60 Works

Multi-decadal shifts in fish community diversity across a dynamic biogeographic transition zone

Brittany Troast, Richard Paperno & Geoffrey S. Cook
Aim: A 21-year fisheries-independent monitoring dataset was used to explore fish community diversity across a latitudinal gradient to quantify how diversity has changed and relate those changes in diversity to changes in the abiotic environment. Additionally, this study spans a biogeographic transition zone, providing insight into future species assemblages across regions of relatively high species diversity. Location: Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA Methods: Spatial and temporal beta diversity was quantified latitudinally with “best derived breaks”...

Learning from dynamic traits: Seasonal shifts yield insights into ecophysiological tradeoffs across scales from macroevolutionary to intra-individual

Chase Mason, Michael C. LaScaleia, Danielle R. De La Pascua, J. Grey Monroe & Eric W. Goolsby
Premise of the Research. Phylogenetic comparative methods provide a powerful approach for exploring the macroevolution of plant functional traits. Such approaches can uncover trait-trait correlations through evolutionary time, as well as provide evidence of the role of traits in adaptation across environmental gradients. For continuous traits, most phylogenetic comparative approaches to date employ a single trait value per species, often a mean of sampled individuals, or alternatively incorporate intraspecific variation as a distribution around such...

Evidence of morphological divergence and reproductive isolation in a narrow elevation gradient

Diego Velez-Mora, Karla Trigueros-Alatorre & Pedro F. Quintana-Ascencio
Elevation gradients generate different environmental conditions. This environmental differentiation can influence morphological adaptation, habitat isolation, reproductive isolation, and pollinator limitation in plants. Habitat differentiation and isolation often act first on phenotypic traits and then on genotype variation, causing genetic divergences between populations. We evaluated the effect of elevation on morphological traits, reproductive isolation, and pollinator limitation in Croton aff. wagneri in dry shrublands of inter-Andean valleys in Ecuador. We measured morphological traits of Croton at...

DNA metabarcoding data characterizing insectivorous diet of purple martins (Progne subis subis) using two COI primer sets (ANML and ZBJ)

Anna Forsman, Brandon Hoenig, Stephanie Gaspar, Jason Fischer, Joe Siegrist & Kevin Fraser
DNA metabarcoding is a molecular technique frequently used to characterize diet composition of insectivorous birds. However, results are sensitive to methodological decisions made during sample processing, with primer selection being one of the most critical. The most frequently used DNA metabarcoding primer set for avian insectivores is ZBJ. However, recent studies have found that ZBJ produces significant biases in prey classification that likely influence our understanding of foraging ecology. A new primer set, ANML, has...

Long-term trends in marine turtle size at maturity at an important Atlantic rookery

Katherine Mansfield, Katrina Phillips, Gustavo Stahelin & Ryan Chabot
For species reaching maturity at a range of ages or sizes, factors that influence juvenile growth and size at maturity may have lasting impacts on overall fitness. Assessing when animals reach maturity is especially challenging for species which are difficult to follow through time as a result of highly migratory behavior, long life spans, or both. We examined nesting female size in a reproductive assemblage of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and loggerheads (Caretta caretta) on...

Data from: An approach to incorporating inferred connectivity of adult movement into marine protected area design with limited data

Sarah K. Friesen, Rebecca Martone, Emily Rubidge, Jacopo A. Baggio & Natalie Ban
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are important conservation tools that can support the resilience of marine ecosystems. Many countries, including Canada, have committed to protecting at least 10% of their marine areas under the Convention on Biological Diversity’s Aichi Target 11, which includes connectivity as a key aspect. Connectivity, the movement of individuals among habitats, can enhance population stability and resilience within and among MPAs. However, little is known about regional spatial patterns of marine ecological...

Boletin Martiano Vol. 1, No. 2, Fall 2021

Jenna Grace Sciuto, Rhi Johnson, Genny Ballard & Lisa Nalbone

Data from: RADseq analyses reveal concordant Indian Ocean biogeographic and phylogeographic boundaries in the reef fish Dascyllus trimaculatus

Eva M. Salas, Giacomo Bernardi, Michael L. Berumen, Michelle Gaither & Luiz A. Rocha
Population genetic analysis is an important tool for estimating the degree of evolutionary connectivity in marine organisms. Here, we investigate the population structure of the three-spot damselfish Dascyllus trimaculatus in the Red Sea, Arabian Sea and Western Indian Ocean, using 1,174 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Neutral loci revealed a signature of weak genetic differentiation between the Northwestern (Red Sea and Arabian Sea) and Western Indian Ocean biogeographic provinces. Loci potentially under selection (outlier loci) revealed...

Data from: Comparative host-pathogen associations of Snake Fungal Disease in sympatric species of water snakes (Nerodia)

David Rodriguez, Stephen Harding, C. Guilherme Becker, Jessica Yates, Paul Crump, Michael Forstner & Stephen Mullin
The ascomycete fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola (Oo) is the causative agent of ophidiomycosis (Snake Fungal Disease), which has been detected globally. However, surveillance efforts in the central U.S., specifically Texas, have been minimal. The threatened and rare Brazos water snake (Nerodia harteri harteri) is one of the most range restricted snakes in the U.S. and is sympatric with two wide-ranging congeners, N. erythrogaster transversa and N. rhombifer, in north central Texas; thus, providing an opportunity to...

Note from Special Issue Guest Editors and Invited Contributors

Amit Sharma, Bendegul Okumus & Seoki Lee

Data from: Genetic surfing, not allopatric divergence, explains spatial sorting of mitochondrial haplotypes in venomous coralsnakes

Jeffrey W. Streicher, Jay P. McEntee, Laura C. Drzich, Daren C. Card, Drew R. Schield, Utpal Smart, Christopher L. Parkinson, Tereza Jezkova, Eric N. Smith & Todd A. Castoe
Strong spatial sorting of genetic variation in contiguous populations is often explained by local adaptation or secondary contact following allopatric divergence. A third explanation, spatial sorting by stochastic effects of range expansion, has been considered less often though theoretical models suggest it should be widespread, if ephemeral. In a study designed to delimit species within a clade of venomous coralsnakes, we identified an unusual pattern within the Texas coral snake (Micrurus tener): strong spatial sorting...

Data from: Y-linked variation for autosomal immune gene regulation has the potential to shape sexually dimorphic immunity

Ian C. Kutch & Kenneth M. Fedorka
Sexually dimorphic phenotypes arise from the differential expression of male and female shared genes throughout the genome. Unfortunately, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which dimorphic regulation manifests and evolves are unclear. Recent work suggests that Y-chromosomes may play an important role; given that Drosophila melanogaster Y’s were shown to influence the regulation of hundreds of X and autosomal genes. For Y-linked regulatory variation (YRV) to facilitate sexually dimorphic evolution, however, it must exist within populations...

Data from: Interactive effects of pasture management intensity, release from grazing and prescribed fire on forty subtropical wetland plant assemblages

Elizabeth H. Boughton, Pedro F. Quintana-Ascencio, Patrick J. Bohlen, John E. Fauth & David G. Jenkins
Pasture management intensity, livestock grazing and prescribed fire are three widespread agricultural practices that affect small, isolated wetlands, but few studies have investigated their individual and interactive effects. Pasture management intensity refers to the degree of human alteration of grassland, ranging from intensively managed pastures planted with introduced forage, fertilizer/lime additions and artificial drainage to semi-natural pastures with mixed native and non-native vegetation, no fertilizer/lime additions and little or no artificial drainage. We examined individual...

Data from: Sustained immune activation is associated with susceptibility to the amphibian chytrid fungus

Anna Savage, Brian Gratwicke, Katherine Hope, Edward Bronikowski & Robert Fleischer
The disease chytridiomycosis caused by the fungus Bd has devastated amphibian populations worldwide. Functional genomic contributions to host susceptibility remain enigmatic and vary between species and populations. We conducted experimental Bd infections in Rana yavapaiensis, a species with intraspecific variation in chytridiomycosis susceptibility, to assess the skin and spleen transcriptomic response to infection over time. We predicted that increased immune gene expression would be associated with a positive disease outcome, but we instead found that...

Genetic control of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization by Rhizophagus intraradices in Helianthus annuus (L.)

Chase Mason, Katherine Stahlhut, Jordan Dowell, Andries Temme, John Burke & Eric Goolsby
Plant symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi provides many benefits, including increased nutrient uptake, drought tolerance, and belowground pathogen resistance. To develop a better understanding of the genetic architecture of mycorrhizal symbiosis, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of this plant-fungal interaction in cultivated sunflower. A diversity panel of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was phenotyped for root colonization under inoculation with the AM fungus Rhizophagus intraradices. Using a mixed linear model approach with...

Comparing raccoon MHC diversity in native and introduced ranges: evidence for the importance of functional immune diversity for adaptation and survival in novel environments.

Aleksandra Biedrzycka, Maciej K. Konopiński, Eric Hoffman, Alexa Trujillo & Andrzej Zalewski
The adaptive potential of invasive species is related to the genetic diversity of the invader, which is influenced by genetic drift and natural selection. Typically, the genetic diversity of invaders is studied with neutral genetic markers, however, the expectation of reduced diversity has not been consistently supported by empirical studies. Here, we describe and interpret genetic diversity at both neutral microsatellite loci and the immune related MHC-DRB locus of native and invasive populations of raccoon...

Data from: Seasonal and ontogenetic variation of skin microbial communities and relationships to natural disease dynamics in declining amphibians

Ana V. Longo, Anna E. Savage, Ian Hewson & Kelly R. Zamudio
Recently, microbiologists have focused on characterizing the probiotic role of skin bacteria for amphibians threatened by the fungal disease chytridiomycosis. However, the specific characteristics of microbial diversity required to maintain health or trigger disease are still not well understood in natural populations. We hypothesized that seasonal and developmental transitions affecting susceptibility to chytridiomycosis could also alter the stability of microbial assemblages. To test our hypothesis, we examined patterns of skin bacterial diversity in two species...

A new taxonomist-curated reference library of DNA barcodes for Neotropical electric fishes (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes)

Francesco Janzen, William Crampton & Nathan Lovejoy
DNA barcoding is a useful tool for identifying species; however, successful barcode-based identification requires a reference library of barcode sequences from accurately identified specimens. Here we present a reference library of co1 barcode sequences for the Neotropical electric knifefish order Gymnotiformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi), a model taxon for studies of tropical diversification and biogeography, genomics, behaviour, and neurobiology. Our library contains barcodes for 167 of the ca. 270 valid species of gymnotiforms derived from geo-referenced museum...

Conditions for Increased Fraud Risk: A Case Study by Restaurant Segment

Elizabeth A. Yost
Risk factors leading to fraud is an important issue for restaurant operators. This paper identifies and evaluates the financial and non-financial characteristics of different restaurant segments through the lens of the fraud triangle. Using probit modeling and time series data from 2004 to 2014, it investigates different factors that significantly impact the increased risk of fraud in four types of restaurant segments—quick service, fast casual, casual dining, and fine dining. As such the findings of...

Should Monetary Policy Lean Against Housing Market Booms?

Sami Alpanda & Alexander Ueberfeldt
Should monetary policy lean against housing market booms? We approach this question using a small-scale, regime-switching New Keynesian model, where housing market crashes arrive with a logit probability that depends on the level of household debt. This crisis regime is characterized by an elevated risk premium on mortgage lending rates, and, occasionally, a binding zero lower bound on the policy rate, imposing large costs on the economy. Using our set-up, we examine the optimal level...

Ambiguidades luso-tropicais em Rodrigues Júnior

Sandra Sousa
Este artigo pretende revisitar um dos mais importantes escritores da literatura colonial portuguesa, Rodrigues Júnior (1902-1990). Ao analisar duas das suas obras, Sehura (1944) e Muende (1960), pretende-se demonstrar a sua relevância para a compreensão das relações sociais e raciais no Moçambique colonial, enfatizando a ambiguidade retratada nestes romances. Ao mesmo tempo, é intenção desmistificar a ideia luso-tropicalista ou do excepcionalismo português em relação a outros modos europeus de colonizar. This article aims to revisit...

Introdução

Sandra Sousa

Data from: Interacting livestock and fire may both threaten and increase viability of a fire-adapted Mediterranean carnivorous plant

Maria Paniw, Pedro F. Quintana-Ascencio, Fernando Ojeda & Roberto Salguero-Gomez
1. Quantifying interactive effects of environmental drivers on population dynamics can be critical for a robust analysis of population viability. Fire regimes, among the most widespread disturbances driving population dynamics, are increasingly modified by and interact with human activities. However, viability of fire-adapted species is typically assessed overlooking disturbance interactions, potentially resulting in suboptimal management actions. 2. We investigated whether increasing human disturbances in fire-prone ecosystems may pose a threat or an opportunity to improve...

Data from: Human-aided and natural dispersal drive gene flow across the range of an invasive mosquito

Kim A. Medley, David G. Jenkins & Eric A. Hoffman
Human-aided transport is responsible for many contemporary species introductions, yet the contribution of human-aided transport to dispersal within non-native regions is less clear. Understanding dispersal dynamics for invasive species can streamline mitigation efforts by targeting routes that contribute disproportionally to spread. Because of its limited natural dispersal ability, rapid spread of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) has been attributed to human-aided transport, but until now the relative roles of human-aided and natural movement have...

Data from: First satellite tracks of South Atlantic sea turtle ‘lost years’: seasonal variation in trans-equatorial movement

Katherine L. Mansfield, Milagros L. Mendilaharsu, Nathan F. Putman, Maria A. G. Dei Marcovaldi, Alexander E. Sacco, Gustave Lopez, Thais Pires & Yonat Swimmer
In the South Atlantic Ocean, few data exist regarding the dispersal of young oceanic sea turtles. We characterized the movements of laboratory-reared yearling loggerhead turtles from Brazilian rookeries using novel telemetry techniques, testing for differences in dispersal during different periods of the sea turtle hatching season that correspond to seasonal changes in ocean currents. Oceanographic drifters deployed alongside satellite-tagged turtles allowed us to explore the mechanisms of dispersal (passive drift or active swimming). Early in...

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