276 Works

Temperature and copper effects on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

N. Cedergreen, N.J. Nørhave, C. Svendsen & D.J. Spurgeon
Data comprise body length (micrometres) of nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans) offspring from a laboratory study in which animals were exposed to control (0 copper) or copper dosed agar at different average temperatures (8 to 24 °C)) and under fluctuation conditions of low (plus or minus 4 °C) and high (plus or minus 8 °C) amplitude (average temperatures of 12, 16, 20 °C and 16 °C respectively)

Data from: Geographic and temporal dynamics of a global radiation and diversification in the killer whale

Phillip A. Morin, Kim M. Parsons, Frederick I. Archer, María C. Ávila-Arcos, Lance G. Barrett-Lennard, Luciano Dalla Rosa, Sebastián Duchêne, John W. Durban, Graeme M. Ellis, Steven H. Ferguson, John K. Ford, Michael J. Ford, Cristina Gabrilao, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Kristin Kaschner, Craig O. Matkin, Stephen D. Petersen, Kelly M. Robertson, Ingrid N. Visser, Paul R. Wade, Simon Y. W. Ho & Andrew D. Foote
Global climate change during the Late Pleistocene periodically encroached and then released habitat during the glacial cycles, causing range expansions and contractions in some species. These dynamics have played a major role in geographic radiations, diversification and speciation. We investigate these dynamics in the most widely distributed of marine mammals, the killer whale (Orcinus orca), using a global data set of over 450 samples. This marine top predator inhabits coastal and pelagic ecosystems ranging from...

Data from: Limited dietary overlap amongst resident Arctic herbivores in winter - complementary insights from complementary methods

Niels M. Schmidt, Jesper B. Mosbacher, Eero J. Vesterinen, Tomas Roslin & Anders Michelsen
Snow may prevent Arctic herbivores from accessing their forage in winter, forcing them to aggregate in the few patches with limited snow. In High Arctic Greenland, Arctic hare and rock ptarmigan often forage in muskox feeding craters. We therefore hypothesized that due to limited availability of forage, the dietary niches of these resident herbivores overlap considerably, and that the overlap increases as winter progresses. To test this, we analyzed fecal samples collected in early and...

Data from: Asymmetric winter warming advanced plant phenology to a greater extent than symmetric warming in an alpine meadow

Ji Suonan, Aimée T. Classen, Zhenhua Zhang & Jin-Sheng He
The warming of terrestrial high-latitude ecosystems, while increasing, will likely be asymmetric across seasons – where winter non-growing seasons will warm more than summer growing seasons. Asymmetric winter warming in temperature-sensitive ecosystems may delay spring phenological events by reducing the opportunity that a plants’ chilling requirement is met. Similarly, symmetric warming can advance spring phenology. To explore the impact of asymmetric warming on plant phenology, we applied a year-round warming and a winter warming treatment...

Data from: Coordinated responses of soil communities to elevation in three subarctic vegetation types

G. F. Ciska Veen, Jonathan R. De Long, Paul Kardol, Maja K. Sundqvist, L. Basten Snoek & David A. Wardle
Global warming has begun to have a major impact on the species composition and functioning of plant and soil communities. However, long-term community and ecosystem responses to increased temperature are still poorly understood. In this study, we used a well-established elevational gradient in northern Sweden to elucidate how plant, microbial and nematode communities shift with elevation and associated changes in temperature in three highly contrasting vegetation types (i.e. heath, meadow and Salix vegetation). We found...

Data from: The evolution of abdominal microbiomes in fungus-growing ants

Panagiotis Sapountzis, David R. Nash, Schiott Morten & Boomsma Jacobus
The attine ants are a monophyletic lineage that switched to fungus-farming ca. 55-60 MYA. They have become a model for the study of complex symbioses after additional fungal and bacterial symbionts were discovered, but their abdominal endosymbiotic bacteria remain largely unknown. Here we present a comparative microbiome analysis of endosymbiotic bacteria spanning the entire phylogenetic tree. We show that, across 17 representative sympatric species from eight genera sampled in Panama, abdominal microbiomes are dominated by...

Data from: Reduced signal for polygenic adaptation of height in UK Biobank

Jeremy J. Berg, Arbel Harpak, Nasa Sinnott-Armstrong, Anja Moltke Joergensen, Hakhamanesh Mostafavi, Yair Field, Evan August Boyle, Xinjun Zhang, Fernando Racimo, Jonathan K. Pritchard & Graham Coop
Several recent papers have reported strong signals of selection on European polygenic height scores. These analyses used height effect estimates from the GIANT consortium and replication studies. Here, we describe a new analysis based on the the UK Biobank (UKB), a large, independent dataset. We find that the signals of selection using UKB effect estimates are strongly attenuated or absent. We also provide evidence that previous analyses were confounded by population stratification. Therefore, the conclusion...

Data from: Association of in utero persistent organic pollutant exposure with placental thyroid hormones

Zhong-Min Li, David Hernandez-Moreno, Katharina Maria Main, Niels Erik Skakkebæk, Hannu Kiviranta, Jorma Toppari, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Heqing Shen, Karl-Werner Schramm & Meri De Angelis
In utero exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can result in thyroid function disorder, leading to concerns about their impact on fetal and neonatal development. The present study was performed to investigate the associations between placental levels of various POPs and thyroid hormones (THs). In a prospective Danish study initially established for assessing congenital cryptorchidism, 58 placenta samples were collected from mothers of boys born with (28) and without (30) cryptorchidism. The concentrations of polybrominated...

Data from: Genetic constraints on dishonesty and caste dimorphism in an ant

Luke Holman, Timothy A. Linksvayer & Patrizia D'Ettorre
The ultimate causes of honest signaling remain a subject of debate, with questions remaining over the relative importance of costs and constraints. Signal costs may make dishonesty prohibitively expensive, while genetic constraints could make it impossible. We investigated honest signaling using full-sib analysis and parent-offspring regression in the ant Lasius niger, in which queens produce a cuticular hydrocarbon-based pheromone that signals fertility and inhibits worker reproduction and aggression. We found multiple lines of evidence that...

Data from: Understanding geographic origins and history of admixture among chimpanzees in European zoos, with implications for future breeding programmes

Christina Hvilsom, Peter Frandsen, Claus Børsting, Frands Carlsen, Bettina Sallé, Bo T. Simonsen & Hans R. Siegismund
Despite ample focus on this endangered species, conservation planning for chimpanzees residing outside Africa has proven a challenge because of the lack of ancestry information. Here, we analysed the largest number of chimpanzee samples to date, examining microsatellites in >100 chimpanzees from the range of the species in Africa, and 20% of the European zoo population. We applied the knowledge about subspecies differentiation throughout equatorial Africa to assign origin to chimpanzees in the largest conservation...

Data from: Comparative analyses of QTLs influencing obesity and metabolic phenotypes in pigs and humans

Sameer D. Pant, Peter Karlskov-Mortensen, Mette J. Jacobsen, Susanna Cirera, Lisette J. A. Kogelman, Camilla S. Bruun, Thomas Mark, Claus B. Jørgensen, Niels Grarup, Emil V. R. Appel, Ehm A. A. Galjatovic, Torben Hansen, Oluf B. Pedersen, Maryse Guerin, Thierry Huby, Philippe Lesnik, Theo H. E. Meuwissen, Haja N. Kadarmideen, Merete Fredholm & Oluf Pedersen
The pig is a well-known animal model used to investigate genetic and mechanistic aspects of human disease biology. They are particularly useful in the context of obesity and metabolic diseases because other widely used models (e.g. mice) do not completely recapitulate key pathophysiological features associated with these diseases in humans. Therefore, we established a F2 pig resource population (n = 564) designed to elucidate the genetics underlying obesity and metabolic phenotypes. Segregation of obesity traits...

Data from: Plasma pro-atrial natriuretic peptide to indicate fluid balance during cystectomy: a prospective observational study

Kirsten C. Rasmussen, Michael Højskov, Birgitte Ruhnau, Lisbeth Salling, Tom Pedersen, Jens P. Goetze & Niels H. Secher
Objectives: During surgery the volume of administered fluid is debated. Pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (proANP) is released by atrial distension, and we evaluated the relationship between changes in proANP associated with perioperative fluid balance. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: One university/tertiary centre. Participants: The study included patients who underwent radical cystectomy. Plasma for determination of proANP was obtained before surgery, after resection of the bladder, and at the end of surgery for 20 robotic-assisted radical cystectomy...

Data from: Interactions among roots, mycorrhizae and free-living microbial communities differentially impact soil carbon processes

Jessica A. M. Moore, Jiang Jiang, Courtney M. Patterson, Gangsheng Wang, Melanie A. Mayes & Aimée T. Classen
Plant roots, their associated microbial community and free-living soil microbes interact to regulate the movement of carbon from the soil to the atmosphere, one of the most important and least understood fluxes of terrestrial carbon. Our inadequate understanding of how plant–microbial interactions alter soil carbon decomposition may lead to poor model predictions of terrestrial carbon feedbacks to the atmosphere. Roots, mycorrhizal fungi and free-living soil microbes can alter soil carbon decomposition through exudation of carbon...

Data from: Establishing a community-wide DNA barcode library as a new tool for arctic research

H. Wirta, G. Várkonyi, C. Rasmussen, R. Kaartinen, N. M. Schmidt, P. D. N. Hebert, M. Barták, G. Blagoev, H. Disney, S. Ertl, P. Gjelstrup, D. J. Gwiazdowicz, L. Huldén, J. Ilmonen, J. Jakovlev, M. Jaschhof, J. Kahanpää, T. Kankaanpää, P. H. Krogh, R. Labbee, C. Lettner, V. Michelsen, S. A. Nielsen, T. R. Nielsen, L. Paasivirta … & T. Roslin
DNA sequences offer powerful tools for describing the members and interactions of natural communities. In this study, we establish the to-date most comprehensive library of DNA barcodes for a terrestrial site, including all known macroscopic animals and vascular plants of an intensively studied area of the High Arctic, the Zackenberg Valley in Northeast Greenland. To demonstrate its utility, we apply the library to identify nearly 20 000 arthropod individuals from two Malaise traps, each operated...

Data from: Genetic diversity, virulence and fitness evolution in an obligate fungal parasite of bees

Sophie. E. F. Evison, Kirsten Foley, Annette Bruun Jensen & William O. H. Hughes
Within-host competition is predicted to drive the evolution of virulence in parasites, but the precise outcomes of such interactions are often unpredictable due to many factors including the biology of the host and the parasite, stochastic events and co-evolutionary interactions. Here, we use a serial passage experiment (SPE) with three strains of a heterothallic fungal parasite (Ascosphaera apis) of the Honey bee (Apis mellifera) to assess how evolving under increasing competitive pressure affects parasite virulence...

Data from: Genetic diversity loss in a biodiversity hotspot: ancient DNA quantifies genetic decline and former connectivity in a critically endangered marsupial.

Carlo Pacioni, Helen Hunt, Morten E. Allentoft, Timothy G. Vaughan, Adrian F. Wayne, Alexander Baynes, Dalal Haouchar, Joe Dortch & Michael Bunce
The extent of genetic diversity loss and former connectivity between fragmented populations are often unknown factors when studying endangered species. While genetic techniques are commonly applied in extant populations to assess temporal and spatial demographic changes, it is no substitute for directly measuring past diversity using ancient DNA (aDNA). We analysed both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear microsatellite loci from 64 historical fossil and skin samples of the critically endangered Western Australian woylie (Bettongia penicillata...

Data from: The evolution of bat nucleic acid sensing Toll-like receptors

Marina Escalera-Zamudio, Lisandra M. Zepeda-Mendoza, Elizabeth Loza-Rubio, Edith Rojas-Anaya, Maria L. Méndez-Ojeda, Carlos F. Arias & Alex D. Greenwood
We characterized the nucleic acid sensing Toll-like receptors (TLR) of a New World bat species, the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), and through a comparative molecular evolutionary approach searched for general adaptation patterns among the nucleic acid sensing TLRs of eight different bats species belonging to three families (Pteropodidae, Vespertilionidae and Phyllostomidae). We found that the bat TLRs are evolving slowly and mostly under purifying selection and that the divergence pattern of such receptors is...

Data from: Tolerance to gamma radiation in the marine heterotardigrade, Echiniscoides sigismundi

K. Ingemar Jönsson, Thomas L. Hygum, Kasper N. Andersen, Lykke K. B. Clausen & Nadja Møbjerg
Tardigrades belong to the most radiation tolerant animals on Earth, as documented by a number of studies using both low-LET and high-LET ionizing radiation. Previous studies have focused on semi-terrestrial species, which are also very tolerant to desiccation. The predominant view on the reason for the high radiation tolerance among these semi-terrestrial species, is that it relies on molecular mechanisms that evolved as adaptations for surviving dehydration. In this study we report the first study...

Data from: The genome of the clonal raider ant Cerapachys biroi

Peter R. Oxley, Lu Ji, Ingrid Fetter-Pruneda, Sean K. McKenzie, Cai Li, Haofu Hu, Guojie Zhang & Daniel J. C. Kronauer
Social insects are important models for social evolution and behavior. However, in many species, experimental control over important factors that regulate division of labor, such as genotype and age, is limited. Furthermore, most species have fixed queen and worker castes, making it difficult to establish causality between the molecular mechanisms that underlie reproductive division of labor, the hallmark of insect societies. Here we present the genome of the queenless clonal raider ant Cerapachys biroi, a...

Data from: Evidence that microgynes of Myrmica rubra ants are social parasites that attack old host colonies

Sämi Schär & David R. Nash
Ant microgynes are miniaturized queen forms found together with normal queens (macrogynes) in species occurring across the ant phylogeny. Their role is not yet fully understood: in some cases, they seem to be nonparasitic alternative reproductive morphs, in others incipient social parasites, and thus potential models for studying the evolution of social parasitism. Whether they are regarded as parasitic or not has traditionally been based on genetic differentiation from syntopic macrogynes and/or the queen/worker ratio...

Data from: Diet specialization in an extreme omnivore: nutritional regulation in glucose-averse German cockroaches

Jonathan Z. Shik, Coby Schal & Jules Silverman
Organisms have diverse adaptations for balancing dietary nutrients, but often face trade-offs between ingesting nutrients and toxins in food. While extremely omnivorous cockroaches would seem excluded from such dietary trade-offs, German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in multiple populations have rapidly evolved a unique dietary specialization – an aversion to glucose, the phagostimulant in toxic baits used for pest control. We used factorial feeding experiments within the geometric framework to test whether glucose-averse (GA) cockroaches with limited...

Data from: Nitrogen saturation in humid tropical forests after 6 years of nitrogen and phosphorus addition: hypothesis testing

Hao Chen, Geshere A. Gurmesa, Wei Zhang, Xiaomin Zhu, Mianhai Zheng, Qinggong Mao, Tao Zhang & Jiangming Mo
Nitrogen (N) saturation hypothesis suggests that when an ecosystem reaches N-saturation, continued N input will cause increased N leaching, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, and N mineralization and nitrification rates. It also suggests that a different element will become the main limiting factor when N saturation has been reached. Although this hypothesis has been tested in temperate forests, whether they can be directly applied to N-saturated tropical forests remain poorly addressed. To test this hypothesis, soil...

Data from: Evidence of small-scale spatial structuring of phytoplankton alpha- and beta-diversity in the open ocean

Erik Askov Mousing, Katherine Richardson, Jørgen Bendtsen, Ivona Cetinić & Mary Jane Perry
Phytoplankton assemblages in the open ocean are usually assumed to be mixed on local scales unless large semi-permanent density discontinuities separating water masses are present. Recent modelling studies have, however, suggested that ephemeral submesoscale oceanographic features leading to only subtle density discontinuities may be important for controlling phytoplankton alpha- and beta-diversity patterns. Until now, no empirical evidence has been presented to support this hypothesis. Using hydrographic and taxonomic composition data collected near Iceland during the...

Data from: Cell cycle-dependent differentiation dynamics balances growth and endocrine differentiation in the pancreas

Yung Hae Kim, Hjalte List Larsen, Pau Rué, Laurence A. Lemaire, Jorge Ferrer & Anne Grapin-Botton
Organogenesis relies on the spatiotemporal balancing of differentiation and proliferation driven by an expanding pool of progenitor cells. In the mouse pancreas, lineage tracing at the population level has shown that the expanding pancreas progenitors can initially give rise to all endocrine, ductal, and acinar cells but become bipotent by embryonic day 13.5, giving rise to endocrine cells and ductal cells. However, the dynamics of individual progenitors balancing self-renewal and lineage-specific differentiation has never been...

Data from: Phylogenetic uncertainty revisited: implications for ecological analyses

Thiago Fernando Rangel, Robert K. Colwell, Gary R. Graves, Karolina Fučíková, Carsten Rahbek & José Alexandre F. Diniz-Filho
Ecologists and biogeographers usually rely on a single phylogenetic tree to study evolutionary processes that affect macroecological patterns. This approach ignores the fact that each phylogenetic tree is a hypothesis about the evolutionary history of a clade, and cannot be directly observed in nature. Also, trees often leave out many extant species, or include missing species as polytomies because of a lack of information on the relationship among taxa. Still, researchers usually do not quantify...

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  • University of Copenhagen
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  • Lund University