297 Works

Lake food webs: Species invasion progressively disrupts the trophic structure of native food webs

Charles Wainright, Clint Muhlfeld, James Elser, Samuel Bourret & Shawn Devlin
Species invasions can have substantial impacts on native species and ecosystems, with important consequences for biodiversity. How these disturbances drive changes in the trophic structure of native food webs through time is poorly understood. Here, we quantify trophic disruption in freshwater food webs to invasion by an apex fish predator, lake trout, using an extensive stable isotope dataset across a natural gradient of uninvaded and invaded lakes in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Lake trout...

Species mixture effects and climate influence growth, recruitment and mortality in Interior West U.S.A. Populus tremuloides - conifer communities

Christopher Looney, Wilfred Previant, John Bradford & Linda Nagel
Tree-species mixture effects (e.g., complementarity and facilitation) have been found to increase individual-tree productivity, lessen mortality, and improve recruitment in forests worldwide. By promoting more efficient and complete resource use, mixture effects may also lessen individual-tree-level water stress, thus improving drought-resistance. We investigated the influence of mixture effects on tree productivity, mortality, and recruitment across broad compositional and moisture gradients in high-elevation Interior West US mixed-conifer communities, where Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen) is the major...

Data from: Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris): development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health

Lizabeth Bowen, A. Keith Miles, Michael Murray, Martin Haulena, Judy Tuttle, William Van Bonn, Lance Adams, James L Bodkin, Brenda Ballachey, James Estes, M Tim Tinker, Robin Keister & Jeffery L Stott
Gene transcription analysis for diagnosing or monitoring wildlife health requires the ability to distinguish pathophysiological change from natural variation. Herein we describe methodology for the development of quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to measure differential transcript levels of multiple immune-function genes in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris); sea otter specific, qPCR primer sequences for the genes of interest are defined. We establish a “reference” range of transcripts for each gene in a...

Data from: Two low coverage bird genomes and a comparison of reference-guided versus de novo genome assemblies

Daren C. Card, Drew R. Schield, Jacobo Reyes-Velasco, Matthew K. Fujita, Audra L. Andrew, Sara J. Oyler-McCance, Jennifer A. Fike, Diana F. Tomback, Robert P. Ruggiero & Todd A. Castoe
As a greater number and diversity of high-quality vertebrate reference genomes become available, it is increasingly feasible to use these references to guide new draft assemblies for related species. Reference-guided assembly approaches may substantially increase the contiguity and completeness of a new genome using only low levels of genome coverage that might otherwise be insufficient for de novo genome assembly. We used low-coverage (~3.5–5.5x) Illumina paired-end sequencing to assemble draft genomes of two bird species...

Data from: How much is new information worth? Evaluating the financial benefit of resolving management uncertainty.

Sean L. Maxwell, Jonathan R. Rhodes, Michael C. Runge, Hugh P. Possingham, Chooi Fei Ng & Eve McDonald-Madden
1. Conservation decision-makers face a trade-off between spending limited funds on direct management action, or gaining new information in an attempt to improve management performance in the future. Value-of-information analysis can help to resolve this trade-off by evaluating how much management performance could improve if new information was gained. Value-of-information analysis has been used extensively in other disciplines, but there are only a few examples where it has informed conservation planning, none of which have...

Data from: Factors influencing detection of eDNA from a stream-dwelling amphibian

David S. Pilliod, Caren S. Goldberg, Robert S. Arkle & Lisette P. Waits
Environmental DNA (eDNA) methods for detecting and estimating abundance of aquatic species are emerging rapidly, but little is known about how processes such as secretion rate, environmental degradation, and time since colonization or extirpation from a given site affect eDNA measurements. Using stream-dwelling salamanders and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis, we conducted three experiments to assess eDNA: (1) production rate, (2) persistence time under different temperature and light conditions, and (3) detectability and concentration through time...

Data from: Transcriptome resources for the frogs Lithobates clamitans and Pseudacris regilla, emphasizing antimicrobial peptides and conserved loci for phylogenetics

Laura S. Robertson & Robert Scott Cornman
We developed genetic resources for two North American frogs, Lithobates clamitans and Pseudacris regilla, widespread native amphibians that are potential indicator species of environmental health. For both species, mRNA from multiple tissues was sequenced using 454 technology. De novo assemblies with Mira3 resulted in 50,238 contigs (N50 = 687 bp) and 48,213 contigs (N50 = 686 bp) for L. clamitans and P. regilla, respectively, after clustering with CD-Hit-EST and purging contigs below 200 bp. We...

Data from: Multiple estimates of effective population size for monitoring a long-lived vertebrate: an application to Yellowstone grizzly bears

Pauline L. Kamath, Mark A. Haroldson, Gordon Luikart, David Paetkau, Craig Whitman & Frank T. Van Manen
Effective population size (Ne) is a key parameter for monitoring the genetic health of threatened populations because it reflects a population's evolutionary potential and risk of extinction due to genetic stochasticity. However, its application to wildlife monitoring has been limited because it is difficult to measure in natural populations. The isolated and well-studied population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem provides a rare opportunity to examine the usefulness of different Ne...

Increased typhoon activity in the Pacific deep tropics driven by Little Ice Age circulation changes

James Bramante, Murray Ford, Paul Kench, Andrew D. Ashton, Michael Toomey, Richard M. Sullivan, Kristopher B. Karnauskas, Caroline C. Ummenhofer & Jeffrey P. Donnelly
The instrumental record reveals that tropical cyclone activity is sensitive to oceanic and atmospheric variability on inter-annual and decadal scales. However, our understanding of climate’s influence on tropical cyclone behavior is restricted by the short historical record and sparse prehistorical reconstructions, particularly in the western North Pacific where coastal communities suffer loss of life and livelihood from typhoons annually. Here we reconstruct three millennia of deep tropical North Pacific cyclogenesis and compare with other records...

Ecosystem Scale Measurements of Methyl Halide Fluxes from a Brackish Tidal Marsh Invaded with Perennial Pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium)

Malte Julian Deventer, Yi Jiao, Sarah Knox, Frank Anderson, Matthew Ferner, Jared Lewis & Robert Rhew
Natural methyl chloride (CH3Cl) and methyl bromide (CH3Br) emissions from coastal marsh ecosystems may constitute a significant proportion of stratospheric chlorine and bromine, which catalyze ozone depletion. Current inventories involve substantial uncertainties associated with up-scaling plot-scale footprints (i.e., ≤ 1m2). Here we present net ecosystem flux measurements of methyl halides from a brackish tidal marsh on the west coast of the United States between April 2016 and June 2017 using the relaxed eddy accumulation method....

Pleistocene glacial cycles drove lineage diversification and fusion in the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus canorus)

Paul A Maier, Amy G Vandergast, Steve M Ostoja, Andres Aguilar & Andrew J Bohonak
Species endemic to alpine environments can evolve via steep ecological selection gradients between lowland and upland environments. Additionally, many alpine environments have faced repeated glacial episodes over the past two million years, fracturing these endemics into isolated populations. In this “glacial pulse” model of alpine diversification, cycles of allopatry and ecologically divergent glacial refugia play a role in generating biodiversity, including novel admixed (“fused”) lineages. We tested for patterns of glacial pulse lineage diversification in...

Data from: Age and growth of stocked juvenile Shoal Bass in a tailwater: environmental variation and accuracy of daily age estimates

James Long & Michael Porta
Otolith microanalysis is often used to assess population age structure and growth of fishes during their early stages. Shoal Bass Micropterus cataractae is a recently described species of conservation concern and little is known regarding factors affecting their recruitment. In 2004, Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GADNR) and the US National Park Service (NPS) stocked Shoal Bass marked with oxytetracycline (OTC) in the Chattahoochee River near Atlanta, Georgia in an effort to restore this population,...

Data from: Mast seeding patterns are asynchronous at a continental scale

Jalene LaMontagne, Ian Pearse, David Greene & Walter Koenig
Resource pulses are rare events with a short duration and high magnitude that drive the dynamics of both plant and animal populations and communities. Mast seeding is perhaps the most common type of resource pulse that occurs in terrestrial ecosystems, is characterized by the synchronous and highly variable production of seed crops by a population of perennial plants, is widespread both taxonomically and geographically, and is often associated with nutrient scarcity. The rare production of...

Cryptic and extensive hybridization between ancient lineages of American crows

David L. Slager, Kevin L. Epperly, Renee R. Ha, Sievert Rohwer, Chris Wood, Caroline Van Hemert & John Klicka
Most species and therefore most hybrid zones have historically been defined using phenotypic characters. However, both speciation and hybridization can occur with negligible morphological differentiation. Recently developed genomic tools provide the means to better understand cryptic speciation and hybridization. The Northwestern Crow (Corvus caurinus) and American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) are continuously distributed sister taxa that lack reliable traditional characters for identification. In this first population genomic study of Northwestern and American crows, we use genomic...

Data from: Negative frequency-dependent foraging behaviour in a generalist herbivore (Alces alces) and its stabilizing influence on food-web dynamics

Sarah R. Hoy, John A. Vucetich, Rongsong Liu, Don L. DeAngelis, Rolf O. Peterson, Leah M. Vucetich & John J. Henderson
1.Resource selection is widely appreciated to be context‐dependent and shaped by both biological and abiotic factors. However, few studies have empirically assessed the extent to which selective foraging behaviour is dynamic and varies in response to environmental conditions for free‐ranging animal populations. 2.Here, we assessed the extent that forage selection fluctuated in response to different environmental conditions for a free‐ranging herbivore, moose (Alces alces) in Isle Royale National Park, over a 10‐year period. More precisely,...

Data from: Data sharing, management, use, and reuse: practices and perceptions of scientists worldwide

Carol Tenopir, Natalie M. Rice, Suzie Allard, Lynn Baird, Josh Borycz, Lisa Christian, Mike Frame, Bruce Grant, Robert Olendorf, Robert Sandusky & Lisa Zolly
Background: With data becoming a centerpiece of modern scientific discovery, data sharing by scientists is now a crucial element of scientific progress. This article aims to provide an in-depth examination of the practices and perceptions of data management, including data storage, data sharing, and data use and reuse by scientists around the world. Methods: The Usability and Assessment Working Group of DataONE, an NSF-funded environmental cyberinfrastructure project, distributed a survey to a multinational and multidisciplinary...

Data from: Migrating bison engineer the green wave

Chris Geremia, Jerod Merkle, Daniel Eacker, Rick Wallen, P.J. White, Mark Hebblewhite & Matthew Kauffman
Newly emerging plants provide the best forage for herbivores. To exploit this fleeting resource, migrating herbivores align their movements to surf the wave of spring green-up. With new technology to track migrating animals, the Green Wave Hypothesis has steadily gained empirical support across a diversity of migratory taxa. This hypothesis assumes the green wave is controlled by variation in climate, weather, and topography, and its progression dictates the timing, pace, and extent of migrations. However,...

Data from: Does natural variation in diversity affect biotic resistance?

Susan Harrison, Howard Cornell & James B. Grace
1. Theories linking diversity to ecosystem function have been challenged by the widespread observation of more exotic species in more diverse native communities. Few studies have addressed the key underlying process by dissecting how community diversity is shaped by the same environmental gradients that determine biotic and abiotic resistance to new invaders. 2. In grasslands on highly heterogeneous soils, we used addition of a recent invader, competitor removal, and structural equation modelling (SEM) to analyse...

Data from: Increased land use by Chukchi Sea polar bears in relation to changing sea ice conditions

Karyn D. Rode, Ryan R. Wilson, Eric V. Regehr, Michelle St. Martin, David C. Douglas & Jay Olson
Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986–1995 and 2008–2013) when substantial summer sea-ice loss...

Data from: Impact of prey occupancy and other ecological and anthropogenic factors on tiger distribution in Thailand’s Western Forest Complex

Somphot Duangchatrasiri, Pornkamol Jornburom, Sitthichai Jinamoy, Anak Pattanvibool, James E. Hines, Todd W. Arnold, John Fieberg & James L. D. Smith
1. Despite conservation efforts, large mammals such as tigers and their main prey, gaur, banteng, and sambar, are highly threatened and declining across their entire range. The only large viable source population of tigers in mainland Southeast Asia occurs in Thailand’s Western Forest Complex (WEFCOM), an approximately 19,000 km2 landscape of 17 contiguous protected areas. 2. We used an occupancy modeling framework, which accounts for imperfect detection, to identify the factors that affect tiger distribution...

Data from: Potential limits to the benefits of admixture during biological invasion

Brittany S. Barker, Janelle E. Cocio, Samantha R. Anderson, Joseph E. Braasch, F. Alice Cang, Heather D. Gillette & Katrina M. Dlugosch
Species introductions often bring together genetically divergent source populations, resulting in genetic admixture. This geographic reshuffling of diversity has the potential to generate favorable new genetic combinations, facilitating the establishment and invasive spread of introduced populations. Observational support for the superior performance of admixed introductions has been mixed, however, and the broad importance of admixture to invasion questioned. Under most underlying mechanisms, admixture’s benefits should be expected to increase with greater divergence among and lower...

Data from: Large-scale recovery of an endangered amphibian despite ongoing exposure to multiple stressors

Roland A. Knapp, Gary M. Fellers, Patrick M. Kleeman, David A. W. Miller, Vance T. Vredenburg, Erica Bree Rosenblum & Cheryl J. Briggs
Amphibians are one of the most threatened animal groups, with 32% of species at risk for extinction. Given this imperiled status, is the disappearance of a large fraction of the Earth’s amphibians inevitable, or are some declining species more resilient than is generally assumed? We address this question in a species that is emblematic of many declining amphibians, the endangered Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog (Rana sierrae). Based on >7,000 frog surveys conducted across Yosemite National...

Ecological niche models for American black bear, Rafinesque's big-eared bat, and timber rattlesnake

James Watling, Jennifer Costanza, Ron Sutherland, Curtis Belyea, Bistra Dilkina, Heather Cayton, David Bucklin, Stephanie Romañach & Nick Haddad
This data set contains rasters that are predictive environmental suitability maps for three wildlife species: the American black bear (Ursus americanus), Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), and Timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus). Rasters for each species include: individual prediction maps for each of 5 ENMs (GBM: generalized boosting model, GLM: generalized linear model, MARS: multivariate adaptive regression spline, MX: maximum entropy, and RF: random forest), as well as the ensemble prediction map from all five ecological...

A multi-state occupancy modeling framework for robust estimation of disease prevalence in multi-tissue disease systems

Vratika Chaudhary, Samantha M. Wisely, Felipe A. Hernández, James E. Hines, James D. Nichols & Madan K. Oli
1. Given the public health, economic, and conservation implications of zoonotic diseases, their effective surveillance is of paramount importance. The traditional approach to estimating pathogen prevalence as the proportion of infected individuals in the population is biased because it fails to account for imperfect detection. A statistically robust way to reduce bias in prevalence estimates is to obtain repeated samples (or sample many tissues in multi-tissue disease systems) and to apply statistical methods that account...

Datasets used to support the work presented in: Beringer, C.J., K.W. Goyne, R.N. Lerch, E.B. Webb, and D. Mengel. 2020: Clothianidin decomposition in Missouri wetland soils. J. Environ. Qual. JEQ-2020-05-0167-TR

C. J. Beringer, K. W. Goyne, Robert Lerch, E. B. Webb & D. Mengel
Neonicotinoid pesticides can persist in soils for extended time periods; however, they also have a high potential to contaminate ground and surface waters. Studies have reported negative effects associated with neonicotinoids and non-target taxa, including aquatic invertebrates, pollinating insect species, and insectivorous birds. This study evaluated factors associated with clothianidin (1-[(2-chloro-1,3-thiazol-5-yl) methyl]-3-methyl-2-nitroguanidine, CTN) degradation and sorption in Missouri wetland soils to assess the potential for wetland soils to mitigate potential environmental risks associated with neonicotinoids....

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