32 Works

Data from: Size-related scaling of tree form and function in a mixed-age forest

Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira, Jennifer C. McGarvey, Helene C. Muller-Landau, Janice Y. Park, Erika B. Gonzalez-Akre, Valentine Herrmann, Amy C. Bennett, Christopher V. So, Norman A. Bourg, Jonathan R. Thompson, Sean M. McMahon & William J. McShea
Many morphological, physiological and ecological traits of trees scale with diameter, shaping the structure and function of forest ecosystems. Understanding the mechanistic basis for such scaling relationships is key to understanding forests globally and their role in Earth's changing climate system. Here, we evaluate theoretical predictions for the scaling of nine variables in a mixed-age temperate deciduous forest (CTFS-ForestGEO forest dynamics plot at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Virginia, USA) and compare observed scaling parameters...

Data from: Environmental gradients and the evolution of successional habitat specialization: a test case with 14 Neotropical forest sites

Susan G. Letcher, Jesse R. Lasky, Robin L. Chazdon, Natalia Norden, S. Joseph Wright, Jorge A. Meave, Eduardo A. Pérez-García, Rodrigo Muñoz, Eunice Romero-Pérez, Ana Andrade, José Luis Andrade, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Tony V. Bentos, Radika Bhaskar, Frans Bongers, Vanessa Boukili, Pedro H. S. Brancalion, Ricardo G. César, Deborah A. Clark, David B. Clark, Dylan Craven, Alexander DeFrancesco, Juan M. Dupuy, Bryan Finegan … & G. Bruce Williamson
1. Successional gradients are ubiquitous in nature, yet few studies have systematically examined the evolutionary origins of taxa that specialize at different successional stages. Here we quantify successional habitat specialization in Neotropical forest trees and evaluate its evolutionary lability along a precipitation gradient. Theoretically, successional habitat specialization should be more evolutionarily conserved in wet forests than in dry forests due to more extreme microenvironmental differentiation between early and late successional stages in wet forest. 2....

Data from: The rise and fall of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity during ecosystem retrogression

Manuela Krüger, François P. Teste, Etienne Laliberté, Hans Lambers, Megan Coghlan, Graham Zemunik & Michael Bunce
Ecosystem retrogression following long-term pedogenesis is attributed to phosphorus (P) limitation of primary productivity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhance P acquisition for most terrestrial plants, but it has been suggested that this strategy becomes less effective in strongly weathered soils with extremely low P availability. Using next generation sequencing of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene in roots and soil, we compared the composition and diversity of AMF communities in three contrasting stages of a...

Data from: Keeping the band together: evidence for false boundary disruptive coloration in a butterfly

Brett M. Seymoure & Annette Aiello
There is a recent surge of evidence supporting disruptive coloration, in which patterns break up the animal's outline through false edges or boundaries, increasing survival in animals by reducing predator detection and/or preventing recognition. Though research has demonstrated that false edges are successful for reducing predation of prey, research into the role of internal false boundaries (i.e., stripes and bands) in reducing predation remains warranted. Many animals, have stripes and bands that may function disruptively....

Data from: Testing the role of ecology and life history in structuring genetic variation across a landscape: a trait-based phylogeographic approach

Andrea Paz, Roberto Ibáñez, Karen R. Lips & Andrew J. Crawford
Hypotheses to explain phylogeographic structure traditionally invoke geographic features, but often fail to provide a general explanation for spatial patterns of genetic variation. Organisms' intrinsic characteristics might play more important roles than landscape features in determining phylogeographic structure. We developed a novel comparative approach to explore the role of ecological and life-history variables in determining spatial genetic variation and tested it on frog communities in Panama. We quantified spatial genetic variation within 31 anuran species...

Data from: Pervasive and strong effects of plants on soil chemistry: a meta-analysis of individual plant ‘Zinke’ effects

Bonnie G. Waring, Leonor Álvarez-Cansino, Kathryn E. Barry, Kristen K. Becklund, Sarah Dale, Maria G. Gei, Adrienne B. Keller, Omar R. Lopez, Lars Markesteijn, Scott Mangan, Charlotte E. Riggs, Maria Elizabeth Rodríguez-Ronderos, R. Max Segnitz, Stefan A. Schnitzer & Jennifer S. Powers
Plant species leave a chemical signature in the soils below them, generating fine-scale spatial variation that drives ecological processes. Since the publication of a seminal paper on plant-mediated soil heterogeneity by Paul Zinke in 1962, a robust literature has developed examining effects of individual plants on their local environments (individual plant effects). Here, we synthesize this work using meta-analysis to show that plant effects are strong and pervasive across ecosystems on six continents. Overall, soil...

Data from: Long-term changes in liana loads and tree dynamics in a Malaysian forest

S. Joseph Wright, I-Fang Sun, Maria Pickering, Christine D. Fletcher & Yu-Yun Chen
The importance of lianas through time and their effect on tree reproduction are evaluated for the first time in a Southeast Asian Dipterocarp forest. We quantified flower and seed production by lianas and trees for 13 years, assessed liana loads in the crowns of all trees larger than 30 cm in diameter at breast height (1.3 m) in 2002 and 2014, and assessed levels of reproduction for the same trees during a strong general flowering...

Data from: DNA barcoding survey of anurans across the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and the impact of the Andes on cryptic diversity

Carlos E. Guarnizo, Andrea Paz, Astrid Muñoz-Ortiz, Sandra V. Flechas, Javier Mendez-Narváez & Andrew J. Crawford
Colombia hosts the second highest amphibian species diversity on Earth, yet its fauna remains poorly studied, especially using molecular genetic techniques. We present the results of the first wide-scale DNA barcoding survey of anurans of Colombia, focusing on a transect across the Eastern Cordillera. We surveyed 10 sites between the Magdalena Valley to the west and the eastern foothills of the Eastern Cordillera, sequencing portions of the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit...

Data from: Sensory-based niche partitioning in a multiple predator-multiple prey community

Jay J. Falk, Hannah M. Ter Hofstede, Patricia L. Jones, Marjorie M. Dixon, Paul A. Faure, Elisabeth K. V. Kalko & Rachel A. Page
Many predators and parasites eavesdrop on the communication signals of their prey. Eavesdropping is typically studied as dyadic predator–prey species interactions; yet in nature, most predators target multiple prey species and most prey must evade multiple predator species. The impact of predator communities on prey signal evolution is not well understood. Predators could converge in their preferences for conspicuous signal properties, generating competition among predators and natural selection on particular prey signal features. Alternatively, predator...

Data from: Convergence of soil nitrogen isotopes across global climate gradients

Joseph M. Craine, Andrew J. Elmore, Lixin Wang, Laurent Augusto, W. Troy Baisden, E. N. J. Brookshire, Michael D. Cramer, Niles J. Hasselquist, Erik A. Hobbie, Ansgar Kahmen, Keisuke Koba, J. Marty Kranabetter, Michelle C. Mack, Erika Marin-Spiotta, Jordan R. Mayor, Kendra K. McLauchlan, Anders Michelsen, Gabriela B. Nardoto, Rafael S. Oliveira, Steven S. Perakis, Pablo L. Peri, Carlos A. Quesada, Andreas Richter, Louis A. Schipper, Bryan A. Stevenson … & Bernd Zeller
Quantifying global patterns of terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycling is central to predicting future patterns of primary productivity, carbon sequestration, nutrient fluxes to aquatic systems, and climate forcing. With limited direct measures of soil N cycling at the global scale, syntheses of the 15N:14N ratio of soil organic matter across climate gradients provide key insights into understanding global patterns of N cycling. In synthesizing data from over 6000 soil samples, we show strong global relationships among...

Data from: Habitat hotspots of common and rare tropical species along climatic and edaphic gradients

Han Xu, Suqin Fang & Matteo Detto
1. Understanding coexistence in high biodiversity ecosystems requires knowledge of how rare and common species share the multidimensional environmental space. Climatic and edaphic conditions can provide a plethora of habitats, supporting different compositional and structural communities where species can adapt and differentiate. 2. We used a large dataset consisting of 580 tropical tree species sampled in 163 25×25 m quadrats along an altitudinal gradient covering an area of 160 km2 of tropical rainforest in Jianfengling...

Data from: Globally, functional traits are weak predictors of juvenile tree growth, and we do not know why

C. E. Timothy Paine, Lucy Amissah, Harald Auge, Christopher Baraloto, Martin Baruffol, Nils Bourland, Helge Bruelheide, Kasso Daïnou, Roland C. De Gouvenain, Jean-Louis Doucet, Susan Doust, Paul V. A. Fine, Claire Fortunel, Josephine Haase, Karen D. Holl, Hervé Jactel, Xuefei Li, Kaoru Kitajima, Julia Koricheva, Cristina Martínez-Garza, Christian Messier, Alain Paquette, Christopher Philipson, Daniel Piotto, Lourens Poorter … & Andy Hector
1. Plant functional traits, in particular specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and seed mass, are often good predictors of individual tree growth rates within communities. Individuals and species with high SLA, low wood density and small seeds tend to have faster growth rates. 2. If community-level relationships between traits and growth have general predictive value, then similar relationships should also be observed in analyses that integrate across taxa, biogeographic regions and environments. Such global...

Data from: Photosynthetic pathways in Bromeliaceae: phylogenetic and ecological significance of CAM and C3 based on carbon isotope ratios for 1893 species

Darren M. Crayn, Klaus Winter, Katharina Schulte & J. Andrew C. Smith
A comprehensive analysis of photosynthetic pathways in relation to phylogeny and elevational distribution was conducted in Bromeliaceae, an ecologically diverse Neotropical family containing large numbers of both terrestrial and epiphytic species. Tissue carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) was used to determine the occurrence of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and C3 photosynthesis in 1893 species, representing 57% of species and all 56 genera in the family. The frequency of δ13C values showed a strongly bimodal distribution: 1074...

Data from: Multimodal cues improve prey localization under complex environmental conditions

Flor Rhebergen, Ryan C. Taylor, Michael J. Ryan, Rachel A. Page & Wouter Halfwerk
Predators often eavesdrop on sexual displays of their prey. These displays can provide multimodal cues that aid predators, but the benefits in attending to them should depend on the environmental sensory conditions under which they forage. We assessed whether bats hunting for frogs use multimodal cues to locate their prey and whether their use varies with ambient conditions. We used a robotic set-up mimicking the sexual display of a male túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus) to...

Data from: Little evidence for morphological change in a resilient endemic species following the introduction of a novel predator

Diana M. T. Sharpe, R. Brian Langerhans, Etienne Low-Décarie & Lauren J Chapman
Human activities, such as species introductions, are dramatically and rapidly altering natural ecological processes, and often result in novel selection regimes. To date, we still have a limited understanding of the extent to which such anthropogenic selection may be driving contemporary phenotypic change in natural populations. Here we test whether the introduction of the piscivorous Nile perch, Lates niloticus, into East Africa's Lake Victoria and nearby lakes coincided with morphological change in one resilient native...

Data from: Phylogenetic structure and host abundance drive disease pressure in communities

Ingrid M. Parker, Megan Saunders, Megan Bontrager, Andrew P. Weitz, Rebecca Hendricks, Roger Magarey, Karl Suiter & Gregory S. Gilbert
Pathogens play an important part in shaping the structure and dynamics of natural communities, because species are not affected by them equally. A shared goal of ecology and epidemiology is to predict when a species is most vulnerable to disease. A leading hypothesis asserts that the impact of disease should increase with host abundance, producing a ‘rare-species advantage. However, the impact of a pathogen may be decoupled from host abundance, because most pathogens infect more...

Data from: Divergence with gene flow across a speciation continuum of Heliconius butterflies

Megan Ann Supple, Riccardo Papa, Heather M. Hines, William Owen McMillan & Brian A. Counterman
Background: A key to understanding the origins of species is determining the evolutionary processes that drive the patterns of genomic divergence during speciation. New genomic technologies enable the study of high-resolution genomic patterns of divergence across natural speciation continua, where taxa pairs with different levels of reproductive isolation can be used as proxies for different stages of speciation. Empirical studies of these speciation continua can provide valuable insights into how genomes diverge during speciation. Methods:...

Data from: Functional traits as predictors of vital rates across the life cycle of tropical trees

Marco D. Visser, Marjolein Bruijning, Stuart Joseph Wright, Helene C. Muller-Landau, Eelke Jongejans, Liza S. Comita & Hans De Kroon
The ‘functional traits’ of species have been heralded as promising predictors for species’ demographic rates and life history. Multiple studies have linked plant species’ demographic rates to commonly measured traits. However, predictive power is usually low – raising questions about the practical usefulness of traits – and analyses have been limited to size-independent univariate approaches restricted to a particular life stage. Here we directly evaluated the predictive power of multiple traits simultaneously across the entire...

Data from: When does intraspecific trait variation contribute to functional beta-diversity?

Marko J. Spasojevic, Benjamin L. Turner & Jonathan A. Myers
1. Intraspecific trait variation (ITV) is hypothesized to play an important role in community assembly and the maintenance of biodiversity. However, fundamental gaps remain in our understanding of how ITV contributes to mechanisms that create spatial variation in the functional-trait composition of communities (functional β-diversity). Importantly, ITV may influence the perceived importance of environmental filtering across spatial scales. 2. We examined how ITV contributes to functional β-diversity and environmental filtering in woody plant communities in...

Data from: Appearance of an early closure of the Isthmus of Panama is the product of biased inclusion of data in the metaanalysis

Harilaos A. Lessios
In their PNAS article “Biological evidence supports an early and complex emergence of the Isthmus of Panama,” Bacon et al. (1 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1423853112) use data from molecular comparisons of terrestrial and marine organisms taken from the literature to estimate dates of rate shifts in migration. One of their conclusions is that “events separating marine organisms in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans [occurred] at ca. 23 and 7 Ma” (1). The authors base this conclusion on...

Data from: Global effects of soil and climate on leaf photosynthetic traits and rates

Vincent Maire, Ian J. Wright, I. Colin Prentice, Niels H. Batjes, Radika Bhaskar, Peter M. Van Bodegom, Will K. Cornwell, David Ellsworth, Ülo Niinemets, Alejandro Ordoñez, Peter B. Reich & Louis S. Santiago
Aim: The influence of soil properties on photosynthetic traits in higher plants is poorly quantified in comparison with that of climate. We address this situation by quantifying the unique and joint contributions to global leaf-trait variation from soils and climate. Location: Terrestrial ecosystems world-wide. Methods: Using a trait dataset comprising 1509 species from 288 sites, with climate and soil data derived from global datasets, we quantified the effects of 20 soil and 26 climate variables...

Data from: Phylogenetic relationships of toads of the Rhinella granulosa group (Anura: Bufonidae): a molecular perspective with comments on hybridization and introgression

Martín O. Pereyra, Diego Baldo, Boris L. Blotto, Patricia P. Iglesias, Maria T. C. Thomé, Célio F. B. Haddad, César Barrio-Amorós, Roberto Ibáñez & Julián Faivovich
The Rhinella granulosa group consists of 13 species of toads distributed throughout open areas of South America and Panama. In this paper we perform a phylogenetic analysis considering all but one species of the group, employing five nuclear and four mitochondrial genes, for up to 7910 bp per specimen. Separate phylogenetic analyses under direct optimization (DO) of nuclear and mitochondrial sequences recovered the R. granulosa group as monophyletic and revealed topological incongruence that can be...

Data from: Evolutionary patterns of adaptive acrobatics and physical performance predict expression profiles of androgen receptor – but not oestrogen receptor – in the forelimb musculature

Matthew J. Fuxjager, Joy Eaton, Willow R. Lindsay, Lucie H. Salwiczek, Michelle A. Rensel, Julia Barske, Laurie Sorenson, Lainy B. Day & Barney A. Schlinger
1. Superior physical competence is vital to the adaptive behavioural routines of many animals, particularly those that engage in elaborate sociosexual displays. How such traits evolve across species remains unclear. 2. Recent work suggests that activation of sex steroid receptors in neuromuscular systems is necessary for the fine motor skills needed to execute physically elaborate displays. Thus, using passerine birds as models, we test whether interspecific variation in display complexity predicts species differences in the...

Data from: Post-metamorphic carry-over effects of larval digestive plasticity

Sarah S. Bouchard, Chelsea R. Jenney O'Leary, Lindsay J. Wargelin, Julie F. Charbonnier, Karen M. Warkentin & Chelsea J. O'Leary
For animals with complex life cycles, conditions in the larval environment can have important effects that persist after metamorphosis. These carry-over effects may influence juvenile growth plasticity and have important fitness consequences. Small juvenile red-eyed treefrogs, Agalychnis callidryas, grow faster than larger ones. We examined to what extent this growth pattern is due to carry-over effects of intraspecific larval competition. In particular, we assessed larval gut plasticity and determined whether carry-over effects could persist given...

Data from: Lianas reduce carbon accumulation and storage in tropical forests

Geertje M. F. Van Der Heijden, Jennifer S. Powers & Stefan A. Schnitzer
Tropical forests store nearly 30% of global terrestrial carbon and contribute to 40% of the global terrestrial carbon sink. By affecting tree growth and survival, lianas impact the carbon balance of these forests. Here we demonstrate with a 3-y experiment that lianas substantially reduce forest-level carbon uptake and storage. This study is, to our knowledge, the first direct demonstration of liana effects at the ecosystem scale and illustrates the important role of lianas in tropical...

Registration Year

  • 2015
    32

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    32

Affiliations

  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
    32
  • University of Minnesota
    4
  • The University of Texas at Austin
    2
  • Federal University of São Carlos
    2
  • Del Rosario University
    2
  • Aarhus University
    2
  • Forest Research Institute Malaysia
    2
  • McGill University
    2
  • National Institute of Amazonian Research
    2
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
    2