27 Works

Data from: A replicated climate change field experiment reveals rapid evolutionary response in an ecologically important soil invertebrate

Thomas Bataillon, Nicolas Galtier, Aurelien Bernard, Nicolai Cryer, Nicolas Faivre, Sylvain Santoni, Dany Severac, Theis N. Mikkelsen, Klaus S. Larsen, Claus Beier, Jesper G. Sørensen, Martin Holmstrup, Bodil Ehlers, Bodil K. Ehlers & Teis N. Mikkelsen
Whether species can respond evolutionarily to current climate change is crucial for the persistence of many species. Yet, very few studies have examined genetic responses to climate change in manipulated experiments carried out in natural field conditions. We examined the evolutionary response to climate change in a common annelid worm using a controlled replicated experiment where climatic conditions were manipulated in a natural setting. Analyzing the transcribed genome of 15 local populations, we found that...

Data from: Divergent trophic responses to biogeographic and environmental gradients

Miguel G. Matias, Cátia Lúcio Pereira, Pedro Miguel Raposeiro, Vítor Gonçalves, Ana Mafalda Cruz, Ana Cristina Costa & Miguel Bastos Araújo
Following environmental changes, communities disassemble and reassemble in seemingly unpredictable ways. Whether species respond to such changes individualistically or collectively (e.g. as functional groups) is still unclear. To address this question, we used an extensive new dataset for the lake communities in the Azores' archipelago to test whether: 1) individual species respond concordantly within trophic groups; 2) trophic groups respond concordantly to biogeographic and environmental gradients. Spatial concordance in individual species distributions within trophic groups...

Temperature and copper effects on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

N. Cedergreen, N.J. Nørhave, C. Svendsen & D.J. Spurgeon
Data comprise body length (micrometres) of nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans) offspring from a laboratory study in which animals were exposed to control (0 copper) or copper dosed agar at different average temperatures (8 to 24 °C)) and under fluctuation conditions of low (plus or minus 4 °C) and high (plus or minus 8 °C) amplitude (average temperatures of 12, 16, 20 °C and 16 °C respectively)

Data from: Plasma pro-atrial natriuretic peptide to indicate fluid balance during cystectomy: a prospective observational study

Kirsten C. Rasmussen, Michael Højskov, Birgitte Ruhnau, Lisbeth Salling, Tom Pedersen, Jens P. Goetze & Niels H. Secher
Objectives: During surgery the volume of administered fluid is debated. Pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (proANP) is released by atrial distension, and we evaluated the relationship between changes in proANP associated with perioperative fluid balance. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: One university/tertiary centre. Participants: The study included patients who underwent radical cystectomy. Plasma for determination of proANP was obtained before surgery, after resection of the bladder, and at the end of surgery for 20 robotic-assisted radical cystectomy...

Data from: Tolerance to gamma radiation in the marine heterotardigrade, Echiniscoides sigismundi

K. Ingemar Jönsson, Thomas L. Hygum, Kasper N. Andersen, Lykke K. B. Clausen & Nadja Møbjerg
Tardigrades belong to the most radiation tolerant animals on Earth, as documented by a number of studies using both low-LET and high-LET ionizing radiation. Previous studies have focused on semi-terrestrial species, which are also very tolerant to desiccation. The predominant view on the reason for the high radiation tolerance among these semi-terrestrial species, is that it relies on molecular mechanisms that evolved as adaptations for surviving dehydration. In this study we report the first study...

Data from: Evidence of small-scale spatial structuring of phytoplankton alpha- and beta-diversity in the open ocean

Erik Askov Mousing, Katherine Richardson, Jørgen Bendtsen, Ivona Cetinić & Mary Jane Perry
Phytoplankton assemblages in the open ocean are usually assumed to be mixed on local scales unless large semi-permanent density discontinuities separating water masses are present. Recent modelling studies have, however, suggested that ephemeral submesoscale oceanographic features leading to only subtle density discontinuities may be important for controlling phytoplankton alpha- and beta-diversity patterns. Until now, no empirical evidence has been presented to support this hypothesis. Using hydrographic and taxonomic composition data collected near Iceland during the...

Data from: Environmental DNA from seawater samples correlate with trawl catches of subarctic, deepwater fishes

Philip Francis Thomsen, Peter Rask Møller, Eva Egelyng Sigsgaard, Steen Wilhelm Knudsen, Ole Ankjær Jørgensen & Eske Willerslev
Remote polar and deepwater fish faunas are under pressure from ongoing climate change and increasing fishing effort. However, these fish communities are difficult to monitor for logistic and financial reasons. Currently, monitoring of marine fishes largely relies on invasive techniques such as bottom trawling, and on official reporting of global catches, which can be unreliable. Thus, there is need for alternative and non-invasive techniques for qualitative and quantitative oceanic fish surveys. Here we report environmental...

Data from: Proto-cooperation: group hunting sailfish improve hunting success by alternating attacks on grouping prey

James E. Herbert-Read, Pawel Romanczuk, Stefan Krause, Daniel Strömbom, Pierre Couillaud, Paolo Domenici, Ralf H.J.M. Kurvers, Stefano Marras, John F. Steffensen, Alexander D.M. Wilson, Jens Krause, Alexander D. M. Wilson & Ralf H. J. M. Kurvers
We present evidence of a novel form of group hunting. Individual sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) alternate attacks with other group members on their schooling prey (Sardinella aurita). While only 24% of attacks result in prey capture, multiple prey are injured in 95% of attacks, resulting in an increase of injured fish in the school with the number of attacks. How quickly prey are captured is positively correlated with the level of injury of the school, suggesting...

Data from: Species distributions, quantum theory, and the enhancement of biodiversity measures

Raimundo Real, A. Márcia Barbosa & Joseph W. Bull
Species distributions are typically represented by records of their observed occurrence at a given spatial and temporal scale. Such records are inevitably incomplete and contingent on the spatial-temporal circumstances under which the observations were made. Moreover, organisms may respond differently to similar environmental conditions at different places or moments, so their distribution is, in principle, not completely predictable. We argue that this uncertainty exists, and warrants considering species distributions as analogous to coherent quantum objects,...

Data from: Small airway dysfunction in well-treated never-smoking HIV-infected individuals

Andreas Ronit, Inger Hee Mathiesen, Marco Gelpi, Thomas Benfield, Jan Gerstoft, Tacjana Pressler, Anders Christiansen, Jens Lundgren, Jørgen Vestbo & Susanne Dam Nielsen
Global projections from the World Health Organization rank chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and HIV as the third and eighth leading causes of death by 2030, respectively. An increasingly large number of individuals will consequently face a double burden of disease. The incidence of COPD is relatively high in the HIV-infected population, and HIV has been shown to be an independent risk factor.

Data from: Slowing them down will make them lose: a role for attine ant crop fungus in defending pupae against infections?

Sophie A. O. Armitage, Hermogenes Fernández-Marín, Jacobus J. Boomsma & William T. Wcislo
Fungus-growing ants (Attini) have evolved an obligate dependency upon a basidiomycete fungus that they cultivate as their food. Less well known is that the crop fungus is also used by many attine species to cover their eggs, larvae and pupae. The adaptive functional significance of this brood covering is poorly understood. One hypothesis to account for this behaviour is that it is part of the pathogen protection portfolio when many thousands of sister workers live...

Data from: Prescription of antibiotics at drug shops and strategies to improve quality of care and patient safety: a cross-sectional survey in the private sector in Uganda

Anthony K. Mbonye, Esther Buregyeya, Elizeus Rutebemberwa, Sian E. Clarke, Sham Lal, Kristian S. Hansen, Pascal Magnussen & Philip LaRussa
Objectives: The main objective of this study was to assess antibiotic prescription practices at registered drug shops with a focus on upper respiratory tract infections among children in order to provide data for policy discussions aimed at improving quality of care and patient safety in the private health sector in Uganda. Methods: A survey was conducted within 57 parishes from August to October 2014 in Mukono district, Uganda. Data was captured on the following variables:...

Data from: Sperm use economy of honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens

Boris Baer, Jason Collins, Kristiina Maalaps & Susanne P. A. Den Boer
The queens of eusocial ants, bees, and wasps only mate during a very brief period early in life to acquire and store a lifetime supply of sperm. As sperm cannot be replenished, queens have to be highly economic when using stored sperm to fertilize eggs, especially in species with large and long-lived colonies. However, queen fertility has not been studied in detail, so that we have little understanding of how economic sperm use is in...

Data from: Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification and characterization in a non-model organism, the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), using next generation sequencing

Nathalie Smitz, Pim Van Hooft, Rasmus Heller, Daniel Cornélis, Philippe Chardonnet, Robert Kraus, Ben J. Greyling, Richard Crooijmans, Martien Groenen, Johan Michaux & Ben Greyling
This study aimed to develop a set of SNP markers with high resolution and accuracy within the African buffalo. Such a set can be used, among others, to depict subtle population genetic structure for a better understanding of buffalo population dynamics. In total, 18.5 million DNA sequences of 76 bp were generated by next generation sequencing on an Illumina Genome Analyzer II from a reduced representation library using DNA from a panel of 13 African...

Data from: Does the colonization of new biogeographic regions influence the diversification and accumulation of clade richness among the Corvides (Aves: Passeriformes)?

Jonathan D. Kennedy, Michael Krabbe Borregaard, Knud Andreas Jønsson, Ben Holt, Jon Fjeldså & Carsten Rahbek
Regional variation in clade richness can be vast, reflecting differences in the dynamics of historical dispersal and diversification among lineages. Although it has been proposed that dispersal into new biogeographic regions may facilitate diversification, to date there has been limited assessment of the importance of this process in the generation, and maintenance, of broad-scale biodiversity gradients. To address this issue, we analytically derive biogeographic regions for a global radiation of passerine birds (the Corvides, c....

Data from: Unifying latitudinal gradients in range size and richness across marine and terrestrial systems

Adam Tomasovych, Jonathan D. Kennedy, Tristan J. Betzner, Nicole Bitler Kuehnle, Stewart Edie, Sora Kim, K. Supriya, Alexander E. White, Carsten Rahbek, Shan Huang, Trevor D. Price & David Jablonski
Many marine and terrestrial clades show similar latitudinal gradients in species richness, but opposite gradients in range size—on land, ranges are the smallest in the tropics, whereas in the sea, ranges are the largest in the tropics. Therefore, richness gradients in marine and terrestrial systems do not arise from a shared latitudinal arrangement of species range sizes. Comparing terrestrial birds and marine bivalves, we find that gradients in range size are concordant at the level...

Data from: Ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi respond differently to long-term experimentally increased snow depth in the High Arctic

Sunil Mundra, Rune Halvorsen, Håvard Kauserud, Mohammad Bahram, Leho Tedersoo, Bo Elberling, Elisabeth J. Cooper & Pernille Bronken Eidesen
Changing climate is expected to alter precipitation patterns in the Arctic, with consequences for subsurface temperature and moisture conditions, community structure, and nutrient mobilization through microbial belowground processes. Here, we address the effect of increased snow depth on the variation in species richness and community structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and saprotrophic fungi. Soil samples were collected weekly from mid-July to mid-September in both control and deep snow plots. Richness of ECM fungi was lower, while...

Data from: Hybridization during altitudinal range shifts: nuclear introgression leads to extensive cyto-nuclear discordance in the fire salamander

Ricardo Pereira, Iñigo Martínez-Solano, David Buckley & Ricardo J. Pereira
Ecological models predict that, in the face of climate change, taxa occupying steep altitudinal gradients will shift their distributions, leading to the contraction or extinction of the high-elevation (cold-adapted) taxa. However, hybridization between eco-morphologically divergent taxa commonly occurs in nature and may lead to alternative evolutionary outcomes, such as genetic merger or gene flow at specific genes. We evaluate this hypothesis by studying patterns of divergence and gene flow across three replicate contact zones between...

Data from: Beyond thermal limits: comprehensive metrics of performance identify key axes of thermal adaptation in ants

Clint A. Penick, Sarah E. Diamond, Nathan J. Sanders & Robert R. Dunn
How species respond to temperature change depends in large part on their physiology. Physiological traits, such as critical thermal limits (CTmax and CTmin), provide estimates of thermal performance but may not capture the full impacts of temperature on fitness. Rather, thermal performance likely depends on a combination of traits—including thermal limits—that vary among species. Here we examine how thermal limits correlate with the main components that influence fitness in ants. First, we compare how temperature...

Data from: Artificial selection on ant female caste ratio uncovers a link between female-biased sex ratios and infection by Wolbachia endosymbionts

Luigi Pontieri, Anna M. Schmidt, Rohini Singh, Jes Søe Pedersen & Timothy A. Linksvayer
Social insect sex and caste ratios are well-studied targets of evolutionary conflicts, but the heritable factors affecting these traits remain unknown. To elucidate these factors, we carried out a short-term artificial selection study on female caste ratio in the ant Monomorium pharaonis. Across three generations of bidirectional selection, we observed no response for caste ratio, but sex ratios rapidly became more female-biased in the two replicate high selection lines and less female-biased in the two...

Data from: Oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program: a cross-sectional study

Maria Anderson, Margaret Grindefjord, Göran Dahllöf, Gunnar Dahlén & Svante Twetman
Background: To compare the oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program with a reference group receiving a standard oral health program without fluoride varnish applications. A second aim was to relate the microbial composition to the caries prevalence. Methods: Five hundred seven 3-year-old children were enrolled from a cohort of 3403 preschool children taking part in a community based oral health project. Two hundred sixty-three of them had attended caries-preventive program with...

Data from: Introduced Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) invades the genome of native populations in vulnerable heathland habitats

Lene Rostgaard Nielsen, Ursula Brandes, Erik Dahl Kjær, Siri Fjellheim & Erik Dahl Kjaer
Cytisus scoparius is a global invasive species that affects local flora and fauna at the intercontinental level. Its natural distribution spans across Europe, but seeds have also been moved among countries, mixing plants of native and non-native genetic origins. Hybridization between the introduced and native gene pool is likely to threaten both the native gene pool and the local flora. In this study, we address the potential threat of invasive C. scoparius to local gene...

Data from: Biogeographic and bathymetric determinants of brachiopod extinction and survival during the Late Ordovician Mass Extinction

Seth Finnegan, David Harper, Christian Rasmussen & David A. T. Harper
The Late Ordovician Mass Extinction (LOME) coincided with dramatic climate changes, but there are numerous ways in which these changes could have driven marine extinctions. We use a palaeobiogeographic database of rhynchonelliform brachiopods to examine the selectivity of Late Ordovician – Early Silurian genus extinctions and evaluate which extinction drivers are best supported by the data. The first (latest Katian) pulse of the LOME preferentially affected genera restricted to deeper waters or to relatively narrow...

Data from: The influence of wing morphology upon the dispersal, geographical distributions and diversification of the Corvides (Aves; Passeriformes)

Jonathan D. Kennedy, Michael K. Borregaard, Knud Andreas Jønsson, Petter Z. Marki, Jon Fjeldså & Carsten Rahbek
New species are sometimes known to arise as a consequence of the dispersal and establishment of populations in new areas. It has nevertheless been difficult to demonstrate an empirical link between rates of dispersal and diversification, partly because dispersal abilities are challenging to quantify. Here, using wing morphology as a proxy for dispersal ability, we assess this relationship among the global radiation of corvoid birds. We found that species distributions are associated with wing shape....

Data from: Modeling of kidney hemodynamics: probability-based topology of an arterial network

Dmitry D. Postnov, Donald J. Marsh, Thomas H. Braunstein, Niels-Henrik Holstein-Rathlou, Erik A. Martens & Olga Sosnovtseva
Through regulation of the extracellular fluid volume, the kidneys provide important long-term regulation of blood pressure. At the level of the individual functional unit (the nephron), pressure and flow control involves two different mechanisms that both produce oscillations. The nephrons are arranged in a complex branching structure that delivers blood to each nephron and, at the same time, provides a basis for an interaction between adjacent nephrons. The functional consequences of this interaction are not...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    27

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    27

Affiliations

  • University of Copenhagen
    27
  • University of California, Berkeley
    2
  • University of Évora
    2
  • Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales
    2
  • Uppsala University
    2
  • Institute for Coastal Marine Environment
    1
  • London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
    1
  • University of Liège
    1
  • University of Pennsylvania
    1
  • Hvidovre Hospital
    1