61 Works

Supporting data for increasing fire activity reinforces shrub conversion in Southwestern US forests

Matthew Hurteau, Alisa Keyser, Dan Krofcheck, Cecile Remy & Craig Allen
Fire-exclusion in historically frequent-fire forests of the southwestern United States has altered forest structure and increased the probability of high-severity fire. Warmer and drier conditions, coupled with dispersal distance limitations are limiting tree seedling establishment and survival following high-severity fire. Post-fire conversion to non-forest vegetation can be reinforced by subsequent fire events. We sought to determine the influence of fire probability on post-fire vegetation development in a severely burned landscape in New Mexico, USA. We...

Frequent burning causes large losses of carbon from deep soil layers in a temperate savanna

Adam Francis Pellegrini, Kendra K. McLauchlan, Sarah E. Hobbie, Michelle C. Mack, Abbey L. Marcotte, David M. Nelson, Steven Perakis, Peter B. Reich & Kyle Whittinghill
1. Fire activity is changing dramatically across the globe, with uncertain effects on ecosystem processes, especially belowground. Fire‐driven losses of soil carbon (C) are often assumed to occur primarily in the upper soil layers because the repeated combustion of aboveground biomass limits organic matter inputs into surface soil. However, C losses from deeper soil may occur if frequent burning reduces root biomass inputs of C into deep soil layers or stimulates losses of C via...

Relative reproductive phenology and synchrony affect neonate survival in a nonprecocial ungulate

Eric Michel, Bronson Strickland, Stephen Demarais, Jerrold Belant, Todd Kautz, Jared Duquette, Dean Beyer, Michael Chamberlain, Karl Miller, Rebecca Shuman, John Kilgo, Duane Diefenbach, Bret Wallingford, Justin Vreeland, Steve Ditchkoff, Christopher DePerno, Christopher Moorman, Michael Chitwood & Marcus Lashley
1. Degree of reproductive synchronization in prey is hypothesized as a predator defense strategy reducing prey risk via predator satiation or predator avoidance. Species with precocial young, especially those exposed to specialist predators, should be highly synchronous to satiate predators (predator satiation hypothesis), while prey with nonprecocial (i.e., altricial) young, especially those exposed to generalist predators, should become relatively asynchronous to avoid predator detection (predator avoidance hypothesis). The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in North America...

Data From: Characterizing patterns of genomic variation in the threatened Utah prairie dog: implications for conservation and management

Rachael Giglio, Tonie Rocke, Jorge Osorio & Emily Latch
Utah prairie dogs (Cynomys parvidens) are federally threatened due to eradication campaigns, habitat destruction, and outbreaks of plague. Today, Utah prairie dogs exist in small, isolated populations, making them less demographically stable and more susceptible to erosion of genetic variation by genetic drift. We characterized patterns of genetic structure at neutral and putatively adaptive loci in order to evaluate the relative effects of genetic drift and local adaptation on population divergence. We sampled individuals across...

Models to assess ability to achieve localized areas of reduced white-tailed deer density

Amanda Van Buskirk, Christopher Rosenberry, Bret Wallingford, Emily Just Domoto, Marc McDill, Patrick Drohan & Duane Diefenbach
Localized management of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) involves the removal of matriarchal family units with the intent to create areas of reduced deer density. However, application of this approach has not always been successful, possibly because of female dispersal and high deer densities. We developed a spatially explicit, agent-based model to investigate the intensity of deer removal required to locally reduce deer density depending on the surrounding deer density, dispersal behavior, and size and shape...

Data from: Automated curtailment of wind turbines reduces eagle fatalities

Christopher McClure, Brian Rolek, Leah Dunn, Jennifer McCabe, Luke Martinson & Todd Katzner
Collision-caused fatalities of animals at wind power facilities create a ‘green versus green’ conflict between wildlife conservation and renewable energy. These fatalities can be mitigated via informed curtailment whereby turbines are slowed or stopped when wildlife are considered at increased risk of collision. Automated monitoring systems could improve efficacy of informed curtailment, yet such technology is undertested. We test the efficacy of an automated curtailment system—a camera system that detects flying objects, classifies them, and...

Data from: Wildfire reveals transient changes to individual traits and population responses of a native bumble bee (Bombus vosnesenskii)

John Mola, Michael Miller, Sean O'Rourke & Neal Williams
1. Fire-induced changes in the abundance and distribution of organisms, especially plants, can alter resource landscapes for mobile consumers driving bottom-up effects on their population sizes, morphologies, and reproductive potential. We expect these impacts to be most striking for obligate visitors of plants, like bees and other pollinators, but these impacts can be difficult to interpret due to the limited information provided by forager counts in the absence of survival or fitness proxies. 2. Increased...

Vegetation changes from private forestland management can increase species richness and abundance

Beth Ross
Conservation efforts on private lands are important for biodiversity conservation. On private lands in South Carolina, forestry management practices (prescribed burning, thinning, herbicide application) are used to improve upland pine habitat for wildlife and timber harvest and are incentivized through United States Department of Agriculture Farm Bill cost-share programs. Because many forest-dependent bird species have habitat requirements created primarily through forest management, data are needed on the effectiveness of these management activities. We studied privately-owned...

Agriculture creates subtle genetic structure among migratory and non-migratory populations of burrowing owls throughout North America

Alberto Macías-Duarte, Courtney Conway & Melanie Culver
Population structure across a species distribution primarily reflects historical, ecological and evolutionary processes. However, large-scale contemporaneous changes in land use have the potential to create changes in habitat quality and thereby cause changes in gene flow, population structure, and distributions. As such, land-use changes in one portion of a species range may explain declines in other portions of their range. For example, many burrowing owl populations have declined or become extirpated near the northern edge...

Accommodating the role of site memory in dynamic species distribution models

Graziella DiRenzo, David Miller, Blake Hossack, Brent Sigafus, Paige Howell, Erin Muths & Evan Grant
First-order dynamic occupancy models (FODOMs) are a class of state-space model in which the true state (occurrence) is observed imperfectly. An important assumption of FODOMs is that site dynamics only depend on the current state and that variations in dynamic processes are adequately captured with covariates or random effects. However, it is often difficult to understand and/or measure the covariates that generate ecological data, which are typically spatio-temporally correlated. Consequently, the non-independent error structure of...

Data from: Life-history theory provides a framework for detecting resource limitation: a test of the Nutritional Buffer Hypothesis

Brett Jesmer, Matthew Kauffman, Alyson Courtemanch, Steve Kilpatrick, Timothy Thomas, Jeff Yost, Kevin Monteith & Jacob Goheen
For ungulates and other long-lived species, life-history theory predicts that nutritional reserves are allocated to reproduction in a state-dependent manner because survival is highly conserved. Further, as per-capita food abundance and nutritional reserves decline (i.e., density-dependence intensifies), reproduction and recruitment become increasingly sensitive to weather. Thus, the degree to which weather influences vital rates should be associated with proximity to nutritional carrying capacity—a notion that we refer to as the Nutritional Buffer Hypothesis. We tested...

Evaluating natural experiments in ecology: using synthetic controls in assessments of remotely-sensed land-treatments

Stephen Fick, Travis Nauman, Colby Brungard & Michael Duniway
Many important ecological phenomena occur on large spatial scales and/or are unplanned and thus do not easily fit within analytical frameworks which rely on randomization, replication, and interspersed a priori controls for statistical comparison. Analyses of such large-scale, natural experiments are common in the health and econometrics literature, where techniques have been developed to derive insight from large, noisy observational datasets. Here, we apply a technique from this literature, synthetic control, to assess landscape change...

The demographic contributions of connectivity versus local dynamics to population growth of an endangered bird

Brian Reichert, Robert Fletcher & Wiley Kitchens
1. Conservation and management increasingly focus on connectivity, because connectivity driven by variation in immigration rates across landscapes is thought to be crucial for maintaining local population and metapopulation persistence. Yet, efforts to quantify the relative role of immigration on population growth across the entire range of species and over time have been lacking. 2. We assessed whether immigration limited local and range-wide population growth of the endangered snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) in Florida, USA,...

Data from: A red knot as a black swan: how a single bird shows navigational abilities during repeat crossings of the Greenland Icecap

Eva M. A. Kok, T. Lee Tibbitts, David C. Douglas, Paul W. Howey, Anne Dekinga, Benjamin Gnep & Theunis Piersma
Despite the wealth of studies on seasonal movements of birds between southern nonbreeding locations and High Arctic breeding locations, the key mechanisms of navigation during these migrations remain elusive. A flight along the shortest possible route between pairs of points on a sphere (‘orthodrome’) requires a bird to be able to assess its current location in relation to its migration goal and to make continuous adjustment of heading to reach that goal. Alternatively, birds may...

Data from: Magnitude and direction of stream-forest community interactions change with time scale

Amy Marcarelli, Colden Baxter, Joseph Benjamin, Yo Miyake, Masashi Murakami, Kurt Fausch & Shigeru Nakano
Networks of direct and indirect biotic interactions underpin the complex dynamics and stability of ecological systems, yet experimental and theoretical studies often yield conflicting evidence regarding the direction (positive or negative) or magnitude of these interactions. We revisited pioneering datasets collected at the deciduous forested Horonai Stream and conducted ecosystem-level syntheses to demonstrate that the direction of direct and indirect interactions can change depending on the timescale of observation. Prior experimental studies showed that terrestrial...

Spatial proximity moderates genotype uncertainty in genetic tagging studies

Ben Augustine, J. Andrew Royle, Daniel W. Linden & Angela K. Fuller
Accelerating declines of an increasing number of animal populations worldwide necessitate methods to reliably and efficiently estimate demographic parameters such as population density and trajectory. Standard methods for estimating demographic parameters from noninvasive genetic samples are inefficient because lower quality samples cannot be used, and they do not allow for errors in individual identification. We introduce the Genotype Spatial Partial Identity Model (SPIM), which integrates a genetic classification model with a spatial population model to...

Herbicide, fertilization, and planting density effects on intensively managed loblolly pine early stand development

Gabriel Ferreira, Benjamin Rau & Doug Aubrey
Production forestry in the southeast US has been partially transitioned to intensively managed short rotations (~10 years), in which multiple silvicultural interventions are performed during forest development. Understanding the responses to silvicultural practices and continued refinement of site-specific recommendations is critical to sustainably maximize forest production. We evaluated the effects of silvicultural practices (herbicide, fertilization, and planting density) on growth, stand homogeneity, and above- and belowground biomass accumulation and partitioning of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)...

Data from: Ringed seal (Pusa hispida) seasonal movements, diving, and haul-out behavior in the Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering seas (2011–2017)

Andrew Von Duyke, David Douglas, Jason Herreman & Justin Crawford
Continued Arctic warming and sea-ice loss will have important implications for the conservation of ringed seals, a highly ice-dependent species. A better understanding of their spatial ecology will help characterize emerging ecological trends and inform management decisions. We deployed satellite transmitters on ringed seals in the summers of 2011, 2014, and 2016 near Utqiaġvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska to monitor their movements, diving, and haul-out behavior. We present analyses of tracking and dive data provided by...

Thermal constraints on energy balance, behavior, and spatial distribution of grizzly bears

Savannah Rogers, Charles Robbins, Paul Mathewson, Anthony Carnahan, Frank Van Manen, Mark Haroldson, Warren Porter, Taylor Rogers, Terence Soule & Ryan Long
1. Heat dissipation limit theory posits that energy available for growth and reproduction in endotherms is limited by their ability to dissipate heat. In mammals, endogenous heat production increases markedly during gestation and lactation, and thus female mammals may be subject to greater thermal constraints on energy expenditure than males. Such constraints likely have important implications for behavior and population performance in a warming climate. 2. We used a mechanistic simulation model based on first...

Optimal allocation of law enforcement patrol effort to mitigate poaching activities

Bradley Udell, Jennifer Moore, Julien Martin, Ezechiel Turikunkiko & Michel Masozera
Poaching is a global problem causing the decline of species worldwide. Optimizing the efficiency of ranger patrols to deter poaching activity at the lowest possible cost is crucial for protecting species with limited resources. We applied decision analysis and spatial optimization algorithms to allocate efforts of ranger patrols throughout a national park. Our objective was to mitigate poaching activity at or below management risk targets for the lowest monetary cost. We examined this tradeoff by...

Data from: Lousy grouse: comparing evolutionary patterns in Alaska galliform lice to understand host evolution and host-parasite interactions

Andrew Sweet, Robert Wilson, Sarah Sonsthagen & Kevin Johnson
Understanding both sides of host-parasite relationships can provide more complete insights into host and parasite biology in natural systems. For example, phylogenetic and population genetic comparisons between a group of hosts and their closely associated parasites can reveal patterns of host dispersal, interspecies interactions, and population structure that might not be evident from host data alone. These comparisons are also useful for understanding factors that drive host-parasite coevolutionary patterns (e.g., codivergence or host switching) over...

Data from: Latitudinal patterns of alien plant invasions

Qinfeng Guo, Brian Cade, Wayne Dawson, Franz Essl, Holger Kreft, Jan Jan Pergl, Mark Van Kleunen, Patrick Weigelt, Marten Winter & Petr Pysek
Latitudinal patterns of biodiversity have long been a central topic in ecology and evolutionary biology. However, while most previous studies have focused on native species, little effort has been devoted to latitudinal patterns of plant invasions (with a few exceptions based on data from sparse locations). Using the most up-to-date worldwide native and alien plant distribution data from 801 regions (including islands), we compared invasion levels (i.e. alien richness/total richness) in the Northern and Southern...

Mixed-stock analysis using Rapture genotyping to evaluate stock-specific exploitation of a walleye population despite weak genetic structure

Peter Euclide, Matthew Faust, Tom MacDougall, Jason Robinson, Chris Wilson, Kuan-Yu Chen, Elizabeth Marschall, Wesley Larson & Stuart Ludsin
Mixed-stock analyses using genetic markers have informed fisheries management in cases where strong genetic differentiation occurs among local spawning populations, yet many fisheries are supported by multiple spawning stocks that are weakly differentiated. Freshwater fisheries exemplify this problem, with many harvested populations supported by multiple stocks of young evolutionary age and that are isolated across small spatial scales. As a result, attempts to conduct genetic mixed-stock analyses of inland fisheries have often been unsuccessful. Advances...

Data from: Allometric scaling of eDNA production in stream-dwelling brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) inferred from population size structure

Matthew Yates, Taylor Wilcox, Kevin McKelvey, Michael Young, Michael Schwartz & Alison Derry
Environmental DNA (eDNA) concentration exhibits a positive correlation with organism abundance in nature, but modelling this relationship could be substantially improved by incorporating the biology of eDNA production. A recent model (Yates et al. 2020) extended models of physiological allometric scaling to eDNA production, hypothesizing that brook trout eDNA production scales non-linearly with mass as a power-function with scaling coefficients < 1 in lakes. To validate this hypothesis, we re-analysed data from Wilcox et al....

Data from: Diet of a rare herbivore based on DNA metabarcoding of feces: selection, seasonality, and survival

Amanda Goldberg, Courtney Conway, David Tank, Kimberly Andrews, Digpal Gour & Lisette Waits
In herbivores, survival and reproduction are influenced by quality and quantity of forage and, hence, diet and foraging behavior are the foundation of an herbivore’s life history strategy. Given the importance of diet to most herbivores, it is imperative that we know the species of plants they prefer, especially for herbivorous species that are at risk for extinction. However, it is often difficult to identify the diet of small herbivores because: 1) they are difficult...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text


  • United States Geological Survey
  • University of Florida
  • University of Minnesota
  • The Ohio State University
  • University of Georgia
  • University of Wyoming
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • Agricultural Research Service
  • University of Idaho
  • United States Fish and Wildlife Service