16 Works

Data from: Fifty thousand years of arctic vegetation and megafaunal diet

Eske Willerslev, John Davison, Mari Moora, Martin Zobel, Eric Coissac, Mary E. Edwards, Eline D. Lorenzen, Mette Vestergård, Galina Gussarova, James Haile, Joseph Craine, Gaddy Bergmann, Ludovic Gielly, Sanne Boessenkool, Laura S. Epp, Peter B. Pearman, Rachid Cheddadi, David Murray, Karri Anne Bråthen, Nigel Yoccoz, Heather Binney, Corinne Cruaud, Patrick Wincker, Tomasz Goslar, Inger Greve Alsos … & Pierre Taberlet
Although it is generally agreed that the arctic flora is among the youngest and least diverse on Earth, the processes that shaped it are poorly understood. Here we present 50 thousand years (kyr) of arctic vegetation history, derived from the first large-scale ancient DNA metabarcoding study of circumpolar plant diversity. For this interval we additionally explore nematode diversity as a proxy for modelling vegetation cover and soil quality, and diets of herbivorous megafaunal mammals, many...

Data from: A century-long genetic record reveals that protist effective population sizes are comparable to those of macroscopic species

Phillip C. Watts, Nina Lundholm, Sofia Ribeiro & Marianne Ellegaard
Effective population size (Ne) determines the rate of genetic drift and the relative influence of selection over random genetic changes. While free-living protist populations characteristically consist of huge numbers of cells (N), the absence of any estimates of contemporary Ne raises the question whether protist effective population sizes are comparably large. Using microsatellite genotype data of strains derived from revived cysts of the marine dinoflagellate Pentapharsodinum dalei from sections of a sediment record that spanned...

Data from: Aquatic community structure across an Andes-to-Amazon fluvial gradient

Nathan K. Lujan, Katherine A. Roach, Dean Jacobsen, Kirk O. Winemiller, Vanessa Meza Vargas, Vania Rimarachín Ching & Jerry Arana Maestre
Aim: Little is known about factors affecting the elevational and longitudinal zonation of tropical Andean stream communities. We investigated epilithon, macroinvertebrate and fish assemblages along a 4100-m elevational–longitudinal gradient in an Andean headwater of the Amazon Basin. We interpret our results within the context of environmental factors, emphasizing temperature, as well as ecological theory relating shifts in metazoan functional feeding groups to shifts in basal resources along the fluvial continuum. Location: Arazá-Inambari-Madre de Dios watershed,...

Data from: Molecular and pollen-based vegetation analysis in lake sediments from central Scandinavia

Laura Parducci, Irina Matetovici, Sonia L. Fontana, Keith D. Bennett, Yoshihisa Suyama, James Haile, Kurt H. Kjær, Nicolaj K. Larsen, Andreas D. Drouzas, Eske Willerslev & Kurt H. Kjaer
Plant and animal biodiversity can be studied by obtaining DNA directly from the environment. This new approach in combination with the use of generic barcoding primers (metabarcoding) has been suggested as complementary or alternative to traditional biodiversity monitoring in ancient soil sediments. However, the extent to which metabarcoding truly reflects plant composition remains unclear, as does its power to identify species with no pollen or macrofossil evidence. Here, we compared pollen-based and metabarcoding approaches to...

Data from: Genetic constraints on dishonesty and caste dimorphism in an ant

Luke Holman, Timothy A. Linksvayer & Patrizia D'Ettorre
The ultimate causes of honest signaling remain a subject of debate, with questions remaining over the relative importance of costs and constraints. Signal costs may make dishonesty prohibitively expensive, while genetic constraints could make it impossible. We investigated honest signaling using full-sib analysis and parent-offspring regression in the ant Lasius niger, in which queens produce a cuticular hydrocarbon-based pheromone that signals fertility and inhibits worker reproduction and aggression. We found multiple lines of evidence that...

Data from: Understanding geographic origins and history of admixture among chimpanzees in European zoos, with implications for future breeding programmes

Christina Hvilsom, Peter Frandsen, Claus Børsting, Frands Carlsen, Bettina Sallé, Bo T. Simonsen & Hans R. Siegismund
Despite ample focus on this endangered species, conservation planning for chimpanzees residing outside Africa has proven a challenge because of the lack of ancestry information. Here, we analysed the largest number of chimpanzee samples to date, examining microsatellites in >100 chimpanzees from the range of the species in Africa, and 20% of the European zoo population. We applied the knowledge about subspecies differentiation throughout equatorial Africa to assign origin to chimpanzees in the largest conservation...

Data from: Differential gene expression in Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants after challenges with two fungal pathogens

Sze H. Yek, Jacobus J. Boomsma & Morten Schiøtt
Social insects in general and leaf-cutting ants in particular have increased selection pressures on their innate immune system due to their social lifestyle and monoclonality of the symbiotic fungal cultivar. As this symbiosis is obligate for both parties, prophylactic behavioural defences against infections are expected to increase either ant survival or fungus-garden survival, but also to possibly trade off when specific infections differ in potential danger. We examined the effectiveness of prophylactic behaviours and modulations...

Data from: The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Butomus umbellatus - a member of an early branching lineage of monocotyledons

Argelia Cuenca, Gitte Petersen & Ole Seberg
In order to study the evolution of mitochondrial genomes in the early branching lineages of the monocotyledons, i.e., the Acorales and Alismatales, we are sequencing complete genomes from a suite of key taxa. As a starting point the present paper describes the mitochondrial genome of Butomus umbellatus (Butomaceae) based on next-generation sequencing data. The genome was assembled into a circular molecule, 450,826 bp in length. Coding sequences cover only 8.2% of the genome and include...

Data from: The evolution of queen pheromones in the ant genus Lasius

Luke Holman, Robert Lanfear & Patrizia D'Ettorre
Queen pheromones are among the most important chemical messages regulating insect societies yet they remain largely undiscovered, hindering research into interesting proximate and ultimate questions. Identifying queen pheromones in multiple species would give new insight into the selective pressures and evolutionary constraints acting on these ubiquitous signals. Here, we present experimental and phylogenetic evidence that 3-methylalkanes, hydrocarbons present on the queen’s cuticle, are a queen pheromone throughout the ant genus Lasius. Phylogenetic analyses of the...

Data from: Taxonomy, biogeography and DNA barcodes of Geodia species (Porifera, Demospongiae, Tetractinellida) in the Atlantic boreo-arctic region

Paco Cárdenas, Hans Tore Rapp, Anne Birgitte Klitgaard, Megan Best, Mikael Thollesson & Ole Secher Tendal
Geodia species north of 60°N in the Atlantic appeared in the literature for the first time when Bowerbank described Geodia barretti and G. macandrewii in 1858 from western Norway. Since then, a number of species have been based on material from various parts of the region: G. simplex, Isops phlegraei, I. pallida, I. sphaeroides, Synops pyriformis, G. parva, G. normani, G. atlantica, Sidonops mesotriaena (now called G. hentscheli), and G. simplicissima. In addition to these...

Data from: The effects of insects, nutrients, and plant invasion on community structure and function above- and belowground

Phoebe Wright, Melissa A. Cregger, Lara Souza, Nathan J. Sanders & Aimée T. Classen
Soil nutrient availability, invasive plants, and insect presence can directly alter ecosystem structure and function, but less is known about how these factors may interact. In this 6-year study in an old-field ecosystem, we manipulated insect abundance (reduced and control), the propagule pressure of an invasive nitrogen-fixing plant (propagules added and control), and soil nutrient availability (nitrogen added, nitrogen reduced and control) in a fully crossed, completely randomized plot design. We found that nutrient amendment...

Data from: Queen signalling in social wasps

Jelle Stijn Van Zweden, Wim Bonckaert, Tom Wenseleers & Patrizia D'Ettorre
Social Hymenoptera are characterized by a reproductive division of labour, whereby queens perform most of the reproduction and workers help to raise her offspring. A long-lasting debate is whether queens maintain this reproductive dominance by manipulating their daughter workers into remaining sterile (queen control), or if instead queens honestly signal their fertility and workers reproduce according to their own evolutionary incentives (queen signalling). Here we test these competing hypotheses using data from Vespine wasps. We...

Data from: Specificity and stability of the Acromyrmex-Pseudonocardia symbiosis

Sandra Breum Andersen, Lars H. Hansen, Søren J. Sørensen, Jacobus J. Boomsma & P. Sapountzis
The stability of mutualistic interactions is likely to be affected by the genetic diversity of symbionts that compete for the same functional niche. Fungus-growing (attine) ants have multiple complex symbioses and thus provide ample opportunities to address questions of symbiont specificity and diversity. Among the partners are Actinobacteria of the genus Pseudonocardia that are maintained on the ant cuticle to produce antibiotics, primarily against a fungal parasite of the mutualistic gardens. The symbiosis has been...

Data from: Identification and mapping of linear antibody epitopes in human serum albumin using high-density peptide arrays

Lajla Bruntse Hansen, Soren Buus & Claus Schafer-Nielsen
We have recently developed a high-density photolithographic, peptide array technology with a theoretical upper limit of 2 million different peptides per array of 2 cm2. Here, we have used this to perform complete and exhaustive analyses of linear B cell epitopes of a medium sized protein target using human serum albumin (HSA) as an example. All possible overlapping 15-mers from HSA were synthesized and probed with a commercially available polyclonal rabbit anti-HSA antibody preparation. To...

Data from: How to characterize chemical exposure to predict ecologic effects on aquatic communities?

Ralf B. Schäfer, Nadine Gerner, Ben J. Kefford, Jes J. Rasmussen, Mikhail A. Beketov, Dick De Zwart, Matthias Liess & Peter C. Von Der Ohe
Reliable characterization of exposure is indispensable for ecological risk assessment of chemicals. To deal with mixtures, several approaches have been developed, but their relevance for predicting ecological effects on communities in the field has not been elucidated. In the present study, we compared nine metrics designed for estimating the total toxicity of mixtures regarding their relationship with an effect metric for stream macroinvertebrates. This was done using monitoring data of biota and organic chemicals, mainly...

Data from: Delimiting tropical mountain ecoregions for conservation

Philip J. Platts, Neil D. Burgess, Roy E. Gereau, Jon C. Lovett, Andrew R. Marshall, Colin J. McClean, Petri K. E. Pellikka, Ruth D. Swetnam & Rob Marchant
Ecological regions aggregate habitats with similar biophysical characteristics within well-defined boundaries, providing spatially consistent platforms for monitoring, managing and forecasting the health of interrelated ecosystems. A major obstacle to the implementation of this approach is imprecise and inconsistent boundary placement. For globally important mountain regions such as the Eastern Arc (Tanzania and Kenya), where qualitative definitions of biophysical affinity are well established, rule-based methods for landform classification provide a straightforward solution to ambiguities in region...

Registration Year

  • 2013
    16

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    16

Affiliations

  • University of Copenhagen
    16
  • Aarhus University
    2
  • Uppsala University
    2
  • University of Twente
    1
  • University of Adelaide
    1
  • University of Sussex
    1
  • Queen's University Belfast
    1
  • Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission
    1
  • University of Wollongong
    1
  • The Arctic University of Norway
    1