25 Works

Data from: Epiphyll specialization for leaf and forest successional stages in a tropical lowland rainforest

Anna Mežaka, Maaike Y. Bader, Noris Salazar Allen & Glenda Mendieta Leiva
Questions The importance of tropical rainforest gap dynamics in biodiversity maintenance is not fully understood, in particular for taxa other than trees and lianas. We used epiphylls on rainforest leaves to study the importance of leaf- and forest-scale succession in determining biodiversity patterns by characterizing community change with leaf age in gaps and closed-forest habitats. We asked: 1. Do epiphylls show specialization for leaf and forest successional stages? 2. Can early and late-successional epiphyllous species...

Millennial-scale change in Caribbean coral reef ecosystem structure and the role of human and natural disturbance

Katie Cramer, Aaron O'Dea, Jill Leonard-Pingel & Richard Norris
Caribbean coral reefs have transformed into algal-dominated habitats over the past half-century, but the role of specific anthropogenic drivers is unresolved due to the lack of ecosystem-level data predating human disturbance. To better understand the extent and causes of long-term Caribbean reef declines, we produced a continuous 3,000-year record of the ecosystem state of three reefs in Bocas del Toro, Caribbean Panama. From fossils and sediments obtained from reef matrix cores, we tracked changes in...

Data from: Comparative transcriptomics provides insights into reticulate and adaptive evolution of a butterfly radiation

Wei Zhang, Brian X. Leon-Ricardo, Bas Van Schooten, Steven Van Belleghem, Brian Counterman, W. Owen McMillan, Marcus R. Kronforst & Riccardo Papa
Butterfly eyes are complex organs that are composed of a diversity of proteins and they play a central role in visual signaling and ultimately, speciation and adaptation. Here, we utilized the whole eye transcriptome to obtain a more holistic view of the evolution of the butterfly eye while accounting for speciation events that co-occur with ancient hybridization. We sequenced and assembled transcriptomes from adult female eyes of eight species representing all major clades of the...

Data from: Long-term dynamics of liana seedlings suggest decelerating increases in liana relative abundance over time

Maria Natalia Umaña, Eric Manzané-Pinzón & Liza Comita
Over the past decades, tropical forests have experienced both compositional and structural changes. In the Neotropics, researchers at multiple sites have observed significant increases in the abundance and biomass of lianas (i.e. woody vines) relative to trees. However, the role of dynamics at early life stages in contributing to increasing liana abundance remains unclear. We took advantage of a unique dataset on seedling dynamics over 16 years in ~20,000 1-m2plots in a tropical forest in...

Oxygen-mediated plasticity confers hypoxia tolerance in a corallivorous polychaete

Noelle Lucey
There is mounting evidence that the deoxygenation of coastal marine ecosystems has been underestimated, particularly in the tropics. These physical conditions appear to have far-reaching consequences for marine communities, and have been associated with mass mortalities. Yet little is known about hypoxia in tropical habitats or about the effects it has on reef-associated benthic organisms. We explored patterns of dissolved oxygen (DO) throughout Almirante Bay, Panama and found a hypoxic gradient, with areas closest to...

Complete data from the Barro Colorado 50-ha plot: 423617 trees, 35 years

Richard Condit, Rolando Pérez, Salomón Aguilar, Suzanne Lao, Robin Foster & Stephen Hubbell
The 50-ha plot at Barro Colorado Island was initially demarcated and fully censused in 1982, and has been fully censused 7 times since, every 5 years from 1985 through 2015 (Hubbell and Foster 1983, Hubbell et al. 1990, Condit et al. 2012, Condit et al. 2017). Every measurement of every stem over 8 censuses is included in this archive. Most users will need only the 8 R Analytical Tables in the format tree, which come...

Data from: The molecular biogeography of the Indo-Pacific: testing hypotheses with multispecies genetic patterns

Eric D. Crandall, Cynthia Riginos, Chris E. Bird, Libby Liggins, Eric Treml, Maria Beger, Paul H. Barber, Sean R. Connolly, Peter F. Cowman, Joseph D. Dibattista, Jeff A. Eble, Sharon F. Magnuson, John B. Horne, Marc Kochzius, Harilaos A. Lessios, Shang Yin Vanson Liu, William B. Ludt, Hawis Madduppa, John M. Pandolfi, Robert R. Toonen, Contributing Members Of Diversity Of The Indo-Pacific Network & Michelle R. Gaither
Aim: To test hypothesized biogeographic partitions of the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean with phylogeographic data from 56 taxa, and to evaluate the strength and nature of barriers emerging from this test. Location: The Indo-Pacific Ocean. Time Period: Pliocene through the Holocene. Major Taxa Studied: 56 marine species. Methods: We tested eight biogeographic hypotheses for partitioning of the Indo-Pacific using a novel modification to analysis of molecular variance. Putative barriers to gene flow emerging from this analysis...

BCI 50-ha Plot Taxonomy

Richard Condit, Rolando Pérez, Salomón Aguilar, Suzanne Lao, Robin Foster & Hubbell Stephen
BCI 50-ha Plot Taxonomy The 50-ha plot at Barro Colorado Island was initially demarcated and fully censused in 1982, and has been fully censused 7 times since, every 5 years from 1985 through 2015 (Hubbell and Foster 1983, Hubbell et al. 1990, Condit et al. 2012, Condit et al. 2017). The taxonomic component required repeated collecting and sorting so that every individual could be matched to a previously described species from Croat (1978). Over 300...

Marine species formation along the rise of Central America: the anomuran crab Megalobrachium

Alexandra Hiller & Harilaos Lessios
The evolution of marine neotropical shallow water species is expected to have been greatly affected by physical events related to the emergence of the Central American Isthmus. The anomuran crab Megalobrachium, a strictly neotropical porcellanid genus, consists of four species in the West Atlantic (WA) and nine in the East Pacific (EP). Dispersal is limited to a relatively short planktonic phase, which lasts approximately two weeks. We obtained DNA sequences of three mitochondrial and two...

Data from: A split sex ratio in solitary and social nests of a facultatively social bee

Adam R. Smith, Karen M. Kapheim, Callum J. Kingwell & William T. Wcislo
A classic prediction of kin selection theory is that a mixed population of social and solitary nests of haplodiploid insects should exhibit a split sex ratio among offspring: female biased in social nests, male biased in solitary nests. Here we provide the first evidence of a solitary-social split sex ratio, using the sweat bee Megalopta genalis (Halictidae). Data from 2502 offspring collected from naturally occurring nests across six years spanning the range of the M....

Global meta-analysis of how marine upwelling affects herbivory

Andrew Sellers, Brian Leung & Mark Torchin
Aim: Nutrient subsidies support high primary productivity, increasing herbivore abundance and influencing their top-down control of producers. Wind-driven upwelling events deliver cold nutrient-rich water to coastlines, supporting highly productive marine environments. Results from studies comparing ecological processes across upwelling regimes are mixed: some reveal weaker herbivory in upwelling regions, while others report a positive relationship between upwelling and herbivory. In this synthesis we examine the influence of upwelling on top-down control of producers across the...

Data from: Effect of lianas on forest-level tree carbon accumulation does not differ between seasons: results from a liana removal experiment in Panama

Geertje M.F. Van Der Heijden, Jennifer S. Powers & Stefan A. Schnitzer
1. Lianas are prevalent in Neotropical forests, where liana-tree competition can be intense, resulting in reduced tree growth and survival. The ability of lianas to grow relative to trees during the dry season suggests that liana-tree competition is also strongest in the dry season. If correct, the predicted intensification of the drying trend over large areas of the tropics in the future may therefore intensify liana-tree competition, resulting in a reduced carbon sink function of...

Data from: Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America

Duncan N. L. Menge, Ryan A. Chisholm, Stuart J. Davies, Kamariah Abu Salim, David Allen, Mauricio Alvarez, Norm Bourg, Warren Y. Brockelman, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Nathalie Butt, Min Cao, Wirong Chanthorn, Wei-Chun Chao, Keith Clay, Richard Condit, Susan Cordell, João Batista Da Silva, H. S. Dattaraja, Ana Cristina Segalin De Andrade, Alexandre A. Oliveira, Jan Den Ouden, Michael Drescher, Christine Fletcher, Christian P. Giardina, C. V. Savitri Gunatilleke … & Tak Fung
Symbiotic nitrogen (N)‐fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N‐fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N‐fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America...

Census data from 65 tree plots in Panama, 1994-2015

Richard Condit, Rolando Pérez, Salomón Aguilar & Suzanne Lao
These are data from 65 tree plots in Panama established over 1994-2014; 43 of the plots have been recensused, while 22 plots have just a single census. Details of census methods are described in Condit (1998) and Condit et al. (2013). The 65 plots here are mostly 1 ha in area, though several are 0.32 ha, one is 4 ha, and one is 6 ha. Those two larger censuses are the Sherman and Cocoli plots...

Predation shapes invertebrate diversity in tropical but not temperate seagrass communities

Amy Freestone, Elizabeth Carroll, Katherine Papacostas, Gregory Ruiz, Mark Torchin & Brent Sewall
1. The hypothesis that biotic interactions are stronger at lower relative to higher latitudes has a rich history, drawing from ecological and evolutionary theory. While this hypothesis suggests that stronger interactions at lower latitudes may contribute to the maintenance of contemporary patterns of diversity, there remain few standardized biogeographic comparisons of community effects of species interactions. 2. Using marine seagrasses as a focal ecosystem of conservation importance and sessile marine invertebrates as model prey, we...

Data from: Tropical tree height and crown allometries for the Barro Colorado Nature Monument, Panama: a comparison of alternative hierarchical models incorporating interspecific variation in relation to life history traits

Isabel Martinez Cano, Helene C. Muller-Landau, S. Joseph Wright, Stephanie A. Bohlman & Stephen W. Pacala
Tree allometric relationships are widely employed for estimating forest biomass and production and are basic building blocks of dynamic vegetation models. In tropical forests, allometric relationships are often modeled by fitting scale-invariant power functions to pooled data from multiple species, an approach that fails to capture changes in scaling during ontogeny and physical limits to maximum tree size and that ignores interspecific differences in allometry. Here, we analyzed allometric relationships of tree height (9884 individuals)...

Data from: Evidence for arrested succession in a liana‐infested Amazonian forest

Blaise Tymen, Maxime Réjou-Méchain, James W. Dalling, Sophie Fauset, Ted R. Feldausch, Natalia Norden, Oliver L. Phillips, Benjamin L. Turner, Jérôme Viers & Jérôme Chave
1. Empirical evidence and modelling both suggest that global changes may lead to an increased dominance of lianas, and thus to an increased prevalence of liana-infested forest formations in tropical forests. The implications for tropical forest structure and the carbon cycle remain poorly understood. 2. We studied the ecological processes underpinning the structure and dynamics of a liana-infested forest in French Guiana, using a combination of long-term surveys (tree, liana, seedling and litterfall), soil chemical...

Data from: The evolution of microendemism in a reef fish (Hypoplectrus maya)

Benjamin M. Moran, Kosmas Hench, Robin S. Waples, Marc P. Höppner, Carole C. Baldwin, W. Owen McMillan & Oscar Puebla
Marine species tend to have extensive distributions, which are commonly attributed to the dispersal potential provided by planktonic larvae and the rarity of absolute barriers to dispersal in the ocean. Under this paradigm, the occurrence of marine microendemism without geographic isolation in species with planktonic larvae poses a dilemma. The recently described Maya hamlet (Hypoplectrus maya, Serranidae) is exactly such a case, being endemic to a 50-km segment of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS)....

Adaptive specialization and constraint in morphological defenses of planktonic larvae

Samuel Bashevkin, John Christy & Steven Morgan
Morphological defenses of plankton can include armor, spines, and coloration. Spines defend from gape-limited fish predators while pigmentation increases visibility to fishes but defends from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Planktonic crab larvae (zoeae) exhibit inter- and intra-specific variability in the lengths of defensive spines, extent of pigmentation, and body size. The determinants of this variability and the relationships among these traits are largely unknown. Larvae may employ generalized defenses against the dual threats of UVR and...

Data from: Plant host identity and soil macronutrients explain little variation in sapling endophyte community composition: is disturbance an alternative explanation?

Eric A. Griffin, Joshua G. Harrison, Steven W. Kembel, Alyssa A. Carrell, S. Joseph Wright & Walter P. Carson
1. Bacterial endophytes may be fairly host specific; nonetheless, an important subset of taxa may be shared among numerous host species forming a community-wide core microbiome. Moreover, other key factors, particularly the supply of limiting macronutrients and disturbances, may supersede the importance of host identity. 2. We tested the following four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses: 1. The Host Identity Hypothesis: endophytes vary substantially among different host plant species. 2. The Core Microbiome Hypothesis: a subset of...

Data from: A standardized assessment of forest mammal communities reveals consistent functional composition and vulnerability across the tropics

Francesco Rovero, Jorge Ahumada, Patrick Jansen, Douglas Sheil, Patricia Alvarez, Kelly Boekee, Santiago Espinosa, Marcela Lima, Emanuel Martin, Timothy O’Brien, Julia Salvador, Fernanda Santos, Melissa Rosa, Alexander Zvoleff, Chris Sutherland & Simone Tenan
Understanding global diversity patterns has benefitted from a focus on functional traits and how they relate to variation in environmental conditions among assemblages. Distant communities in similar environments often share characteristics, and for tropical forest mammals, this functional trait convergence has been demonstrated at coarse scales (110-200 km resolution), but less is known about how these patterns manifest at fine scales, where local processes (e.g., habitat features and anthropogenic activities) and biotic interactions occur. Here,...

Complete Tree Species of Panama

Richard Condit, Rolando Pérez & Salomón Aguilar
1 June 2020 This data archive presents a complete compilation of the tree species of Panama, including the full geographic range and local abundance of each. The species list is based on the most recent monographs, especially the Flora Mesoamericana, along with herbarium records, especially those online at the Missouri Botanic Garden, and our tree census plots, mostly in the forests around the Panama Canal, including the 50 ha plot at Barro Colorado. The full...

Data from: Resource acquisition strategies facilitate Gilbertiodendron dewevrei monodominance in African lowland forests

Jefferson Hall, David Harris, Kristin Saltonsall, Vincent Medjibe, Mark Ashton & Benjamin Turner
1. Tropical forests are hyperdiverse, yet extensive areas of monodominant forest occur in the tropics worldwide. Most long-lived and persistent monodominant tree species form ectomycorrhizal fungi symbioses, allowing them to obtain nutrients directly from soil organic matter. This might promote monodominance by reducing nutrient availability to co-occurring species, the majority of which form associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. 2. Gilbertiodendron dewevrei forest is the most widespread monodominant forest in tropical Africa. Its distribution appears determined...

Data from: Inter-annual monitoring improves diversity estimation of tropical butterfly assemblages

Chung-Lim Luk, Yves Basset, Pitoon Kongnoo, Billy C.H. Hau & Timothy C. Bonebrake
Monitoring programs for diverse tropical butterfly assemblages are scarce and temporal diversity patterns in these assemblages are poorly understood. We adopted an additive partitioning approach to determine how temporal butterfly species richness was structured at the levels of days, months, and years in five tropical/subtropical sites across three continents covering up to nine years of monitoring. We found that observed butterfly richness was not uniformly distributed across temporal extents. Butterfly species composition differed across months...

Parasitization of bats by bat flies (Streblidae) in fragmented habitats

Thomas Hiller, Stefan Dominik Brändel, Benjamin Honner, Rachel A. Page & Marco Tschapka
Parasites represent a large fraction of the world’s biodiversity. They control host population sizes and contribute to ecosystem functioning. However, surveys on species diversity rarely include parasitic species. Bats often present traits favoring parasite diversity, such as large home ranges, long life spans, and large colonies. The most conspicuous bat parasites are the highly host specific, blood-sucking bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae, Nycteribiidae). Recent studies have found a direct effect of habitat alteration on the abundance...

Registration Year

  • 2019

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
  • Field Museum of Natural History
  • Smithsonian Environmental Research Center
  • University of California, Santa Cruz
  • University of California Los Angeles
  • Utah State University
  • University of Leeds
  • Yale University
  • Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí
  • Vrije Universiteit Brussel