Seabirds are highly vagile and can disperse up to thousands of kilometers, therefore it can be difficult to identify the factors that promote isolation between populations. The endemic Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis) is one such species. Today it is endangered, and known to breed only on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Lanai, and Kauai. Historical records indicate that a large population formerly bred on Molokai as well, but this population has recently been extirpated. Given...
Data from: RAD sequencing yields a high success rate for westslope cutthroat and rainbow trout species-diagnostic SNP assaysStephen J. Amish, Paul A. Hohenlohe, Sally Painter, Robb F. Leary, Clint Muhlfeld, Fred W. Allendorf & Gordon Luikart
Hybridization with introduced rainbow trout threatens most native westslope cutthroat trout populations. Understanding the genetic effects of hybridization and introgression requires a large set of high-throughput, diagnostic genetic markers to inform conservation and management. Recently, we identified several thousand candidate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers based on RAD sequencing of 11 westslope cutthroat trout and 13 rainbow trout individuals. Here we used flanking sequence for 56 of these candidate SNP markers to design high-throughput genotyping...
Studies of pathogen transmission typically overlook that wildlife hosts can include both migrant and resident populations when attempting to model circulation. Through the application of stable isotopes in flight feathers, we estimated the migration strategy of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) - resident, intermediate-distance migrant or long-distance migrant, occurring on California wintering grounds. Our study demonstrates that mallards, a principal host of avian influenza virus (AIV) in nature, contribute differently to virus gene flow depending on migration...
Data from: Latitudinal species diversity gradient of marine zooplankton for the last three million yearsMoriaki Yasuhara, Gene Hunt, Harry J. Dowsett, Marci M. Robinson & Danielle K. Stoll
High tropical and low polar biodiversity is one of the most fundamental patterns characterizing marine ecosystems, and the influence of temperature on such marine latitudinal diversity gradients is increasingly well documented. However, the temporal stability of quantitative relationships among diversity, latitude and temperature is largely unknown. Here we document marine zooplankton species diversity patterns at four time slices [modern, Last Glacial Maximum (18,000 years ago), last interglacial (120,000 years ago), and Pliocene (~3.3-3.0 million years...
Data from: Behavioral vs. molecular sources of conflict between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA: the role of male-biased dispersal in a Holarctic sea duckJeffrey L. Peters, Kimberly A. Bolender & John M. Pearce
Genetic studies of waterfowl (Anatidae) have observed the full spectrum of mitochondrial (mt) DNA population divergence, from panmixia to deep, reciprocally monophyletic lineages. Yet these studies generally found weak or no nuclear (nu) DNA structure which was often attributed to sex-biased gene flow (i.e., male dispersal and female philopatry), a common behavior within this family. An alternative explanation for this “conflict” is that the smaller effective population size and faster sorting rate of mtDNA relative...
Phenological events – defined points in the life cycle of a plant or animal – have been regarded as highly plastic traits, reflecting flexible responses to various environmental cues. The ability of a species to track, via shifts in phenological events, the abiotic environment through time might dictate its vulnerability to future climate change. Understanding the predictors and drivers of phenological change is therefore critical. Here, we evaluated evidence for phylogenetic conservatism – the tendency...
AIM: The Arctic Ocean is one of the last near-pristine regions on Earth and although human activities are expected to impact on Arctic ecosystems, we know very little about baseline patterns of Arctic Ocean biodiversity. This paper aims to describe Arctic Ocean-wide patterns of benthic biodiversity and to explore factors related to the large-scale species diversity patterns. LOCATION: Arctic Ocean. METHODS: We used large ostracode and foraminiferal datasets to describe the biodiversity patterns and apply...
To predict how climate change will influence populations it is necessary to understand the mechanisms, particularly microevolution and phenotypic plasticity, which allow populations to persist in novel environmental conditions. Although evidence for climate-induced phenotypic change in populations is widespread, evidence documenting that these phenotypic changes are due to microevolution is exceedingly rare. In this study we use 32 years of genetic data (17 complete generations) to determine whether there has been genetic change toward earlier...
Data from: Gene flow and pathogen transmission among bobcats (Lynx rufus) in a fragmented urban landscapeJustin S. Lee, Emily W. Ruell, Erin E. Boydston, Lisa M. Lyren, Robert S. Alonso, Jennifer L. Troyer, Kevin R. Crooks & Sue VandeWoude
Urbanization can result in the fragmentation of once contiguous natural landscapes into a patchy habitat interspersed within a growing urban matrix. Animals living in fragmented landscapes often have reduced movement among habitat patches due to avoidance of intervening human development, which potentially leads to both reduced gene flow and pathogen transmission between patches. Mammalian carnivores with large home ranges, such as bobcats (Lynx rufus), may be particularly sensitive to habitat fragmentation. We performed genetic analyses...
The erosion of species boundaries can involve rapid evolutionary change. Consequently, many aspects of the process remain poorly understood, including the formation, expansion and evolution of hybrid swarms. Biological invasions involving hybridization present exceptional opportunities to study the erosion of species boundaries because timelines of interactions and outcomes are frequently well known. Here, we examined clinal variation across codominant and maternally inherited genetic markers as well as phenotypic traits to characterize the expansion and evolution...
Data from: The anatomy, taphonomy, taxonomy and systematic affinity of Markuelia: Early Cambrian to Early Ordovician scalidophoransXi-Ping Dong, Stefan Bengston, Neil J. Gostling, John A. Cunningham, Thomas H. P. Harvey, Artem Kouchinsky, Anatoly K. Val'kov, John E. Repetski, Marco Stampanoni, Federica Marone & Philip C. J. Donoghue
Markuelia is a vermiform, annulated introvertan animal known as embryonic fossils from the Lower Cambrian to Lower Ordovician. Analysis of an expanded and revised dataset for Introverta shows that the precise position of Markuelia within this clade is dependent on the taxa included. As a result, Markuelia is assigned to the scalidophoran total group to reflect uncertainty as to whether it is a stem-scalidophoran or a stem-priapulid. The taxonomy of the genus is revised to...
United States Geological Survey11
National Museum of Natural History2
University of Minnesota2
University of Hong Kong2
Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics1
University of Montana1
University of Georgia1
Science Applications International Corporation (United States)1