98 Works

Data from: Identifying demographic and environmental drivers of recruitment and population growth in a cavity nesting sea duck population

Abigail J. Lawson, James S. Sedinger & Eric J. Taylor
Traits with the greatest proportional effects on fitness are typically conserved (Stearns 1992), and traits with larger temporal variation frequently play a dominant role in population dynamics (Cooch et al. 2001). We examined recruitment patterns and population growth in Common Goldeneyes (Bucephala clangula; hereafter goldeneye), using Pradel mark-recapture models from a long-term nest box study (1997-2010). Our objectives were to estimate recruitment (f) and population growth (λ) relative to recruitment origin group (in-situ or unknown),...

Data from: Limb-bone loading in swimming turtles: changes in loading facilitate transitions from tubular to flipper-shaped limbs during aquatic invasions

Vanessa K. Hilliard Young & Richard W. Blob
Members of several terrestrial vertebrate lineages have returned to nearly exclusive use of aquatic habitats. These transitions were often accompanied by changes in skeletal morphology, such as flattening of limb bone shafts. Such morphological changes might be correlated with the exposure of limb bones to altered loading. Though the environmental forces acting on the skeleton differ substantially between water and land, no empirical data exist to quantify the impact of such differences on the skeleton,...

Data from: Physical calculations of resistance to water loss improve predictions of species range models

Eric A. Riddell, Evan K. Apanovitch, Jonathon P. Odom, Michael W. Sears & Jonathan P. Odom
Species ranges are constrained by the physiological tolerances of organisms to climatic conditions. By incorporating physiological constraints, species distribution models can identify how biotic and abiotic factors constrain a species’ geographic range. Rates of water loss influence species distributions, but characterizing water loss for an individual requires complex calculations. Skin resistance to water loss (ri) is considered to be the most informative metric of water loss rates because it controls for experimental biases. However, calculating...

Data from: One foot out the door: limb function during swimming in terrestrial versus aquatic turtles

Vanessa K. Young, Kaitlyn G. Vest, Angela R.V. Rivera, Nora R. Espinoza, Richard W. Blob, Vanessa K Hilliard Young & Angela R. V. Rivera
Specialization for a new habitat often entails a cost to performance in the ancestral habitat. Although aquatic lifestyles are ancestral among extant cryptodiran turtles, multiple lineages, including tortoises (Testudinidae) and emydid box turtles (genus Terrapene), independently specialized for terrestrial habitats. To what extent is swimming function retained in such lineages despite terrestrial specialization? Because tortoises diverged from other turtles over 50 Ma, but box turtles did so only 5 Ma, we hypothesized that swimming kinematics...

Data from: Local adaptation despite high gene flow in the waterfall-climbing Hawaiian goby, Sicyopterus stimpsoni.

Kristine N. Moody, Sabrina N. Hunter, Michael J. Childress, Richard W. Blob, Heiko L. Schoenfuss, Michael J. Blum & M. B. Ptacek
Environmental heterogeneity can promote the emergence of locally adapted phenotypes among subpopulations of a species, whereas gene flow can result in phenotypic and genotypic homogenization. For organisms like amphidromous fishes that change habitats during their life history, the balance between selection and migration can shift through ontogeny, making the likelihood of local adaptation difficult to predict. In Hawaiian waterfall-climbing gobies, it has been hypothesized that larval mixing during oceanic dispersal counters local adaptation to contrasting...

Data from: Body shape diversification along the benthic-pelagic axis in marine fishes

Sarah Friedman, Samantha Price, Katherine Corn, Olivier Larouche, Christopher Martinez & Peter Wainwright
Colonization of novel habitats can result in marked phenotypic responses to the new environment that include changes in body shape and opportunities for further morphological diversification. Fishes have repeatedly transitioned along the benthic-pelagic axis, with varying degrees of association with the substrate. Previous work focusing on individual lineages shows that these transitions are accompanied by highly predictable changes in body form. Here, we generalize expectations drawn from this literature to study the effects of habitat...

Data from: A geographic cline in the ability to self-fertilize is unrelated to the pollination environment

Laura Galloway, Matt Koski, Jeremiah Busch & Dena Grossenbacher
The reproductive assurance (RA) hypothesis predicts that the ability to autonomously self-fertilize should be favored in environments where a lack of mates or pollinators limits outcross reproduction. Because such limits to outcrossing are predicted to be most severe at range edges, elevated autonomy in peripheral populations is often attributed to RA. We test this hypothesis in 24 populations spanning the range of Campanula americana, including sampling at the range interior and three geographic range edges....

QTL mapping and marker development for tolerance to sulfur phytotoxicity in melon (Cucumis Melo)

Sandra Branham, James Daley, Amnon Levi, Richard Hassell & Patrick Wechter
Elemental sulfur is an effective, inexpensive fungicide for many foliar pathogens, but severe phytotoxicity prohibits its use on many melon varieties. Sulfur phytotoxicity causes chlorosis and necrosis of leaf tissue, leading to plant death in the most sensitive lines, while other varieties have little to no damage. A high-density, genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)-based genetic map of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population segregating for sulfur tolerance was used for a quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping study of...

Detoxification-related gene expression accompanies anhydrobiosis in the foliar nematode (Aphelenchoides fragariae)

Zhen Fu, Paula Agudelo & Christina Wells
The foliar nematode (Aphelenchoides fragariae) is a quarantined pest that infects a broad range of herbaceous and woody plants. Previous work has demonstrated its remarkable ability to survive rapid and extreme desiccation, although the specific mechanisms underlying its anhydrobiotic response have not been characterized. We used RNA sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly to compare patterns of gene expression between hydrated and 24-hr desiccated nematodes. Two thousand eighty-three and 953 genes were significantly up- and...

The effect of influenza vaccination for the elderly on hospitalization and mortality: an observational study with a regression-discontinuity design

, Carlos Dobkin & Devon Gorry
Replication files for "The Effect of Influenza Vaccination for the Elderly on Hospitalization and Mortality: An Observational Study with a Regression-Discontinuity Design", published in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Cape ground squirrel site comparison dataset

Mary Manjerovic, Eric Hoffman, Christopher Parkinson & Jane Waterman
Male mating strategies respond to female availability such that variation in resources that affect spatial distribution can also alter cost-benefit tradeoffs within a population. In arid-adapted species, rainfall alters reproduction, behavior, morphology, and population density such that populations differing in resource availability may also differ in successful reproductive strategies. Here we compare two populations of Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris), a sub-Saharan species with year-round breeding and intense mating competition. Unlike most mammals where males...

Sex differences in the plasticity of life history in response to social environment

Elizabeth Lange, Margaret Ptacek, Joseph Travis & Kimberly Hughes
Predicting how social environment affects life history variation is critical to understanding if, and when, selection favors alternative life history development, especially in systems in which social interactions change over time or space. While sexual selection theory predicts that males and females should respond differently to variation in the social environment, few studies have examined the responses of both male and female phenotypes to the same gradient of social environment. In this study, we used...

A multi-species approach to manage effects of land cover and weather on upland game birds

Alexander Schindler, David Haukos, Christian Hagen & Beth Ross
Loss and degradation of grasslands in the Great Plains region has resulted in major declines in abundance of grassland bird species. To ensure future viability of grassland bird populations, it is crucial to evaluate specific effects of environmental factors among species to determine drivers of population decline and develop effective conservation strategies. We used threshold models to quantify effects of land cover and weather changes on lesser and greater prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus and T. cupido,...

The effects of climate change on floral anthocyanin polymorphisms

Matthew Koski & Cierra Sullivan
Pigmentation affords resistance to abiotic stressors, and thus can respond adaptively or plastically to drought and extreme temperatures associated with global change. Plants frequently display variability in flower coloration that is underlain by anthocyanin pigmentation. While anthocyanin polymorphisms impact plant-animal interactions, they also impact reproductive performance under abiotic stress. We used descriptions of population-level flower color from >1900 herbarium records representing 12 North American species spanning 124 years to test whether flower color responded to...

Diversification of a polyploid complex: the biogeography and acoustic communication evolution of North American gray treefrogs throughout the Quaternary

William Booker, Emily Lemmon, Alan Lemmon, Margaret Ptacek, Alyssa Hassinger, Johannes Schul & H. Carl Gerhardt
Polyploid speciation and whole genome duplications are major drivers of biological diversity. After polyploid species are formed, the interactions between diploid and polyploid lineages may generate additional diversity in novel cytotypes and phenotypes. In anurans, mate choice by acoustic communication is the primary method by which individuals identify their own species and assess suitable mates. As such, the evolution of acoustic signals is an important mechanism for contributing to reproductive isolation and diversification in this...

Data from: Community-level responses of African carnivores to prescribed burning

Laura Gigliotti, Goncalo Curveira-Santos, Rob Slotow, Craig Sholto-Douglas, Lourens Swanepoel & David Jachowski
Fires are common in many ecosystems worldwide, and are frequently used as a management tool. Although the responses of herbivores to fire have been well-studied, the responses of carnivores to fire remain unclear. In particular, post-fire habitat changes, and the associated changes in prey availability, might affect the coexistence or competition of carnivore species within the larger carnivore community, but few studies have focused on how fires influence multiple carnivore species simultaneously. Using South African...

Dataset for Raman enhanced four-wave mixing in silicon core fibers

Shiyu Sun, Meng Huang, Dong Wu, Li Shen, Haonan Ren, Thomas Hawkins, John Ballato, Ursula J. Gibson, Goran Mashanovich & Anna Peacock
This dataset supports the publication "Raman enhanced four-wave mixing in silicon core fibers" published in Optics Letters, including four Excel files and a Readme.txt.

Data from: Plant-soil interactions shape the identity and persistence of soil organic carbon in invaded ecosystems: implication for legacy effects

Vidya Suseela, Peter Alpert, Cindy H. Nakatsu, Arthur Armstrong & Nishanth Tharayil
1. Introduced, invasive plants can alter local soil chemistry and microbial communities, but the underlying mechanisms and extent of these changes are largely unknown. Based on characteristics associated with invasiveness in plants, it was hypothesized that introduced species that produce large amounts of litter with distinctive secondary compounds can a) alter the chemistry of both extractable and bulk carbon in the soil, b) shift microbial communities towards microbes better able to metabolize the compounds in...

Data from: Spatial and temporal variation in nest temperatures forecasts sex ratio skews in a crocodilian with environmental sex determination

Samantha L. Bock, Russell H. Lowers, Thomas R. Rainwater, Eric Stolen, John M. Drake, Philip M. Wilkinson, Stephanie Weiss, Back Brenton, Louis Guillette & Benjamin B. Parrott
Species displaying temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) are especially vulnerable to the effects of a rapidly changing global climate due to their profound sensitivity to thermal cues during development. Predicting the consequences of climate change for these species, including skewed offspring sex ratios, depends on understanding how climatic factors interface with features of maternal nesting behavior to shape the developmental environment. Here, we measure thermal profiles in 86 nests at two geographically distinct sites in the...

Frankliniella fusca activity patterns in wheat

Anders Huseth, James Goethe, Seth Dorman, George Kennedy & Hehe Wang
Tobacco thrips (Frankliniella fusca Hinds) are an important seedling pest of many agricultural crops including, but not limited to cotton, tomato, and tobacco. This insect is mobile and completes several generations on both crop and non-crop plants each growing season in the southern United States. We do know that this insect disperses through a predictable sequence of these habitats each spring, however, it is not well known how abundant early season host crops affect population...

Identification and characterization of QTLs for fruit quality traits in peach through a multi-family approach

Zena Rawandoozi, Timothy P. Hartmann, Silvia Carpenedo, Ksenija Gasic, Cassia Da Silva Linge, Lichun Cai, Eric Van De Weg & David H. Byrne
Background Fruit quality traits have a significant effect on consumer acceptance and subsequently on peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) consumption. Determining the genetic bases of key fruit quality traits is essential for the industry to improve fruit quality and increase consumption. Pedigree-based analysis across multiple peach pedigrees can identify the genomic basis of complex traits for direct implementation in marker-assisted selection. This strategy provides breeders with better-informed decisions and improves selection efficiency and, subsequently, saves...

Raw genotyped total called structural variant (SV)

Kittikun Songsomboon, Zachary Brenton, James Heuser, Stephen Kresovich, Nadia Shakoor & Elizabeth Cooper
Genomic structural mutations especially deletion are an important source of variation in many species and can play key roles in phenotypic diversification and evolution. Previous work in many plant species, including some crops, has identified multiple instances of structural variations (SVs) occurring in or near genes related to stress response and disease resistance, suggesting a possible role for SVs in local adaptation. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is one of the most widely grown cereal...

Urban specialization reduces habitat connectivity by a highly mobile wading bird

Claire Teitelbaum, Hepinstall-Cymerman Jeffrey, Kidd-Weaver Anjelika, Hernandez Sonia, Altizer Sonia & Hall Richard
Background Mobile animals transport nutrients and propagules across habitats, and are crucial for the functioning of food webs and for ecosystem services. Human activities such as urbanization can alter animal movement behavior, including site fidelity and resource use. Because many urban areas are adjacent to natural sites, mobile animals might connect natural and urban habitats. More generally, understanding animal movement patterns in urban areas can help predict how urban expansion will affect the roles of...

The effect of locomotion mode on body shape evolution in teleost fishes

Sarah T. Friedman, Samantha A. Price & Peter C. Wainwright
Teleost fishes vary in their reliance on median and paired fins (MPF) or undulation of the body (BCF) to generate thrust during straight-line, steady swimming. Previous work indicates that swimming mode is associated with different body shapes, though this has never been empirically demonstrated across the diversity of fishes. As the body does not play as active a mechanical role in steady swimming by MPF swimmers, this may relax constraints and spur higher rates of...

Phylogenetically diverse diets favor more complex venoms in North American pitvipers

Matthew Holding & Christopher Parkinson
The role of natural selection in the evolution of trait complexity can be characterized by testing hypothesized links between complex forms and their functions across species. Predatory venoms are traits composed of multiple proteins that collectively function to incapacitate prey. Venom complexity fluctuates considerably over evolutionary timescales, with apparent increases and decreases in complexity, yet the evolutionary causes of this variation is unclear. Here, we tested alternative hypotheses for the link between venom complexity and...

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