40 Works

Data from: Ancient DNA microsatellite analyses of the extinct New Zealand giant moa (Dinornis robustus) identify relatives within a single fossil site

Morten E. Allentoft, Rasmus Heller, Richard N. Holdaway & Michael Bunce
By analysing ancient DNA (aDNA) from 74 14C-dated individuals of the extinct South Island giant moa (Dinornis robustus) of New Zealand, we identified four dyads of closely related adult females. Although our total sample included bones from four fossil deposits located within a 10 km radius, these eight individuals had all been excavated from the same locality. Indications of kinship were based on high pairwise genetic relatedness (rXY) in six microsatellite markers genotyped from aDNA,...

Data from: Relative impacts of environmental variation and evolutionary history on the nestedness and modularity of tree-herbivore networks.

Kathryn M. Robinson, Céline Hauzy, Nicolas Loeuille & Benedicte R. Albrectsen
Nestedness and modularity are measures of ecological networks whose causative effects are little understood. We analyzed antagonistic plant–herbivore bipartite networks using common gardens in two contrasting environments comprised of aspen trees with differing evolutionary histories of defence against herbivores. These networks were tightly connected owing to a high level of specialization of arthropod herbivores that spend a large proportion of the life cycle on aspen. The gardens were separated by ten degrees of latitude with...

Data from: Chronic Trichuris muris Infection Decreases Diversity of the Intestinal Microbiota and Concomitantly Increases the Abundance of Lactobacilli

Jacob Bak Holm, Daniel Sorobetea, Pia Kiilerich, Yuliaxis Ramayo-Caldas, Jordi Estellé, Tao Ma, Lise Madsen, Karsten Kristiansen & Marcus Svensson-Frej
The intestinal microbiota is vital for shaping the local intestinal environment as well as host immunity and metabolism. At the same time, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest an important role for parasitic worm infections in maintaining the inflammatory and regulatory balance of the immune system. In line with this, the prevalence of persistent worm infections is inversely correlated with the incidence of immune-associated diseases, prompting the use of controlled parasite infections for therapeutic purposes. Despite...

Data from: Dramatic niche shifts and morphological change in two insular bird species

Per Alström, Jon Fjeldså, Knud Andreas Jønsson, Anders Ödeen, Per G. P. Ericson, Martin Irestedt, J. Fjeldsa, K. A. Jonsson, P. Alstrom & A. Odeen
Colonizations of islands are often associated with rapid morphological divergence. We present two previously unrecognized cases of dramatic morphological change and niche shifts in connection with colonization of tropical forest-covered islands. These evolutionary changes have concealed the fact that the passerine birds madanga, Madanga ruficollis, from Buru, Indonesia, and São Tomé shorttail, Amaurocichla bocagii, from São Tomé, Gulf of Guinea, are forest-adapted members of the family Motacillidae (pipits and wagtails). We show that Madanga has...

Data from: Natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolism genes modulate field fitness

Rachel Kerwin, Julie Feusier, Jason Corwin, Matthew Rubin, Catherine Lin, Alise Muok, Brandon Larson, Baohua Li, Bindu Joseph, Marta Francisco, Daniel Copeland, Cynthia Weinig & Daniel J. Kliebenstein
Natural populations persist in complex environments, where biotic stressors, such as pathogen and insect communities, fluctuate temporally and spatially. These shifting biotic pressures generate heterogeneous selective forces that can maintain standing natural variation within a species. To directly test if genes containing causal variation for the Arabidopsis thaliana defensive compounds, glucosinolates (GSL) control field fitness and are therefore subject to natural selection, we conducted a multi-year field trial using lines that vary in only specific...

Data from: Effects of elevation and nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on plant defence compounds in subarctic tundra heath vegetation

Jonathan R. De Long, Maja K. Sundqvist, Michael J. Gundale, Reiner Giesler & David A. Wardle
1. Plant chemical and structural defence compounds are well known to impact upon herbivory of fresh leaves and influence decomposition rates after leaf senescence. A number of theories predict that alleviating nutrient limitation and reducing other environmental stressors will result in decreased production of plant chemical defences. 2. In this study, we measured plant defence properties [total polyphenols (TP), condensed tannins (CT) and lignin concentrations, and protein complexation capacity (PCC)] in both fresh and senesced...

Data from: Computing the local field potential (LFP) from integrate-and-fire network models

Alberto Mazzoni, Henrik Anders Lindén, Hermann Cuntz, Anders Lansner, Stefano Panzeri, Gaute Tomas Einevoll & Henrik Lindén
Leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) network models are commonly used to study how the spiking dynamics of neural networks changes with stimuli, tasks or dynamic network states. However, neurophysiological studies in vivo often rather measure the mass activity of neuronal microcircuits with the local field potential (LFP). Given that LFPs are generated by spatially separated currents across the neuronal membrane, they cannot be computed directly from quantities defined in models of point-like LIF neurons. Here, we explore...

Data from: Geographic and temporal dynamics of a global radiation and diversification in the killer whale

Phillip A. Morin, Kim M. Parsons, Frederick I. Archer, María C. Ávila-Arcos, Lance G. Barrett-Lennard, Luciano Dalla Rosa, Sebastián Duchêne, John W. Durban, Graeme M. Ellis, Steven H. Ferguson, John K. Ford, Michael J. Ford, Cristina Gabrilao, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Kristin Kaschner, Craig O. Matkin, Stephen D. Petersen, Kelly M. Robertson, Ingrid N. Visser, Paul R. Wade, Simon Y. W. Ho & Andrew D. Foote
Global climate change during the Late Pleistocene periodically encroached and then released habitat during the glacial cycles, causing range expansions and contractions in some species. These dynamics have played a major role in geographic radiations, diversification and speciation. We investigate these dynamics in the most widely distributed of marine mammals, the killer whale (Orcinus orca), using a global data set of over 450 samples. This marine top predator inhabits coastal and pelagic ecosystems ranging from...

Data from: Comparative analyses of QTLs influencing obesity and metabolic phenotypes in pigs and humans

Sameer D. Pant, Peter Karlskov-Mortensen, Mette J. Jacobsen, Susanna Cirera, Lisette J. A. Kogelman, Camilla S. Bruun, Thomas Mark, Claus B. Jørgensen, Niels Grarup, Emil V. R. Appel, Ehm A. A. Galjatovic, Torben Hansen, Oluf B. Pedersen, Maryse Guerin, Thierry Huby, Philippe Lesnik, Theo H. E. Meuwissen, Haja N. Kadarmideen, Merete Fredholm & Oluf Pedersen
The pig is a well-known animal model used to investigate genetic and mechanistic aspects of human disease biology. They are particularly useful in the context of obesity and metabolic diseases because other widely used models (e.g. mice) do not completely recapitulate key pathophysiological features associated with these diseases in humans. Therefore, we established a F2 pig resource population (n = 564) designed to elucidate the genetics underlying obesity and metabolic phenotypes. Segregation of obesity traits...

Data from: Interactions among roots, mycorrhizae and free-living microbial communities differentially impact soil carbon processes

Jessica A. M. Moore, Jiang Jiang, Courtney M. Patterson, Gangsheng Wang, Melanie A. Mayes & Aimée T. Classen
Plant roots, their associated microbial community and free-living soil microbes interact to regulate the movement of carbon from the soil to the atmosphere, one of the most important and least understood fluxes of terrestrial carbon. Our inadequate understanding of how plant–microbial interactions alter soil carbon decomposition may lead to poor model predictions of terrestrial carbon feedbacks to the atmosphere. Roots, mycorrhizal fungi and free-living soil microbes can alter soil carbon decomposition through exudation of carbon...

Data from: Establishing a community-wide DNA barcode library as a new tool for arctic research

H. Wirta, G. Várkonyi, C. Rasmussen, R. Kaartinen, N. M. Schmidt, P. D. N. Hebert, M. Barták, G. Blagoev, H. Disney, S. Ertl, P. Gjelstrup, D. J. Gwiazdowicz, L. Huldén, J. Ilmonen, J. Jakovlev, M. Jaschhof, J. Kahanpää, T. Kankaanpää, P. H. Krogh, R. Labbee, C. Lettner, V. Michelsen, S. A. Nielsen, T. R. Nielsen, L. Paasivirta … & T. Roslin
DNA sequences offer powerful tools for describing the members and interactions of natural communities. In this study, we establish the to-date most comprehensive library of DNA barcodes for a terrestrial site, including all known macroscopic animals and vascular plants of an intensively studied area of the High Arctic, the Zackenberg Valley in Northeast Greenland. To demonstrate its utility, we apply the library to identify nearly 20 000 arthropod individuals from two Malaise traps, each operated...

Data from: Genetic diversity, virulence and fitness evolution in an obligate fungal parasite of bees

Sophie. E. F. Evison, Kirsten Foley, Annette Bruun Jensen & William O. H. Hughes
Within-host competition is predicted to drive the evolution of virulence in parasites, but the precise outcomes of such interactions are often unpredictable due to many factors including the biology of the host and the parasite, stochastic events and co-evolutionary interactions. Here, we use a serial passage experiment (SPE) with three strains of a heterothallic fungal parasite (Ascosphaera apis) of the Honey bee (Apis mellifera) to assess how evolving under increasing competitive pressure affects parasite virulence...

Data from: Genetic diversity loss in a biodiversity hotspot: ancient DNA quantifies genetic decline and former connectivity in a critically endangered marsupial.

Carlo Pacioni, Helen Hunt, Morten E. Allentoft, Timothy G. Vaughan, Adrian F. Wayne, Alexander Baynes, Dalal Haouchar, Joe Dortch & Michael Bunce
The extent of genetic diversity loss and former connectivity between fragmented populations are often unknown factors when studying endangered species. While genetic techniques are commonly applied in extant populations to assess temporal and spatial demographic changes, it is no substitute for directly measuring past diversity using ancient DNA (aDNA). We analysed both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear microsatellite loci from 64 historical fossil and skin samples of the critically endangered Western Australian woylie (Bettongia penicillata...

Data from: The evolution of bat nucleic acid sensing Toll-like receptors

Marina Escalera-Zamudio, Lisandra M. Zepeda-Mendoza, Elizabeth Loza-Rubio, Edith Rojas-Anaya, Maria L. Méndez-Ojeda, Carlos F. Arias & Alex D. Greenwood
We characterized the nucleic acid sensing Toll-like receptors (TLR) of a New World bat species, the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), and through a comparative molecular evolutionary approach searched for general adaptation patterns among the nucleic acid sensing TLRs of eight different bats species belonging to three families (Pteropodidae, Vespertilionidae and Phyllostomidae). We found that the bat TLRs are evolving slowly and mostly under purifying selection and that the divergence pattern of such receptors is...

Data from: Cell cycle-dependent differentiation dynamics balances growth and endocrine differentiation in the pancreas

Yung Hae Kim, Hjalte List Larsen, Pau Rué, Laurence A. Lemaire, Jorge Ferrer & Anne Grapin-Botton
Organogenesis relies on the spatiotemporal balancing of differentiation and proliferation driven by an expanding pool of progenitor cells. In the mouse pancreas, lineage tracing at the population level has shown that the expanding pancreas progenitors can initially give rise to all endocrine, ductal, and acinar cells but become bipotent by embryonic day 13.5, giving rise to endocrine cells and ductal cells. However, the dynamics of individual progenitors balancing self-renewal and lineage-specific differentiation has never been...

Data from: Phylogenetic uncertainty revisited: implications for ecological analyses

Thiago Fernando Rangel, Robert K. Colwell, Gary R. Graves, Karolina Fučíková, Carsten Rahbek & José Alexandre F. Diniz-Filho
Ecologists and biogeographers usually rely on a single phylogenetic tree to study evolutionary processes that affect macroecological patterns. This approach ignores the fact that each phylogenetic tree is a hypothesis about the evolutionary history of a clade, and cannot be directly observed in nature. Also, trees often leave out many extant species, or include missing species as polytomies because of a lack of information on the relationship among taxa. Still, researchers usually do not quantify...

Data from: Mitochondrial capture enriches mito-DNA 100 folds enabling PCR-free mitogenomics biodiversity analysis

Shanlin Liu, Xin Wang, Lin Xie, Meihua Tan, Zhenyu Li, Xu Su, Hao Zhang, Bernhard Misof, Karl M. Kjer, Min Tang, Oliver Niehuis, Hui Jiang & Xin Zhou
Biodiversity analyses based on Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platforms have developed by leaps and bounds in recent years. A PCR-free strategy, which can alleviate taxonomic bias, was considered as a promising approach to delivering reliable species compositions of targeted environments. The major impediment of such a method is the lack of appropriate mitochondrial DNA enrichment ways. Because mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) make up only a small proportion of total DNA, PCR-free methods will inevitably result in...

Data from: Ground ice melt in the high Arctic leads to greater ecological heterogeneity

Michael S. Becker, T. Jonathan Davies, Wayne H Pollard & Wayne H. Pollard
1. The polar desert biome of the Canadian high Arctic Archipelago is currently experiencing some of the greatest mean annual air temperature increases on the planet, threatening the stability of ecosystems residing above temperature-sensitive permafrost. 2. Ice wedges are the most widespread form of ground ice, occurring in up to 25% of the world's terrestrial near-surface, and their melting (thermokarst) may catalyze a suite of biotic and ecological changes, facilitating major ecosystem shifts. 3. These...

Data from: Identification of multiple QTL hotspots in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) using genotyping-by-sequencing and a dense linkage map

Wesley A. Larson, Garrett J. McKinney, Morten T. Limborg, Meredith V. Everett, Lisa W. Seeb & James E. Seeb
Understanding the genetic architecture of phenotypic traits can provide important information about the mechanisms and genomic regions involved in local adaptation and speciation. Here, we used genotyping-by-sequencing and a combination of previously published and newly generated data to construct sex-specific linkage maps for sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). We then used the denser female linkage map to conduct quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for 4 phenotypic traits in 3 families. The female linkage map consisted of...

Data from: Resource specialists lead local insect community turnover associated with temperature – analysis of an 18-year full-seasonal record of moths and beetles

Philip Francis Thomsen, Peter Søgaard Jørgensen, Hans Henrik Bruun, Jan Pedersen, Torben Riis-Nielsen, Krzysztof Jonko, Iwona Słowińska, Carsten Rahbek & Ole Karsholt
Insect responses to recent climate change are well documented, but the role of resource specialization in determining species vulnerability remains poorly understood. Uncovering local ecological effects of temperature change with high-quality, standardized data provides an important first opportunity for predictions about responses of resource specialists, and long-term time series are essential in revealing these responses. Here, we investigate temperature-related changes in local insect communities, using a sampling site with more than a quarter-million records from...

Data from: Plant defenses against ants provide a pathway to social parasitism in butterflies

Dario Patricelli, Francesca Barbero, Andrea Occhipinti, Cinzia M. Bertea, Simona Bonelli, Luca P. Casacci, Simon A. Zebelo, Christoph Crocoll, Jonathan Gershenzon, Massimo E. Maffei, Jeremy A. Thomas & Emilio Balletto
Understanding the chemical cues and gene expressions that mediate herbivore–host-plant and parasite–host interactions can elucidate the ecological costs and benefits accruing to different partners in tight-knit community modules, and may reveal unexpected complexities. We investigated the exploitation of sequential hosts by the phytophagous–predaceous butterfly Maculinea arion, whose larvae initially feed on Origanum vulgare flowerheads before switching to parasitize Myrmica ant colonies for their main period of growth. Gravid female butterflies were attracted to Origanum plants...

Data from: Convergent evolution of highly reduced fruiting bodies in Pezizomycotina suggests key adaptations to the bee habitat

Anja Amtoft Wynns
Background: Among the understudied fungi found in nature are those living in close association with social and solitary bees. The bee-specialist genera Bettsia, Ascosphaera and Eremascus are remarkable not only for their specialized niche but also for their simple fruiting bodies or ascocarps, which are morphologically anomalous in Pezizomycotina. Bettsia and Ascosphaera are characterized by a unicellular cyst-like cleistothecium known as a spore cyst, while Eremascus is characterized by completely naked asci, or asci not...

Data from: Environmental factors and traits that drive plant litter decomposition do not determine home-field advantage effects

Ciska G. F. Veen, Maja K. Sundqvist, David A. Wardle & G. F. Ciska Veen
The ‘home-field advantage’ (HFA) hypothesis predicts that plant litter is decomposed faster than expected underneath the plant from which it originates (‘home’) than underneath other plants (‘away’), because decomposer communities are specialized to break down litter from the plants they associate with. However, empirical evidence shows that the occurrence of HFA is highly variable, and the reasons for this are little understood. In our study we progress our understanding by investigating whether HFA is stronger...

Data from: The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organisation

Ben M. Sadd, Seth M. Barribeau, Guy Bloch, Dirk C. De Graaf, Peter Dearden, Christine Elsik, Jurgen Gadau, Cornelius Grimmelikhuijzen, Martin Hasselmann, Jeffrey Lozier, Hugh Robertson, Guy Smagghe, Eckart Stolle, Matthias Van Vaerenbergh, Robert Waterhouse, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Steffan Klasberg, Anna Bennett, Francisco Camara, Roderic Guigo, Katharina Hoff, Marco Mariotti, Monica Munos-Torres, Terence Murphy, Didac Santesmasses … & Kim C. Worley
Background: The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some species. High-quality genomic data will inform key aspects of bumblebee biology, including susceptibility to implicated population viability threats. Results: We report the high quality draft genome...

Data from: Functional role of phenylacetic acid from metapleural gland secretions in controlling fungal pathogens in evolutionarily derived leafcutter ants

Hermógenes Fernández-Marín, David R. Nash, Sara Higginbotham, Catalina Estrada, Jelle S. Van Zweden, Patrizia D'Ettorre, William T. Wcislo, Jacobus J. Boomsma & H. Fernandez-Marin
Fungus-farming ant colonies vary four to five orders of magnitude in size. They employ compounds from actinomycete bacteria and exocrine glands as antimicrobial agents. Atta colonies have millions of ants and are particularly relevant for understanding hygienic strategies as they have abandoned their ancestors' prime dependence on antibiotic-based biological control in favour of using metapleural gland (MG) chemical secretions. Atta MGs are unique in synthesizing large quantities of phenylacetic acid (PAA), a known but little...

Registration Year

  • 2015
    40

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    40

Affiliations

  • University of Copenhagen
    40
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    4
  • McGill University
    3
  • Curtin University
    3
  • Natural History Museum
    3
  • University of Cambridge
    2
  • University of Otago
    2
  • Smithsonian Institution
    2
  • Uppsala University
    2
  • Umeå University
    2