Yamaura, Akira Unno & J. Royle
Meeting food/wood demands with increasing human population and per-capita consumption is a pressing conservation issue, and is often framed as a choice between land sharing and sparing. Although most empirical studies the efficacy comparing land sparing/sharing supported land sparing, land sparing may be more efficient if habitat structures providing crucial resources for various species––keystone structures–– are clearly involved and its performance is tested by rigorous experimental design. We launched a manipulative experiment to retain naturally...

Interannual variation in climate contributes to contingency in post-fire restoration outcomes in seeded sagebrush steppe

Allison Simler-Williamson, Cara Applestein & Matthew Germino
Interannual variation, especially weather, is an often-cited reason for restoration “failures”; yet its importance is difficult to experimentally isolate across broad spatiotemporal extents, due to correlations between weather and site characteristics. In the analysis associated with this dataset, we examined post-fire treatments within sagebrush-steppe ecosystems to ask: 1) Is weather following seeding efforts a primary reason why restoration outcomes depart from predictions? and 2) Does the management-relevance of weather differ across space and with time...

Data from: Magnitude and direction of stream-forest community interactions change with time scale

Amy Marcarelli, Colden Baxter, Joseph Benjamin, Yo Miyake, Masashi Murakami, Kurt Fausch & Shigeru Nakano
Networks of direct and indirect biotic interactions underpin the complex dynamics and stability of ecological systems, yet experimental and theoretical studies often yield conflicting evidence regarding the direction (positive or negative) or magnitude of these interactions. We revisited pioneering datasets collected at the deciduous forested Horonai Stream and conducted ecosystem-level syntheses to demonstrate that the direction of direct and indirect interactions can change depending on the timescale of observation. Prior experimental studies showed that terrestrial...

Data from: Wildfire reveals transient changes to individual traits and population responses of a native bumble bee (Bombus vosnesenskii)

John Mola, Michael Miller, Sean O'Rourke & Neal Williams
1. Fire-induced changes in the abundance and distribution of organisms, especially plants, can alter resource landscapes for mobile consumers driving bottom-up effects on their population sizes, morphologies, and reproductive potential. We expect these impacts to be most striking for obligate visitors of plants, like bees and other pollinators, but these impacts can be difficult to interpret due to the limited information provided by forager counts in the absence of survival or fitness proxies. 2. Increased...

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