279 Works

Data from: Temperature shapes opposing latitudinal gradients of plant taxonomic and phylogenetic β diversity

Ian R. McFadden, Brody Sandel, Constantinos Tsirogiannis, Naia Morueta-Holme, Jens-Christian Svenning, Brian J. Enquist & Nathan J. B. Kraft
Latitudinal and elevational richness gradients have received much attention from ecologists but there is little consensus on underlying causes. One possible proximate cause is increased levels of species turnover, or β diversity, in the tropics compared to temperate regions. Here, we leverage a large botanical dataset to map taxonomic and phylogenetic β diversity, as mean turnover between neighboring 100 × 100 km cells, across the Americas and determine key climatic drivers. We find taxonomic and...

Data from: Divergent trophic responses to biogeographic and environmental gradients

Miguel G. Matias, Cátia Lúcio Pereira, Pedro Miguel Raposeiro, Vítor Gonçalves, Ana Mafalda Cruz, Ana Cristina Costa & Miguel Bastos Araújo
Following environmental changes, communities disassemble and reassemble in seemingly unpredictable ways. Whether species respond to such changes individualistically or collectively (e.g. as functional groups) is still unclear. To address this question, we used an extensive new dataset for the lake communities in the Azores' archipelago to test whether: 1) individual species respond concordantly within trophic groups; 2) trophic groups respond concordantly to biogeographic and environmental gradients. Spatial concordance in individual species distributions within trophic groups...

Data from: Aquatic community structure across an Andes-to-Amazon fluvial gradient

Nathan K. Lujan, Katherine A. Roach, Dean Jacobsen, Kirk O. Winemiller, Vanessa Meza Vargas, Vania Rimarachín Ching & Jerry Arana Maestre
Aim: Little is known about factors affecting the elevational and longitudinal zonation of tropical Andean stream communities. We investigated epilithon, macroinvertebrate and fish assemblages along a 4100-m elevational–longitudinal gradient in an Andean headwater of the Amazon Basin. We interpret our results within the context of environmental factors, emphasizing temperature, as well as ecological theory relating shifts in metazoan functional feeding groups to shifts in basal resources along the fluvial continuum. Location: Arazá-Inambari-Madre de Dios watershed,...

Data from: Disentangling synergistic disease dynamics: Implications for the viral biocontrol of rabbits

Konstans Wells, Damien A. Fordham, Barry W. Brook, Phillip Cassey, Tarnya Cox, Robert B. O’Hara, Nina I. Schwensow & Robert B. O'Hara
European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been exposed to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and myxoma virus (MYXV) in their native and invasive ranges for decades. Yet, the long‐term effects of these viruses on rabbit population dynamics remain poorly understood. In this context, we analysed 17 years of detailed capture–mark–recapture data (2000–2016) from Turretfield, South Australia, using a probabilistic state‐space hierarchical modelling framework to estimate rabbit survival and epidemiological dynamics. While RHDV infection and disease‐induced death...

Data from: Eradicating abundant invasive prey could cause unexpected and varied biodiversity outcomes: the importance of multi-species interactions

Miguel Lurgi, Euan G. Ritchie & Damien A. Fordham
1. Abundant and widely-distributed invasive prey can negatively affect co-occurring native species by competing for food and/or shelter, removing vegetation cover and reducing habitat complexity (changing predation risk), and by sustaining elevated abundances of invasive mesopredators. However, information regarding the community and trophic consequences of controlling invasive prey, and their temporal dynamics, remain poorly understood. 2. We used multi-species ecological network models to simulate the consequences of changing European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus abundance in an...

Data from: Population genetic structure of the endemic rosewoods Dalbergia cochinchinensis and D. oliveri at a regional scale reflects the Indochinese landscape and life-history traits

Ida Hartvig, Thea So, Suchitra Changtragoon, Hoa Thi Tran, Somsanith Bouamanivong, Ida Theilade, Erik Dahl Kjaer & Lene Rostgaard Nielsen
Indochina is a biodiversity hot spot and harbors a high number of endemic species, most of which are poorly studied. This study explores the genetic structure and reproductive system of the threatened endemic timber species Dalbergia cochinchinensis and Dalbergia oliveri using microsatellite data from populations across Indochina and relates it to landscape characteristics and life-history traits. We found that the major water bodies in the region, Mekong and Tonle Sap, represented barriers to gene flow...

Data from: Camponotus floridanus ants incur a trade-off between phenotypic development and pathogen susceptibility from their mutualistic Endosymbiont Blochmannia

Veronica M. Sinotte, Samantha N. Freedman, Line V. Ugelvig, Marc A. Seid, Line Ugelvig, Samantha Freedman, Veronica Sinotte & Marc Seid
Various insects engage in microbial mutualisms in which the reciprocal benefits exceed the costs. Ants of the genus Camponotus benefit from nutrient supplementation by their mutualistic endosymbiotic bacteria, Blochmannia, but suffer a cost in tolerating and regulating the symbiont. This cost suggests that the ants face secondary consequences such as susceptibility to pathogenic infection and transmission. In order to elucidate the symbiont’s effects on development and disease defence, Blochmannia floridanus was reduced in colonies of...

Data from: Hyper-Theory-of-Mind in children with psychotic experiences

Lars Clemmensen, Jim Van Os, Anne Mette Skovgaard, Mette Væver, Els M. A. Blijd-Hoogewys, Agna A. Bartels-Velthuis & Pia Jeppesen
Background: Alterations in Theory-of-Mind (ToM) are associated with psychotic disorder. In addition, studies in children have documented that alterations in ToM are associated with Psychotic Experiences (PE). Our aim was to examine associations between an exaggerated type of ToM (HyperToM) and PE in children. Children with this type of alteration in ToM infer mental states when none are obviously suggested, and predict behaviour on the basis of these erroneous beliefs. Individuals with HyperToM do not...

Data from: Acid-sensing ion channels emerged over 600 MYA and are conserved throughout the deuterostomes

Timothy Lynagh, Yana Mikhaleva, Janne M. Colding, Joel C. Glover & Stephan A. Pless
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated ion channels broadly expressed in the vertebrate nervous system, converting decreased extracellular pH into excitatory sodium current. ASICs were previously thought to be a vertebrate-specific branch of the DEG/ENaC family, a broadly conserved but functionally diverse family of channels. Here, we provide phylogenetic and experimental evidence that ASICs are conserved throughout deuterostome animals, showing that ASICs evolved over 600 million years ago. We also provide evidence of ASIC expression...

Data from: Naturalized plants decrease diet similarity between an invasive bird and its most similar native species

Gonçalo C. Rodrigues, Paulo Alves, Joana R. Vicente, João P. Honrado & Gonçalo C. Cardoso
Although invasive animals can compete with native species for resources, detrimental competition for food is seldom reported in the avian invasions literature. In temperate climates, food limitation and energetic stress are higher during winter and, thus, winter diets might reveal competition that is not apparent during the rest of the year. We compared autumn and winter diets of the invasive common waxbill (Estrilda astrild) in northwest Iberia, and of the native bird most similar to...

Data from: A mimicked bacterial infection prolongs stopover duration in songbirds – but more pronounced in short- than long-distance migrants

Arne Hegemann, Pablo Alcalde Abril, Sissel Sjöberg, Rachel Muheim, Thomas Alerstam, Jan-Åke Nilsson & Dennis Hasselquist
1) Migration usually consists of intermittent travel and stopovers, the latter being crucially important for individuals to recover and refuel to successfully complete migration. Quantifying how sickness behaviours influence stopovers is crucial for our understanding of migration ecology and how diseases spread. However, little is known about infections in songbirds, which constitute the majority of avian migrants. 2) We experimentally immune-challenged autumn migrating passerines (both short- and long-distance migrating species) with a simulated bacterial infection....

Data from: Population structure, relatedness and ploidy levels in an apple gene bank revealed through genotyping-by-sequencing

Bjarne Larsen, Kyle Gardner, Carsten Pedersen, Marian Ørgaard, Zoë Migicovsky, Sean Myles & Torben Bo Toldam-Andersen
In recent years, new genome-wide marker systems have provided highly informative alternatives to low density marker systems for evaluating plant populations. To date, most apple germplasm collections have been genotyped using low-density markers such as simple sequence repeats (SSRs), whereas only a few have been explored using high-density genome-wide marker information. We explored the genetic diversity of the Pometum gene bank collection (University of Copenhagen, Denmark) of 349 apple accessions using over 15,000 genome-wide single...

Data from: Trait evolution, resource specialization and vulnerability to plant extinctions among Antillean hummingbirds

Bo Dalsgaard, Jonathan D. Kennedy, Benno I. Simmons, Andrea C. Baquero, Ana M. Martín González, Allan Timmermann, Pietro K. Maruyama, Jimmy A. McGuire, Jeff Ollerton, William J. Sutherland & Carsten Rahbek
Species traits are thought to predict feeding specialisation and the vulnerability of a species to extinctions of interaction partners, but the context in which a species evolved and currently inhabits may also matter. Notably, the predictive power of traits may require that traits evolved to fit interaction partners. Furthermore, local abiotic and biotic conditions may be important. On islands, for instance, specialised and vulnerable species are predicted to be found mainly in mountains, whereas species...

Data from: Sexual conflict and intrasexual polymorphism promote assortative mating and halts population differentiation

Lars L. Iversen, Erik I. Svensson, Søren T. Christensen, Johannes Bergsten & Kaj Sand-Jensen
Sexual conflict is thought to be an important evolutionary force in driving phenotypic diversification, population divergence and speciation. However, empirical evidence is inconsistent with the generality of sexual conflict as enhancing population divergence. Here we demonstrate an alternative evolutionary outcome in which sexual conflict plays a conservative role in maintaining male and female polymorphisms locally, rather than promoting population divergence. In diving beetles, female polymorphisms have evolved in response to male mating harassment and sexual...

Data from: Random sperm use and genetic effects on worker caste fate in Atta colombica leaf-cutting ants

Luke Holman, Marlene Stürup, Kalveti Trontti & Jacobus J. Boomsma
Sperm competition can produce fascinating adaptations with far-reaching evolutionary consequences. Social taxa make particularly interesting models, because the outcome of sexual selection determines the genetic composition of groups, with attendant sociobiological consequences. Here, we use molecular tools to uncover some of the mechanisms and consequences of sperm competition in the leaf-cutting ant Atta colombica, a species with extreme worker size polymorphism. Competitive PCR allowed quantification of the relative numbers of sperm stored by queens from...

Data from: Dispersal and gene flow in the rare, parasitic Large Blue butterfly Maculinea arion

Line V. Ugelvig, Anne Andersen, Jacobus J. Boomsma & David R. Nash
Dispersal is crucial for gene flow and often determines the long-term stability of meta-populations, particularly in rare species with specialized life cycles. Such species are often foci of conservation efforts because they suffer disproportionally from degradation and fragmentation of their habitat. However, detailed knowledge of effective gene flow through dispersal is often missing, so that conservation strategies have to be based on mark–recapture observations that are suspected to be poor predictors of long-distance dispersal. These...

Data from: Molecular and pollen-based vegetation analysis in lake sediments from central Scandinavia

Laura Parducci, Irina Matetovici, Sonia L. Fontana, Keith D. Bennett, Yoshihisa Suyama, James Haile, Kurt H. Kjær, Nicolaj K. Larsen, Andreas D. Drouzas, Eske Willerslev & Kurt H. Kjaer
Plant and animal biodiversity can be studied by obtaining DNA directly from the environment. This new approach in combination with the use of generic barcoding primers (metabarcoding) has been suggested as complementary or alternative to traditional biodiversity monitoring in ancient soil sediments. However, the extent to which metabarcoding truly reflects plant composition remains unclear, as does its power to identify species with no pollen or macrofossil evidence. Here, we compared pollen-based and metabarcoding approaches to...

HLA Class II specificity assessed by high-density peptide microarray interactions

Thomas Osterbye, Morten Nielsen, Nadine L. Dudek, Sri H. Ramarathinam, Anthony W. Purcell, Claus Schafer-Nielsen & Soren Buus
The ability to predict and/or identify MHC binding peptides is an essential component of T cell epitope discovery; something that ultimately should benefit the development of vaccines and immunotherapies. In particular, MHC class I (MHC-I) prediction tools have matured to a point where accurate selection of optimal peptide epitopes is possible for virtually all MHC-I allotypes; in comparison, current MHC class II (MHC-II) predictors are less mature. Since MHC-II restricted CD4+ T cells control and...

Data from: Horizontal partner exchange does not preclude stable mutualism in fungus-growing ants

Jack Howe, Morten Schiøtt & Jacobus J. Boomsma
Vertical symbiont transmission tends to stabilize mutualisms by aligning the reproductive interests of cooperating species. The attine ants conform well to this principle, because all species are nutritionally dependent on vertically transmitted and clonally propagated fungal cultivars. Multiple mechanisms expressed by both partners constrain cultivar transmission between established colonies, but these appear not to preclude horizontal transfer during colony founding, consistent with multiple phylogenetic analyses indicating at least occasional horizontal transfer. The ecological and evolutionary...

Data from: A Western route of prehistoric human migration from Africa into the Iberian Peninsula

Gloria Gonzalez-Fortes, Francesca Tassi, Emiliano Trucchi, Kirstin Henneberger, Johanna L.A. Paijmans, Daviz Diez-Del-Molino, Hannes Schroeder, Cecilio Barroso, Francisco J. Bermudez, Cecilio Barroso-Medina, Ana M.S. Bettencourt, Hugo A. Sampaio, Aurora Grandal-D'Anglade, Antonio Salas, Arturo De Lombera-Hermida, Ramon Fabregas, Manuel Vaquero, Susana Alonso, Maria Lozano, Xavier Rodríguez-Alvarez, Carlos Fernández-Rodríguez, Andrea Manica, Michael Hofreiter & Guido Barbujani
Being at the Western fringe of Europe, Iberia had a peculiar prehistory and a complex pattern of Neolithization. A few studies, all based on modern populations, reported the presence of DNA of likely African origin in this region, generally concluding it was the result of recent gene flow, probably during the Islamic period. Here we provide evidence of much older gene flow from Africa to Iberia by sequencing whole genomes from four human remains from...

Screening and microsatellite data for Varroa infesting resistant honey bee pupae

Benjamin Conlon, Chedly Kastally, Marina Kardell, John Kefuss, Robin Moritz & Jarkko Routtu
We investigated how the evolution of host resistance could affect the infesting population of Varroa mites. We screened a Varroa-resistant honey bee population near Toulouse, France, for a Varroa resistance trait: the inhibition of Varroa's reproduction in drone pupae. We then genotyped Varroa which had co-infested a cell using microsatellites. Across all resistant honey bee colonies, Varroa's reproductive success was significantly higher in co-infested cells but the distribution of Varroa between singly and multiply infested...

Floral scent dynamics of Schiedea kaalae and Schiedea hookeri

John Powers, Roger Seco, Celia Faiola, Ann Sakai, Stephen Weller, Diane Campbell & Alex Guenther
Floral scent often intensifies during periods of pollinator activity, but the degree of this synchrony may vary among scent compounds depending on their function. Related plant species with the same pollinator may exhibit similar timing and composition of floral scent. We compared timing and composition of floral volatiles for two endemic Hawaiian plant species, Schiedea kaalae and S. hookeri (Caryophyllaceae). For S. kaalae, we also compared the daily timing of emission of floral volatiles to...

Moho and magmatism in extensional settings

Hans Thybo

Variation of chemical compounds in wild Heliconiini reveals ecological and historical contributions to the evolution of chemical defences in mimetic butterflies

Ombeline Sculfort, Érika Pinheiro De Castro, Krzysztof Kozak, Søren Bak, Marianne Elias, Bastien Nay & Violaine Llaurens
Evolutionary convergence of colour pattern in mimetic species is tightly linked with the evolution of chemical defences. Yet, the evolutionary forces involved in natural variations of chemical defences in aposematic species are still understudied. Herein, we focus on the evolution chemical defences in the butterfly tribe Heliconiini. These neo-tropical butterflies contain large concentrations of cyanogenic glucosides, cyanide-releasing compounds acting as predator deterrent. These compounds are either de novo synthesized or sequestered from their Passiflora host-plant,...

Preface

Eli Skogerbø, Nete Nørgaard Kristensen, Lars Nord & Øyvind Ihlen

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