295 Works

Data from: Foliar nutrient concentrations and resorption efficiency in plants of contrasting nutrient-acquisition strategies along a 2-million year dune chronosequence

Patrick Hayes, Benjamin L. Turner, Hans Lambers & Etienne Laliberté
1. Long-term pedogenesis leads to important changes in the availability of soil nutrients, especially nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Changes in the availability of micronutrients can also occur, but are less well understood. We explored whether changes in leaf nutrient concentrations and resorption were consistent with a shift from N to P limitation of plant productivity with soil age along a >2-million year dune chronosequence in south-western Australia. We also compared these traits among plants...

Data from: Trait-based scaling of temperature-dependent foliar respiration in a species-rich tropical forest canopy

Martijn Slot, Camilo Rey-Sánchez, Klaus Winter & Kaoru Kitajima
The scarcity of empirical data on leaf respiration (R) and its temperature sensitivity (e.g., Q10, defined as the proportional increase in R per 10°C warming) causes uncertainty in current estimates of net primary productivity of tropical forests. We measured temperature response curves of R on 123 upper-canopy leaves of 28 species of trees and lianas from a tropical forest in Panama, and analyzed variations in R and Q10 in relation to other leaf functional traits....

Data from: Species-specific responses of foliar nutrients to long-term nitrogen and phosphorus additions in a lowland tropical forest

Jordan R. Mayor, S. Joseph Wright & Benjamin L. Turner
1) The concentration, stoichiometry, and resorption of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in plant leaves are often used as proxies of the availability of these growth-limiting nutrients, but the responses of these metrics to changes in nutrient availability remains largely untested for tropical forest trees. 2) We evaluated changes in N and P concentrations, N:P ratios, and resorption for 4 common tree species after 13 years of factorial N and P additions in a lowland...

Data from: Coevolutionary patterns and diversification of ant-fungus associations in the asexual fungus-farming ant Mycocepurus smithii in Panama

Katrin Kellner, Hermogenes Fernández-Marín, Heather D. Ishak, Ruchira Sen, Timothy A. Linksvayer & Ulrich G. Mueller
Partner fidelity through vertical symbiont transmission is thought to be the primary mechanism stabilizing cooperation in the mutualism between fungus-farming (attine) ants and their cultivated fungal symbionts. An alternate or additional mechanism could be adaptive partner or symbiont choice mediating horizontal cultivar transmission or de novo domestication of free-living fungi. Using microsatellite-genotyping for the attine ant Mycocepurus smithii and ITS rDNA-sequencing for fungal cultivars, we provide the first detailed population-genetic analysis of local ant-fungus associations...

Data from: Environmental gradients and the evolution of successional habitat specialization: a test case with 14 Neotropical forest sites

Susan G. Letcher, Jesse R. Lasky, Robin L. Chazdon, Natalia Norden, S. Joseph Wright, Jorge A. Meave, Eduardo A. Pérez-García, Rodrigo Muñoz, Eunice Romero-Pérez, Ana Andrade, José Luis Andrade, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Tony V. Bentos, Radika Bhaskar, Frans Bongers, Vanessa Boukili, Pedro H. S. Brancalion, Ricardo G. César, Deborah A. Clark, David B. Clark, Dylan Craven, Alexander DeFrancesco, Juan M. Dupuy, Bryan Finegan … & G. Bruce Williamson
1. Successional gradients are ubiquitous in nature, yet few studies have systematically examined the evolutionary origins of taxa that specialize at different successional stages. Here we quantify successional habitat specialization in Neotropical forest trees and evaluate its evolutionary lability along a precipitation gradient. Theoretically, successional habitat specialization should be more evolutionarily conserved in wet forests than in dry forests due to more extreme microenvironmental differentiation between early and late successional stages in wet forest. 2....

Data from: Size-related scaling of tree form and function in a mixed-age forest

Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira, Jennifer C. McGarvey, Helene C. Muller-Landau, Janice Y. Park, Erika B. Gonzalez-Akre, Valentine Herrmann, Amy C. Bennett, Christopher V. So, Norman A. Bourg, Jonathan R. Thompson, Sean M. McMahon & William J. McShea
Many morphological, physiological and ecological traits of trees scale with diameter, shaping the structure and function of forest ecosystems. Understanding the mechanistic basis for such scaling relationships is key to understanding forests globally and their role in Earth's changing climate system. Here, we evaluate theoretical predictions for the scaling of nine variables in a mixed-age temperate deciduous forest (CTFS-ForestGEO forest dynamics plot at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Virginia, USA) and compare observed scaling parameters...

Data from: Neogene sloth assemblages (Mammalia, Pilosa) of the Cocinetas Basin (La Guajira, Colombia): implications for the Great American Biotic Interchange

Eli Amson, Juan David Carrillo & Carlos Jaramillo
We describe sloth assemblages from the Cocinetas Basin (La Guajira peninsula, Colombia), found in the Neogene Castilletes and Ware formations, located in northernmost South America, documenting otherwise poorly known biotas. The tentative referral of a specimen to a small megatherioid sloth, Hyperleptus?, from the early–middle Miocene Castilletes Formation, suggests affinities of this fauna with the distant Santa Cruz Formation and documents a large latitudinal distribution for this taxon. The late Pliocene Ware Formation is much...

Data from: Acoustic identification of Mexican bats based on taxonomic and ecological constraints on call design

Veronica Zamora-Gutierrez, Celia Lopez-Gonzalez, M. Cristina MacSwiney Gonzalez, Brock Fenton, Gareth Jones, Elisabeth K. V. Kalko, Sebastien J. Puechmaille, Vassilios Stathopoulos & Kate E. Jones
Monitoring global biodiversity is critical for understanding responses to anthropogenic change, but biodiversity monitoring is often biased away from tropical, megadiverse areas that are experiencing more rapid environmental change. Acoustic surveys are increasingly used to monitor biodiversity change, especially for bats as they are important indicator species and most use sound to detect, localise and classify objects. However, using bat acoustic surveys for monitoring poses several challenges, particularly in megadiverse regions. Many species lack reference...

Data from: Keeping the band together: evidence for false boundary disruptive coloration in a butterfly

Brett M. Seymoure & Annette Aiello
There is a recent surge of evidence supporting disruptive coloration, in which patterns break up the animal's outline through false edges or boundaries, increasing survival in animals by reducing predator detection and/or preventing recognition. Though research has demonstrated that false edges are successful for reducing predation of prey, research into the role of internal false boundaries (i.e., stripes and bands) in reducing predation remains warranted. Many animals, have stripes and bands that may function disruptively....

Data from: The rise and fall of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity during ecosystem retrogression

Manuela Krüger, François P. Teste, Etienne Laliberté, Hans Lambers, Megan Coghlan, Graham Zemunik & Michael Bunce
Ecosystem retrogression following long-term pedogenesis is attributed to phosphorus (P) limitation of primary productivity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhance P acquisition for most terrestrial plants, but it has been suggested that this strategy becomes less effective in strongly weathered soils with extremely low P availability. Using next generation sequencing of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene in roots and soil, we compared the composition and diversity of AMF communities in three contrasting stages of a...

Data from: Pervasive and strong effects of plants on soil chemistry: a meta-analysis of individual plant ‘Zinke’ effects

Bonnie G. Waring, Leonor Álvarez-Cansino, Kathryn E. Barry, Kristen K. Becklund, Sarah Dale, Maria G. Gei, Adrienne B. Keller, Omar R. Lopez, Lars Markesteijn, Scott Mangan, Charlotte E. Riggs, Maria Elizabeth Rodríguez-Ronderos, R. Max Segnitz, Stefan A. Schnitzer & Jennifer S. Powers
Plant species leave a chemical signature in the soils below them, generating fine-scale spatial variation that drives ecological processes. Since the publication of a seminal paper on plant-mediated soil heterogeneity by Paul Zinke in 1962, a robust literature has developed examining effects of individual plants on their local environments (individual plant effects). Here, we synthesize this work using meta-analysis to show that plant effects are strong and pervasive across ecosystems on six continents. Overall, soil...

Data from: Repeated invasions into the twilight zone: evolutionary origins of a novel assemblage of fishes from deep Caribbean reefs

Luke Tornabene, James Van Tassell, D. Ross Robertson & Carole C. Baldwin
Mesophotic and deeper reefs of the tropics are poorly known and underexplored ecosystems worldwide. Collectively referred to as the ‘twilight zone’, depths below ~30–50 m are home to many species of reef fishes that are absent from shallower depths, including many undescribed and endemic species. We currently lack even a basic understanding of the diversity and evolutionary origins of fishes on tropical mesophotic reefs. Recent submersible collections in the Caribbean have provided new specimens that...

Data from: Differences in male coloration are predicted by divergent sexual selection between populations of a cichlid fish

Oliver M. Selz, Rahel Thommen, Michele R. Pierotti, Jaime M. Anaya-Rojas, Ole Seehausen & M. E. R. Pierotti
Female mating preferences can influence both intraspecific sexual selection and interspecific reproductive isolation, and have therefore been proposed to play a central role in speciation. Here, we investigate experimentally in the African cichlid fish Pundamilia nyererei if differences in male coloration between three para-allopatric populations (i.e. island populations with gene flow) of P. nyererei are predicted by differences in sexual selection by female mate choice between populations. Second, we investigate if female mating preferences are...

Data from: Trees as islands: canopy ant species richness increases with the size of liana-free trees in a Neotropical forest

Benjamin J. Adams, Stefan A. Schnitzer & Stephen P. Yanoviak
The physical characteristics of habitats shape local community structure; a classic example is the positive relationship between the size of insular habitats and species richness. Despite the high density and proximity of tree crowns in forests, trees are insular habitats for some taxa. Specifically, crown isolation (i.e. crown shyness) prevents the movement of small cursorial animals among trees. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the species richness of ants (Sa) in individual, isolated trees embedded...

Sensory ecology of the frog-eating bat, Trachops cirrhosus, from DNA metabarcoding and behavior

Patricia L Jones, Timothy Divoll, M. May Dixon, Dineilys Aparicio, Gregg Cohen, Ulrich Mueller, Michael Ryan & Rachel Page
Metabarcoding of prey DNA from fecal samples can be used to design behavioral experiments to study the foraging behavior and sensory ecology of predators. The frog-eating bat, Trachops cirrhosus, eavesdrops on the mating calls of its anuran prey. We captured wild T. cirrhosus and identified prey remains in the bats' fecal samples using DNA metabarcoding of two gene regions (CO1, 16S). Bats were preying on frogs previously unknown in their diet, such as species in...

Investigating sources of conflict in deep phylogenomics of vetigastropod snails

Tauana Cunha, James Reimer & Gonzalo Giribet
Phylogenetic analyses may suffer from multiple sources of error leading to conflict between genes and methods of inference. The evolutionary history of the mollusc clade Vetigastropoda makes them susceptible to these conflicts, their higher level phylogeny remaining largely unresolved. Originating over 350 million years ago, vetigastropods were the dominant marine snails in the Paleozoic. Multiple extinction events and new radiations have resulted in both very long and very short branches and a large extant diversity...

Data from: Testing the role of ecology and life history in structuring genetic variation across a landscape: a trait-based phylogeographic approach

Andrea Paz, Roberto Ibáñez, Karen R. Lips & Andrew J. Crawford
Hypotheses to explain phylogeographic structure traditionally invoke geographic features, but often fail to provide a general explanation for spatial patterns of genetic variation. Organisms' intrinsic characteristics might play more important roles than landscape features in determining phylogeographic structure. We developed a novel comparative approach to explore the role of ecological and life-history variables in determining spatial genetic variation and tested it on frog communities in Panama. We quantified spatial genetic variation within 31 anuran species...

Data from: Photosynthetic acclimation to warming in tropical forest tree seedlings

Martijn Slot & Klaus Winter
Tropical forests have a mitigating effect on man-made climate change by acting as a carbon sink. For that effect to continue, tropical trees will have to acclimate to rising temperatures, but it is currently unknown whether they have this capacity. We grew seedlings of three tropical tree species over a range of temperature regimes (TGrowth = 25, 30, 35 °C) and measured the temperature response of photosynthetic CO2 uptake. All species showed signs of acclimation:...

Data from: The Automated Root Exudate System (ARES): a method to apply solutes at regular intervals to soils in the field

Luis Lopez-Sangil, Charles T. George, Eduardo Medina-Barcenas, Ali J. Birkett, Catherine Baxendale, Laetitia M. Bréchet, Eduard Estradera-Gumbau, Emma J. Sayer & Charles George
1) Root exudation is a key component of nutrient and carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. Exudation rates vary widely by plant species and environmental conditions but our understanding of how root exudates affect soil functioning is incomplete, in part because there are few viable methods to manipulate root exudates in situ. To address this, we devised the Automated Root Exudate System (ARES), which simulates increased root exudation by applying small amounts of labile solutes at...

Data from: A hyperspectral image can predict tropical tree growth rates in single-species stands

T. Trevor Caughlin, Sarah J. Graves, Gregory P. Asner, Michiel Van Breugel, Jefferson S. Hall, Roberta E. Martin, Mark S. Ashton & Stephanie A. Bohlman
Remote sensing is increasingly needed to meet the critical demand for estimates of forest structure and composition at landscape to continental scales. Hyperspectral images can detect tree canopy properties, including species identity, leaf chemistry and disease. Tree growth rates are related to these measurable canopy properties but whether growth can be directly predicted from hyperspectral data remains unknown. We used a single hyperspectral image and LiDAR-derived elevation to predict growth rates for twenty tropical tree...

Data from: No evidence for maintenance of a sympatric Heliconius species barrier by chromosomal inversions

John W. Davey, Sarah L. Barker, Pasi M. Rastas, Ana Pinharanda, Simon H. Martin, Richard Durbin, W. Owen McMillan, Richard M. Merrill & Chris D. Jiggins
Mechanisms that suppress recombination are known to help maintain species barriers by preventing the breakup of coadapted gene combinations. The sympatric butterfly species Heliconius melpomene and Heliconius cydno are separated by many strong barriers, but the species still hybridize infrequently in the wild, and around 40% of the genome is influenced by introgression. We tested the hypothesis that genetic barriers between the species are maintained by inversions or other mechanisms that reduce between-species recombination rate....

Data from: Host-specific effects of soil microbial filtrates prevail over those of arbuscular mycorrhizae in a fragmented landscape

Camila Pizano, Scott A. Mangan, James H. Graham & Kaoru Kitajima
Plant-soil interactions have been shown to determine plant community composition in a wide range of environments. However, how plants distinctly interact with beneficial and detrimental organisms across mosaic landscapes containing fragmented habitats is still poorly understood. We experimentally tested feedback responses between plants and soil microbial communities from adjacent habitats across a disturbance gradient within a human-modified tropical montane landscape. In a greenhouse experiment, two components of soil microbial communities were amplified; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi...

Data from: Host associated bacterial community succession during amphibian development

Tiffany L. Prest, Abigail K. Kimball, Jordan G. Kueneman & Valerie J. Mckenzie
Amphibians undergo significant developmental changes during their life cycle, as they typically move from a primarily aquatic environment to a more terrestrial one. Amphibian skin is a mucosal tissue that assembles communities of symbiotic microbiota. However, it is currently not well understood as to where amphibians acquire their skin symbionts, and whether the sources of microbial symbionts change throughout development. In this study, we utilized data collected from four wild boreal toad populations (Anaxyrus boreas);...

Data from: Leaf trait variations associated with habitat affinity of tropical karst tree species

Nalaka Geekiyanage, Uromi Goodale, Kunfang Cao, Kaoru Kitajima & Uromi Manage Goodale
1. Karst hills, i.e., jagged topography created by dissolution of limestone and other soluble rocks, are distributed extensively in tropical forest regions, including southern parts of China. They are characterized by a sharp mosaic of water and nutrient availability, from exposed hilltops with poor soil development to valleys with occasional flooding, to which trees show species specific distributions. Here we report the relationship of leaf functional traits to habitat preference of tropical karst trees. 2....

Data from: Female mate choice is a reproductive isolating barrier in Heliconius butterflies

Laura Southcott & Marcus R. Kronforst
In sexually reproducing organisms, speciation involves the evolution of reproductive isolating mechanisms that decrease gene flow. Premating reproductive isolation, often the result of mate choice, is a major obstacle to gene flow between species because it acts earlier in the life cycle than other isolating barriers. While female choice is often considered the default mode in animal species, research in the butterfly genus Heliconius, a frequent subject of speciation studies, has focused on male mate...

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  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
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