294 Works

Data from: Insular biogeographic origins and high phylogenetic distinctiveness for a recently depleted lizard fauna from Christmas Island, Australia

Paul M. Oliver, Mozes P.K. Blom, Harold G. Cogger, Robert N. Fisher, Jonathan Q. Richmond, John C.Z. Woinarski & John C. Z. Woinarski
Striking faunal turnover across Asia and Australasia, most famously along the eastern edge of the Sunda Shelf or ‘Wallace’s Line’, has been a focus of biogeographic research for over 150 years. Here we investigate the origins of a highly threatened endemic lizard fauna (4 species) on Christmas Island. Despite occurring less 350 km south of the Sunda Shelf, this fauna mostly comprises species from clades centred on the more distant regions of Wallacea, the Pacific...

Data from: Phylogenetic distribution of a male pheromone that may exploit a nonsexual preference in lampreys

Tyler J. Buchinger, Ugo Bussy, Ke Li, Huiyong Wang, Mar Huertas, Cindy F. Baker, Liang Jia, Michael C. Hayes, Weiming Li & Nicholas S. Johnson
Pheromones are among the most important sexual signals used by organisms throughout the animal kingdom. However, few are identified in vertebrates, leaving the evolutionary mechanisms underlying vertebrate pheromones poorly understood. Pre-existing biases in receivers’ perceptual systems shape visual and auditory signaling systems, but studies on how receiver biases influence the evolution of pheromone communication remain sparse. The lamprey Petromyzon marinus uses a relatively well-understood suite of pheromones and offers a unique opportunity to study the...

Data from: Experimental evidence of long-term reproductive costs in a colonial nesting seabird

Aly McKnight, Erik J. Blomberg, Gregory H. Golet, David B. Irons, Cynthia S. Loftin & Shawn T. McKInney
Trade-offs between current and future reproduction are central to the evolution of life histories. Experiments that manipulate brood size provide an effective approach to investigating future costs of current reproduction. Most manipulative studies to date, however, have addressed only the short-term effects of brood size manipulation. Our goal was to determine whether survival or breeding costs of reproduction in a long-lived species manifest beyond the subsequent breeding season. To this end, we investigated long-term survival...

Data from: Implications of the circumpolar genetic structure of polar bears for their conservation in a rapidly warming Arctic

Elizabeth Peacock, Sarah A. Sonsthagen, Martyn E. Obbard, Andrei Boltunov, Eric V. Regehr, Nikita Ovsyanikov, Jon Aars, Stephen N. Atkinson, George K. Sage, Andrew G. Hope, Eve Zeyl, Lutz Bachmann, Dorothee Ehrich, Kim T. Scribner, Steven C. Amstrup, Stanislav Belikov, Erik W. Born, Andrew E. Derocher, Ian Stirling, Mitchell K. Taylor, Øystein Wiig, David Paetkau & Sandra L. Talbot
We provide an expansive analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) circumpolar genetic variation during the last two decades of decline in their sea-ice habitat. We sought to evaluate whether their genetic diversity and structure have changed over this period of habitat decline, how their current genetic patterns compare with past patterns, and how genetic demography changed with ancient fluctuations in climate. Characterizing their circumpolar genetic structure using microsatellite data, we defined four clusters that largely...

Data from: Population divergence and gene flow in an endangered and highly mobile seabird

Andreanna J. Welch, Robert C. Fleischer, Helen F. James, Anne E. Wiley, Peggy H. Ostrom, Josh Adams, Fern Duvall, Nick Holmes, Jay Penniman, Keith A. Swindle & Darcy Hu
Seabirds are highly vagile and can disperse up to thousands of kilometers, therefore it can be difficult to identify the factors that promote isolation between populations. The endemic Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis) is one such species. Today it is endangered, and known to breed only on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Lanai, and Kauai. Historical records indicate that a large population formerly bred on Molokai as well, but this population has recently been extirpated. Given...

Data from: Evolutionary hotspots in the Mojave Desert

Amy G. Vandergast, Richard D. Inman, Kelly R. Barr, Kenneth E. Nussear, Todd C. Esque, Stacie A. Hathaway, Dustin A. Wood, Philip A. Medica, Jesse W. Breinholt, Catherine L. Stephen, Andrew D. Gottscho, Sharyn B. Marks, W. Bryan Jennings, Robert N. Fisher, Jesse Breinholt, Andrew Gottscho, Sharyn Marks, W. Jennings, Amy Vandergast, Richard Inman, Kelly Barr, Kenneth Nussear, Todd Esque, Stacie Hathaway, Dustin Wood … & Catherine Stephen
Genetic diversity within species provides the raw material for adaptation and evolution. Just as regions of high species diversity are conservation targets, identifying regions containing high genetic diversity and divergence within and among populations may be important to protect future evolutionary potential. When multiple co-distributed species show spatial overlap in high genetic diversity and divergence, these regions can be considered evolutionary hotspots. We mapped spatial population genetic structure for 17 animal species across the Mojave...

Data from: RAD sequencing yields a high success rate for westslope cutthroat and rainbow trout species-diagnostic SNP assays

Stephen J. Amish, Paul A. Hohenlohe, Sally Painter, Robb F. Leary, Clint Muhlfeld, Fred W. Allendorf & Gordon Luikart
Hybridization with introduced rainbow trout threatens most native westslope cutthroat trout populations. Understanding the genetic effects of hybridization and introgression requires a large set of high-throughput, diagnostic genetic markers to inform conservation and management. Recently, we identified several thousand candidate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers based on RAD sequencing of 11 westslope cutthroat trout and 13 rainbow trout individuals. Here we used flanking sequence for 56 of these candidate SNP markers to design high-throughput genotyping...

Supporting data for increasing fire activity reinforces shrub conversion in Southwestern US forests

Matthew Hurteau, Alisa Keyser, Dan Krofcheck, Cecile Remy & Craig Allen
Fire-exclusion in historically frequent-fire forests of the southwestern United States has altered forest structure and increased the probability of high-severity fire. Warmer and drier conditions, coupled with dispersal distance limitations are limiting tree seedling establishment and survival following high-severity fire. Post-fire conversion to non-forest vegetation can be reinforced by subsequent fire events. We sought to determine the influence of fire probability on post-fire vegetation development in a severely burned landscape in New Mexico, USA. We...

Data from: A red knot as a black swan: how a single bird shows navigational abilities during repeat crossings of the Greenland Icecap

Eva M. A. Kok, T. Lee Tibbitts, David C. Douglas, Paul W. Howey, Anne Dekinga, Benjamin Gnep & Theunis Piersma
Despite the wealth of studies on seasonal movements of birds between southern nonbreeding locations and High Arctic breeding locations, the key mechanisms of navigation during these migrations remain elusive. A flight along the shortest possible route between pairs of points on a sphere (‘orthodrome’) requires a bird to be able to assess its current location in relation to its migration goal and to make continuous adjustment of heading to reach that goal. Alternatively, birds may...

Data from: Large birds travel farther in homogeneous environments

Marlee A. Tucker, Olga Alexandrou, , Keith L. Bildstein, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Chloe Bracis, John N. Brzorad, Evan R. Buechley, David Cabot, Justin M. Calabrese, Carlos Carrapato, André Chiaradia, Lisa C. Davenport, Sarah C. Davidson, Mark Desholm, Christopher R. DeSorbo, Robert Domenech, Peter Enggist, William F. Fagan, Nina Farwig, Wolfgang Fiedler, Christen H. Fleming, Alastair Franke, John M. Fryxell, Clara García-Ripollés … & João Paulo Silva
Aim: Animal movement is an important determinant of individual survival, population dynamics, and ecosystem structure and function. Yet it is still unclear how local movements are related to resource availability and the spatial arrangement of resources. Using resident bird species and migratory bird species outside of the migratory period, we examined how the distribution of resources affect the movement patterns of both large terrestrial birds (e.g., raptors, bustards, hornbills) and waterbirds (e.g., cranes, storks, ducks,...

Data from: Density‐dependent and phenological mismatch effects on growth and survival in lesser snow and Ross's goslings

Megan V. Ross, Ray T. Alisauskas, David C. Douglas, Dana K. Kellett & Kiel L. Drake
Strong seasonality of high‐latitude environments imposes temporal constraints on forage availability and quality for keystone herbivores in terrestrial arctic ecosystems, including hyper‐abundant colonial geese. Changes in food quality due to intraspecific competition, or food availability relative to the breeding phenology of birds, may have consequences for growth and survival of young. We used long‐term data (1993‐2014) from the Karrak Lake nesting colony in the Canadian central arctic to study relative roles of density and phenological...

Xenon hydrate as an analogue of methane hydrate in geologic systems out of thermodynamic equilibrium

Xiaojing Fu, William Waite, Luis Cueto-Felgueroso & Ruben Juanes
This data set contains simulation results of hydrate growth on a gas-liquid interface for both methane and xenon hydrate systems. The simulations are performed on a 1D domain of 115 micron in length and for a duration of 40 minutes. The data set contains two MATLAB data files (methane_data.mat and xenon_data.mat) and one file to help users to visualize the data (plot_data.m). In the file plot_data.m, we also use experimental data from Taylor et al....

Data from: Wildfire reveals transient changes to individual traits and population responses of a native bumble bee (Bombus vosnesenskii)

John Mola, Michael Miller, Sean O'Rourke & Neal Williams
1. Fire-induced changes in the abundance and distribution of organisms, especially plants, can alter resource landscapes for mobile consumers driving bottom-up effects on their population sizes, morphologies, and reproductive potential. We expect these impacts to be most striking for obligate visitors of plants, like bees and other pollinators, but these impacts can be difficult to interpret due to the limited information provided by forager counts in the absence of survival or fitness proxies. 2. Increased...

Seismic Sources and Source Parameters

Peter Bormann, Michael Baumbach, Günther Bock, Helmut Grosser, George Choy & John Boatwright

The distribution of tritium, helium isotopes, and neon in shallow groundwater

Peter Schlosser, Martin Stute, Robert Newton, Brent Turrin & L. Niel Plummer

Magnitude and direction of stream-forest community interactions change with time scale

Amy Marcarelli, Colden Baxter, Joseph Benjamin, Yo Miyake, Masashi Murakami, Kurt Fausch & Shigeru Nakano
Networks of direct and indirect biotic interactions underpin the complex dynamics and stability of ecological systems, yet experimental and theoretical studies often yield conflicting evidence regarding the direction (positive or negative) or magnitude of these interactions. We revisited pioneering datasets collected at the deciduous forested Horonai Stream and conducted ecosystem-level syntheses to demonstrate that the direction of direct and indirect interactions can change depending on the timescale of observation. Prior experimental studies showed that terrestrial...

Disease or drought: Environmental fluctuations release zebra from a potential pathogen-triggered ecological trap

Yen-Hua Huang, Hendrina Joel, Martina Küsters, Zoe Barandongo, Claudine Cloete, Axel Hartmann, Pauline Kamath, Werner Kilian, John Mfune, Gabriel Shatumbu, Royi Zidon, Wayne Getz & Wendy Turner
When a transmission hotspot for an environmentally persistent pathogen establishes in otherwise high-quality habitat, the disease may exert a strong impact on a host population. However, fluctuating environmental conditions lead to heterogeneity in habitat quality and animal habitat preference, which may interrupt the overlap between selected and risky habitats. We evaluated spatiotemporal patterns in anthrax mortalities in a plains zebra (Equus quagga) population in Etosha National Park, Namibia, incorporating remote-sensing and host telemetry data. A...

Conspecific and congeneric interactions shape increasing rates of breeding dispersal of northern spotted owls

Julianna Jenkins, Damon Lesmeister, Eric Forsman, Katie Dugger, Steven Ackers, Lawrence Andrews, Scott Gremel, Bruce Hollen, Chris McCafferty, M. Shane Pruett, Janice Reid, Stan Sovern & J. David Wiens
Breeding dispersal, the movement from one breeding territory to another, is rare for philopatric species that evolved within relatively stable environments, such as the old-growth coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. While dispersal is not inherently maladaptive, the consequences of increased dispersal on population dynamics in populations whose historical dispersal rates are low could be significant, particularly for a declining species. We examined rates and possible causes of breeding dispersal based on a sample of...

Causes of delayed outbreak responses and their impacts on epidemic spread

Yun Tao, Matthew Ferrari, Katriona Shea, William Probeert, Michael Runge, Kevin Lafferty & Michael Tildesley
Livestock diseases have devastating consequences economically, socially, and politically across the globe. In certain systems, pathogens remain viable after host death, which enables residual transmissions from infected carcasses. Rapid culling and carcass disposal are well-established strategies for stamping out an outbreak and limiting its impact, however, wait-times for these procedures, i.e., response delays, are typically farm-specific and time-varying due to logistical constraints. Failing to incorporate variable response delays in epidemiological models may understate outbreak projections...

Data from: The population history of endogenous retroviruses in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus)

Pauline L. Kamath, Daniel Elleder, Le Bao, Paul C. Cross, John H. Powell & Mary Poss
Mobile elements are powerful agents of genomic evolution and can be exceptionally informative markers for investigating species and population-level evolutionary history. While several studies have utilized retrotransposon-based insertional polymorphisms to resolve phylogenies, few population studies exist outside of humans. Endogenous retroviruses are LTR-retrotransposons derived from retroviruses that have become stably integrated in the host genome during past infections and transmitted vertically to subsequent generations. They offer valuable insight into host-virus co-evolution and a unique perspective...

Genetic diversity in two insular populations of bobcats (Lynx rufus)

Duane Diefenbach, Cassandra Miller-Butterworth, Jessie Edson, Leslie Hansen, James Jordan, Tess Gingery & Amy Russell
We documented changes in genetic diversity in an isolated, reintroduced population of bobcats on Cumberland Island (CUIS), Georgia, USA, compared to another bobcat population on Kiawah Island, South Carolina, USA, that was naturally established and experiences limited immigration from the mainland. We compared the predictions of a novel population viability analysis (PVA) to empirical estimates of abundance and genetic diversity on CUIS and used our PVA to identify management actions that are likely to support...

Accommodating the role of site memory in dynamic species distribution models

Graziella DiRenzo, David Miller, Blake Hossack, Brent Sigafus, Paige Howell, Erin Muths & Evan Grant
First-order dynamic occupancy models (FODOMs) are a class of state-space model in which the true state (occurrence) is observed imperfectly. An important assumption of FODOMs is that site dynamics only depend on the current state and that variations in dynamic processes are adequately captured with covariates or random effects. However, it is often difficult to understand and/or measure the covariates that generate ecological data, which are typically spatio-temporally correlated. Consequently, the non-independent error structure of...

Species mixture effects and climate influence growth, recruitment and mortality in Interior West U.S.A. Populus tremuloides - conifer communities

Christopher Looney, Wilfred Previant, John Bradford & Linda Nagel
Tree-species mixture effects (e.g., complementarity and facilitation) have been found to increase individual-tree productivity, lessen mortality, and improve recruitment in forests worldwide. By promoting more efficient and complete resource use, mixture effects may also lessen individual-tree-level water stress, thus improving drought-resistance. We investigated the influence of mixture effects on tree productivity, mortality, and recruitment across broad compositional and moisture gradients in high-elevation Interior West US mixed-conifer communities, where Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen) is the major...

Do fine-scale experiments underestimate predator consumption rates?

Lindsey Bruckerhoff, Casey Pennock & Keith Gido
Understanding ecological processes across spatial scales helps link observations and predictions from experiments to ecological patterns occurring at coarser scales relevant to management and conservation. Using fish, we experimentally manipulated the size of arenas to test the spatial scaling of predator-prey interactions. We measured variation in predator consumption and prey behavior (prey aggregation, spatial overlap with predators, and movement) across arena sizes. Variation in prey behavior across arena sizes was hypothesized to drive consumption patterns...

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