40 Works

Perturbation drives changing metapopulation dynamics in a top marine predator

Emma L Carroll, Ailsa Hall, Morten Tange Olsen, Aubrie Booth, Aubrie B. Onoufriou, Oscar E. Gaggiotti & Debbie JF Russell
Metapopulation theory assumes a balance between local decays/extinctions and local growth/new colonisations. Here we investigate whether recent population declines across part of the UK harbour seal range represent normal metapopulation dynamics or are indicative of perturbations potentially threatening the metapopulation viability, using 20 years of population trends, location tracking data ( n = 380), and UK-wide, multi-generational population genetic data ( n = 269). First, we use microsatellite data to show that two genetic groups...

Ant cuticular hydrocarbons are heritable and associated with variation in colony productivity

Justin Walsh, Luigi Pontieri, Patrizia D'Ettorre & Tim Linksvayer
In social insects, cuticular hydrocarbons function in nestmate recognition and also provide a waxy barrier against desiccation, but basic evolutionary features, including the heritability of hydrocarbon profiles and how they are shaped by natural selection are largely unknown. We used a new pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis) laboratory mapping population to estimate the heritability of individual cuticular hydrocarbons, genetic correlations between hydrocarbons, and fitness consequences of phenotypic variation in the hydrocarbons. Individual hydrocarbons had low to...

The role of evolutionary time, diversification rates and dispersal in determining the global diversity of a large radiation of passerine birds

Tianlong Cai, Shimiao Shao, Jonathan Kennedy, Per Alström, Robert Moyle, Yanhua Qu, Fumin Lei & Jon Fjeldså
Aim: Variation in species diversity among different geographic areas may result from differences in speciation and extinction rates, immigration and time for diversification. An area with high species diversity may be the result of a high net diversification rate, multiple immigration events from adjacent regions,anda long time available for the accumulation of species (know as the “time-for-speciation effect”). Here, we examine the relative importance of the three aforementionedprocesses in shaping the geographic diversity patterns of...

DLSI - laser speckle intensity autocorrelation data

Dmitry Postnov
Intensity autocorrelation data collected with Dynamic Light Scattering Imaging system. Matlab file contains: One set of "whole cortex" imaging data, including intensity autocorrelation, spatial and temporal contrasts and best fit data (used to generate Figure 1,2 and S1-S4, S6-S8) A representitative set of stroke imaging: with baseline and after-stroke intensity autocorrelation, contrasts and best fits data (used to generate Figure 3 and S10) Recording parameters (sampling and exposure times).

Data from: The vertical distribution and control of microbial necromass carbon in forest soils

Xiangyin Ni, Shu Liao, Siyi Tan, Yan Peng, Dingyi Wang, Kai Yue, Fuzhong Wu & Yusheng Yang
Aim: Forest soils contain large amounts of terrestrial organic carbon (C), but the formation pathway of soil organic C (SOC) remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that microbial necromass is a significant source of SOC, yet a global quantitative assessment across the whole-soil profile is lacking. We aimed to assess the vertical distribution and control of microbial-derived SOC in forest soils. Location: Global forests. Time period: 1996-2019. Major taxa studied: Soil microbial necromass carbon. Methods: We...

HLA Class II specificity assessed by high-density peptide microarray interactions

Thomas Osterbye, Morten Nielsen, Nadine L. Dudek, Sri H. Ramarathinam, Anthony W. Purcell, Claus Schafer-Nielsen & Soren Buus
The ability to predict and/or identify MHC binding peptides is an essential component of T cell epitope discovery; something that ultimately should benefit the development of vaccines and immunotherapies. In particular, MHC class I (MHC-I) prediction tools have matured to a point where accurate selection of optimal peptide epitopes is possible for virtually all MHC-I allotypes; in comparison, current MHC class II (MHC-II) predictors are less mature. Since MHC-II restricted CD4+ T cells control and...

Historical isolation facilitates species radiation by sexual selection: insights from Chorthippus grasshoppers

Zachary Nolen, Burcin Yildirim, Iker Irisarri, Shanlin Liu, Clara Groot Crego, Daniel Amby, Frieder Mayer, M. Gilbert & Ricardo Pereira
Theoretical and empirical studies have shown that species radiations are facilitated when a trait under divergent natural selection is also involved in sexual selection. It is yet unclear how quick and effective radiations are where assortative mating is unrelated to the ecological environment and primarily results from sexual selection. We address this question using sympatric grasshopper species of the genus Chorthippus, which have evolved strong behavioral isolation while lacking noticeable eco-morphological divergence. Mitochondrial genomes suggest...

Floral scent dynamics of Schiedea kaalae and Schiedea hookeri

John Powers, Roger Seco, Celia Faiola, Ann Sakai, Stephen Weller, Diane Campbell & Alex Guenther
Floral scent often intensifies during periods of pollinator activity, but the degree of this synchrony may vary among scent compounds depending on their function. Related plant species with the same pollinator may exhibit similar timing and composition of floral scent. We compared timing and composition of floral volatiles for two endemic Hawaiian plant species, Schiedea kaalae and S. hookeri (Caryophyllaceae). For S. kaalae, we also compared the daily timing of emission of floral volatiles to...

Screening and microsatellite data for Varroa infesting resistant honey bee pupae

Benjamin Conlon, Chedly Kastally, Marina Kardell, John Kefuss, Robin Moritz & Jarkko Routtu
We investigated how the evolution of host resistance could affect the infesting population of Varroa mites. We screened a Varroa-resistant honey bee population near Toulouse, France, for a Varroa resistance trait: the inhibition of Varroa's reproduction in drone pupae. We then genotyped Varroa which had co-infested a cell using microsatellites. Across all resistant honey bee colonies, Varroa's reproductive success was significantly higher in co-infested cells but the distribution of Varroa between singly and multiply infested...

The evolution of virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa during chronic wound infection

Jelly Vanderwoude, Derek Fleming, Sheyda Azimi, Urvish Trivedi, Kendra Rumbaugh & Stephen Diggle
Opportunistic pathogens are associated with a number of chronic human infections, yet the evolution of virulence in these organisms during chronic infection remains poorly understood. Here, we tested the evolution of virulence in the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a murine chronic wound model using a two-part serial passage and sepsis experiment, and found that virulence evolved in different directions in each line of evolution. We also assessed P. aeruginosa adaptation to a chronic...

Evolution of putative barrier loci at an intermediate stage of speciation with gene flow in campions (Silene)

Xiaodong Liu, Xiaodong Liu, Sylvain Glemin & Sophie Karrenberg
Understanding the origin of new species is a central goal in evolutionary biology. Diverging lineages often evolve highly heterogeneous patterns of genetic differentiation; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated evolutionary processes governing genetic differentiation between the hybridizing campions Silene dioica (L.) Clairv. and S. latifolia Poiret. Demographic modeling indicated that the two species diverged with gene flow. The best-supported scenario with heterogeneity in both migration rate and effective population size suggested...

Contrasted histories of organelle and nuclear genomes underlying physiological diversification in a grass species

Matheus Bianconi, Luke Dunning, Emma Curran, Oriane Hidalgo, Robyn Powell, Sahr Mian, Ilia Leitch, Marjorie Lundgren, Sophie Manzi, Maria Vorontsova, Guillaume Besnard, Colin Osborne, Jill Olofsson & Pascal-Antoine Christin
C4 photosynthesis evolved multiple times independently in angiosperms, but most origins are relatively old so that the early events linked to photosynthetic diversification are blurred. The grass Alloteropsis semialata is an exception, as this species encompasses C4 and non-C4 populations. Using phylogenomics and population genomics, we infer the history of dispersal and secondary gene flow before, during, and after photosynthetic divergence in A. semialata. We further analyse the genome composition of individuals with varied ploidy...

Variation of chemical compounds in wild Heliconiini reveals ecological and historical contributions to the evolution of chemical defences in mimetic butterflies

Ombeline Sculfort, Érika Pinheiro De Castro, Krzysztof Kozak, Søren Bak, Marianne Elias, Bastien Nay & Violaine Llaurens
Evolutionary convergence of colour pattern in mimetic species is tightly linked with the evolution of chemical defences. Yet, the evolutionary forces involved in natural variations of chemical defences in aposematic species are still understudied. Herein, we focus on the evolution chemical defences in the butterfly tribe Heliconiini. These neo-tropical butterflies contain large concentrations of cyanogenic glucosides, cyanide-releasing compounds acting as predator deterrent. These compounds are either de novo synthesized or sequestered from their Passiflora host-plant,...

Ecological mechanisms explaining interactions within plant-hummingbird networks: morphological matching increases towards lower latitudes

Jesper Sonne, Jeferson Vizentin-Bugoni, Pietro K. Maruyama, Andréa C. Araújo, Edgar Chávez-González, Aline G. Coelho, Peter A. Cotton, Oscar H. Marín-Gómez, Carlos Lara, Liliana R. Lasprilla, Caio G. Machado, Maria A. Maglianesi, Tiago S. Malucelli, Ana M. Martín-González, Genilda M. Oliveira, Paulo E. Oliveira, Raul Ortiz-Pulido, Márcia A. Rocca, Licléia C. Rodrigues, Ivan Sazima, Benno I. Simmons, Boris Tinoco, Isabela G. Varassin, Marcelo F. Vasconcelos, Bob O’Hara … & Bo Dalsgaard
Interactions between species are influenced by different ecological mechanisms, such as morphological matching, phenological overlap, and species abundances. How these mechanisms explain interaction frequencies across environmental gradients remains poorly understood. Consequently, we also know little about the mechanisms that drive the geographical patterns in network structure, such as complementary specialization and modularity. Here, we use data on morphologies, phenologies and abundances to explain interaction frequencies between hummingbirds and plants at a large geographic scale. For...

Data from: Environmental heterogeneity dynamics drive plant diversity on oceanic islands

Martha Paola Barajas Barbosa, Patrick Weigelt, Michael Borregaard, Gunnar Keppel & Holger Kreft
Aim: The General Dynamic Model (GDM) links island biogeographical processes to island geological history. A key premise of the GDM implies that environmental factors shaping the ecology and evolution of insular biota follow a hump-shaped trend over the island’s life span and drive dynamics in carrying capacity, species diversity and endemism. An important component of the GDM is environmental heterogeneity (EH), but its effects on insular diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we first quantified EH,...

Data from: Trade-off between somatic and germline repair in a vertebrate supports the expensive germ line hypothesis

Simone Immler, Hwei-Yen Chen, Kasparas Bublys, Cecile Jolly & Daniel Marcu
The disposable soma theory is a central tenet of the biology of aging where germline immortality comes at the cost of an aging soma [T. B. L. Kirkwood, Nature 270, 301–304 (1977); T. B. L. Kirkwood, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 205, 531–546 (1979); T. B. L. Kirkwood, S. N. Austad, Nature 408, 233–238 (2000)]. Limited resources and a possible trade-off between the repair and maintenance of the germ cells and growth and...

Data from: Peripheral morphology is associated with restricted lineage diversification and endemism across a large passerine radiation

Jonathan Kennedy, Petter Marki, Jon Fjeldså & Carsten Rahbek
Aim: Across a variety of taxonomic scales species diversity is unevenly distributed among its constituent units, and clades with few species are more common than expected assuming homogeneous rates of speciation and extinction among lineages. In order to explain the prevalence of species poor families among a global and speciose radiation of passerine birds, we test whether these groups share common eco-morphological, geographic and phylogenetic attributes. Location: Global Time period: Late Oligocene to the present...

Data from: Drivers of plant traits that allow survival in wetlands

Yingji Pan, Ellen Cieraad, Bev Clarkson, Tim Colmer, Ole Pedersen, Eric Visser, Laurentius A.C.J. Voesenek & Peter Van Bodegom
Plants have developed a suite of traits to survive the anaerobic and anoxic soil conditions in wetlands. Previous studies on wetland plant adaptive traits have focused mainly on physiological aspects under experimental conditions, or compared the trait expression of the local species pool. Thus, a comprehensive analysis of potential factors driving wetland plant adaptive traits under natural environmental conditions is still missing. In this study, we analysed three important wetland adaptive traits, i.e. root porosity,...

Habitat suitability analysis reveals high ecological flexibility in a \"strict\" forest primate

Malene Friis Hansen, Ventie Angelia Nawangsari, Floris M. Van Beest, Niels Martin Schmidt, Mikkel Stelvig & Torben Dabelsteen
Background: Research of many mammal species tends to focus on single habitats, reducing knowledge of ecological flexibility. The Javan lutung (Trachypithecus auratus) is considered a strict forest primate, and little is known about populations living in savannah. In 2017–2018, we investigated the density and distribution of Javan lutung in Baluran National Park, Indonesia. We conducted ad libitum follows and line transect distance sampling with habitat suitability analysis of Javan lutung. Results: Estimated density was 14.91...

Greenland Marine-Terminating Glacier Retreat Data

Michael Wood, Eric Rignot, Anders Bjørk, Michiel Van En Broeke, Ian Fenty, Dimitris Menemenlis, Mathieu Morlighem, Jeremie Mouginot, Brice Noël, Bernd Scheuchl, Joshua Willis, Hong Zhang, Lu An, Cilan Cai, Emily Kane, Romain Millan & Isabella Velicogna
The thinning, acceleration, and retreat of Greenland glaciers since the mid-1990s has been attributed to the enhanced intrusion of warm Atlantic Waters (AW) into fjords, but this assertion has not been quantitatively tested on a Greenland-wide basis or included in numerical models. Here, we investigate how AW influenced the retreat of 226 marine-terminating glaciers by combining ocean modeling, remote sensing, and in-situ observations. We identify 74 glaciers standing in deep fjords with warm AW that...

Individual variability and versatility in an eco-evolutionary model of avian migration

Benjamin M. Van Doren, Kira E. Delmore, Greg J. Conway, Teja Curk, Tania Garrido-Garduño, Ryan R. Germain, Timo Hasselmann, Dieter Hiemer, Henk Van Der Jeugd, Hannah Justen, Juan Sebastian Lugo Ramos, Ivan Maggini, Britta S. Meyer, Robbie J. Phillips, Magdalena Remisiewicz, Graham C. M. Roberts, Ben C. Sheldon, Wolfgang Vogl & Miriam Liedvogel
Seasonal migration is a complex and variable behavior with the potential to promote reproductive isolation. In Eurasian blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla), a migratory divide in central Europe separating populations with southwest and southeast autumn routes may facilitate isolation, and individuals using new wintering areas in Britain show divergence from Mediterranean winterers. We tracked 100 blackcaps in the wild to characterize these strategies. Blackcaps to the west and east of the divide used predominantly SW and SE...

Data from: Divergence of Arctic shrub growth associated with sea ice decline

Agata Buchwal, Patrick F. Sullivan, Marc Macias-Fauria, Eric Post, Isla H. Myers-Smith, Julienne C. Stroeve, Daan Blok, Ken D. Tape, Bruce C. Forbes, Pascale Ropars, Esther Lévesque, Bo Elberling, Sandra Angers-Blondin, Joseph S. Boyle, Stéphane Boudreau, Noémie Boulanger-Lapointe, Cassandra Gamm, Martin Hallinger, Grzegorz Rachlewicz, Amanda Young, Pentti Zetterberg & Jeffrey M. Welker
Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) is declining at an accelerating rate with a wide range of ecological consequences. However, determining sea ice effects on tundra vegetation remains a challenge. In this study, we examined the universality or lack thereof in tundra shrub growth responses to changes in SIE and summer climate across the Pan-Arctic, taking advantage of 23 tundra shrub-ring chronologies from 19 widely distributed sites (56⁰-83⁰N).

Data from: Mosses reduce soil nitrogen availability in a subarctic birch forest via effects on soil thermal regime and sequestration of deposited nitrogen

Marianne Koranda & Anders Michelsen
In high-latitude ecosystems, bryophytes are important drivers of ecosystem functions. Alterations in abundance of mosses due to global change may thus strongly influence carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling and hence cause feedback on climate. The effects of mosses on soil microbial activity are, however, still poorly understood. Our study aims at elucidating how and by which mechanisms bryophytes influence microbial decomposition processes of soil organic matter and thus soil nutrient availability. We present results...

Comparative phylogenetics of Papilio butterfly wing shape and size demonstrates independent hindwing and forewing evolution

Hannah Owens, Delano Lewis, Fabien Condamine, Akito Kawahara & Robert Guralnick
The complex forces that shape butterfly wings have long been a subject of experimental and comparative research. Butterflies use their wings for flight, camouflage, mate recognition, warning and mimicry. However, general patterns and correlations among wing shape and size evolution are still poorly understood. We collected geometric morphometric measurements from over 1400 digitized museum specimens of Papilio swallowtails and combined them with phylogenetic data to test two hypotheses: 1) forewing shape and size evolve independently...

Rates of rehospitalisation in the first two years among preterm infants discharged from the NICU of a tertiary children hospital in Vietnam – A follow-up study

Huu Thieu Chuong Do, Malene Landbo Børresen, Freddy Karup Pedersen, Ronald Bertus Geskus & Alexandra Yasmin Kruse
Objectives To describe the characteristics of rehospitalisation in Vietnamese preterm infants, and to examine the time-to-first-readmission between two gestational age (GA) groups (extremely/very preterm, EVP, versus moderate/late preterm, MLP). Further, to compare rehospitalisation rates according to GA and corrected age (CA), and to examine the association between potential risk factors and rehospitalisation rates. Design and Setting Cohort study to follow up preterm infants discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a tertiary children’s...

Registration Year

  • 2020
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Resource Types

  • Dataset
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Affiliations

  • University of Copenhagen
    40
  • University of Oxford
    4
  • Uppsala University
    3
  • University of Kansas
    2
  • Copenhagen Zoo
    2
  • University of Göttingen
    2
  • University of Chicago
    2
  • Leiden University
    2
  • Landcare Research
    2
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    2