The effect of influenza vaccination for the elderly on hospitalization and mortality: an observational study with a regression-discontinuity design, Carlos Dobkin & Devon Gorry
Replication files for "The Effect of Influenza Vaccination for the Elderly on Hospitalization and Mortality: An Observational Study with a Regression-Discontinuity Design", published in the Annals of Internal Medicine.
1. Research on drivers of demographic rates has mostly focused on top predators and their prey, and comparatively less research has considered the drivers of mesopredator demography. Of those limited studies, most focused on top-down effects of apex predators on mesopredator population dynamics, whereas studies investigating alternative mechanisms are less common. 2. In this study, we tested hypotheses related to top-down, bottom-up, and density-dependent regulation of demographic rates in an imperiled mesopredator, the cheetah (Acinonyx...
Data from: Genetic analyses in Lake Malawi cichlids identify new roles for Fgf signaling in scale shape variationR. Craig Albertson, Kenta Kawasaki, Emily Tetrault & Kara Powder
Elasmoid scales are the most common epithelial appendage among vertebrates, however an understanding of the genetic mechanisms that underlie variation in scale shape is lacking. Using an F2 mapping cross between morphologically distinct cichlid species, we identified >40 QTL for scale shape at different body positions. We show that while certain regions of the genome regulate variation in multiple scales, most are specific to scales at distinct positions. This suggests a degree of regional modularity...
Data from: Reticulate evolution in nuclear Middle America causes discordance in the phylogeny of palm‐pitvipers (Viperidae: Bothriechis)Andrew J. Mason, Felipe G. Grazziotin, Hussam Zaher, Alan R. Lemmon, Emily Moriarty Lemmon & Christopher L. Parkinson
Aim: A number of processes can lead to weak or conflicting phylogenetic signals, especially in geographically dynamic regions where unstable landscapes and climates promote complex evolutionary histories. The Middle American pitviper genus Bothriechis has a complex biogeographic distribution and previous phylogenetic analyses have recovered conflicting topologies based on the data type used. Here, we tested whether historic conflicts in the phylogeny were the result of reticulate evolution and whether the inferred biogeographic history of the...
Data from: White shark genome reveals ancient elasmobranch adaptations associated with wound healing and the maintenance of genome stabilityNicholas J. Marra, Michael J. Stanhope, Nathaniel K. Jue, Minghui Wang, Qi Sun, Paulina P. Bitar, Vincent P. Richards, Aleksey Komissarov, Mike Rayko, Sergey Kliver, Bryce J. Stanhope, Chuck Winkler, Stephen J. O'Brien, Agostinho Antunes, Salvador J. Jorgensen & Mahmood S. Shivji
The white shark (Carcharodon carcharias; Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) is one of the most publicly recognized marine animals. Here we report the genome sequence of the white shark and comparative evolutionary genomic analyses to the chondrichthyans, whale shark (Elasmobranchii) and elephant shark (Holocephali), as well as various vertebrates. The 4.63-Gbp white shark genome contains 24,520 predicted genes, and has a repeat content of 58.5%. We provide evidence for a history of positive selection and gene-content enrichments regarding...
Data from: Comparative knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding anthrax, brucellosis, and rabies in three districts of northern TanzaniaChristian Kiffner, Michelle Latzer, Ruby Vise, Hayley Benson, Elizabeth Hammon & John Kioko
Background Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) surveys regarding zoonotic diseases are crucial to understanding the extent of knowledge among citizens and for guiding health-related education programs. Method Employing a structured questionnaire, we interviewed residents (n=388) in three districts of northern Tanzania (Karatu n=128, Monduli n=114, Babati n=146) to assess knowledge, attitudes and reported practices regarding three zoonotic diseases that occur in the region (anthrax, brucellosis, and rabies). We used generalized linear mixed effects models and...
The consequences of hybridization are varied, ranging from the origin of new lineages, introgression of some genes between species, to the extinction of one of the hybridizing species. We generated replicate admixed populations between two pairs of sister species of Drosophila: D. simulans and D. mauritiana; and D. yakuba and D. santomea. Each pair consisted of a continental species and an island endemic. The admixed populations were maintained by random mating in discrete generations for...
Understanding the causes of body shape variability across the tree of life is one of the central issues surrounding the origins of biodiversity. One potential mechanism driving observed patterns of shape disparity is a strongly conserved relationship between size and shape. Conserved allometry has been shown to account for as much as 80% of shape variation in some vertebrate groups. Here, we quantify the amount of body shape disparity attributable to changes in body size...
Data from: Wildlife differentially affect tree and liana regeneration in a tropical forest: an 18‐yr study of experimental terrestrial defaunation versus artificially abundant herbivoresMatthew S. Luskin, Kalan Ickes, Tze Leong Yao & Stuart J. Davies
1. Hunting and land use change modify herbivore abundances and cause cascading effects in natural ecosystems. The outcomes for vegetation depend on changes to specific plant-animal interactions, such as seed dispersal or predation, or physical disturbances. 2. We experimentally manipulated wildlife populations in a primary lowland forest in Malaysia over an 18-yr period (1996-2014) to understand how artificially high or low densities of terrestrial wildlife affects tree and liana regeneration. Our study site retains a...
College of Charleston1
University of Massachusetts Amherst1
Oregon State University1
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill1
University of California, Berkeley1
Forest Research Institute Malaysia1
Saint Petersburg State University1