402 Works

Dataset: Multiplexed Illumination for Classifying Visually Similar Objects

Taihua Wang & Danserau Donald G

Towards Interspecies Sustainability: The Future for Thoroughbreds and Thoroughbred Racing

Iris Marie Bergmann
The international thoroughbred racing industry is increasingly vulnerable to public scrutiny due to its horse welfare record. At the same time, the industry is concerned about its sustainability. The interface of welfare and sustainability however offers little for the horses because of a disconnect between dominant conceptions of sustainability and the protection of animals arising from an anthropocentric orientation of most conceptualisations of sustainability. This study investigates the interface of animal protection and sustainability, a...

View through rose-colored glasses: the need for diverse lenses to support rural landscape heritage

Steve H. Brown & Cari Goetcheus
The ICOMOS-IFLA Principles Concerning Rural Landscape as Heritage (the Principles; 2017) provide a comprehensive outline of the fields and work required to better recognise and safeguard rural landscape heritage. The Principles acknowledge that the field of heritage conservation cannot sustain rural places and traditional rural heritage landscapes on their own, but must engage with a diverse breadth of disciplines to support and safeguard these spaces. The Principles seek to address loss and adverse changes to...

Re-allocation of nitrogen and phosphorus from roots drives regrowth of grasses and sedges after defoliation under deficit irrigation and nitrogen enrichment

Ruzhen Wang, Tom Cresswell, Mathew Johansen, Jennifer Harrison, Yong Jiang, Claudia Keitel, Timothy Cavagnaro & Feike Dijkstra
1. Re-allocation of nutrients from roots to shoots is essential for plant regrowth in grasslands, particularly in nutrient-poor conditions. However, the response of root nutrient re-allocation to changes in nitrogen (N) and water availability remains largely unknown. 2. Using a novel 15N and 32P labelling technique, we quantified the contribution of N and phosphorus (P) to shoot regrowth from either root re-allocation or direct soil uptake for perennial grasses exposed to high-frequency deficit irrigation (HFDI)...

Knowledge, skills and barriers to evidence-based practice and the impact of a flipped classroom training program for physical therapists: an observational study

Leora Harrison, David Wong, Alison R Harmer & Matthew Jennings
Objective: To evaluate the knowledge, skills and barriers to evidence-based practice and the impact of evidence-based practice training for physical therapy clinicians. Methods: Physical therapists from a health district in Sydney, Australia were invited to participate. The primary outcome was the Assessing Competency in Evidence-based Medicine scale (range 0-15; 15 is high knowledge and skill) to quantify knowledge and skills. The secondary outcomes were the four subscales of the BARRIERS scale (range 1-4; 4 is...

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultural Protocols

Fire Safety and Engineering: Technical Papers - Book 1

Vaughan Beck &

Ningen – a video installation and oral history archive of Brazilian immigrants living in Japan and Japanese immigrants living in Brazil

Frederico Câmara

Data from: Gut microbiota modifies olfactory-guided microbial preferences and foraging decisions in Drosophila

Adam Chun-Nin Wong, Qiao-Ping Wang, Juliano Morimoto, Alistair M. Senior, Mathieu Lihoreau, G. Gregory Neely, Stephen J. Simpson & Fleur Ponton
The gut microbiota affects a wide spectrum of host physiological traits, including development [ 1–5 ], germline [ 6 ], immunity [ 7–9 ], nutrition [ 4, 10, 11 ], and longevity [ 12, 13 ]. Association with microbes also influences fitness-related behaviors such as mating [ 14 ] and social interactions [ 15, 16 ]. Although the gut microbiota is evidently important for host wellbeing, how hosts become associated with particular assemblages of microbes...

Data from: Nutrient-specific compensation for seasonal cold stress in a free-ranging temperate colobine monkey

Songtao Guo, Rong Hou, Paul A. Garber, David Raubenheimer, Nicoletta Righini, Weihong Ji, Ollie Jay, Shujun He, Fan Wu, Fangfang Li, Baoguo Li, Song-Tao Guo, Shu-Jun He, Fang-Fang Li, Bao-Guo Li & Wei-Hong Ji
1. Homeostatic responses of animals to environmentally-induced changes in nutrient requirements provide a powerful basis for predictive ecological models, and yet such responses are virtually unstudied in the wild. 2. We tested for macronutrient-specific compensatory feeding responses by free-ranging golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) inhabiting high altitude temperate forests where they experience a substantial difference in ambient temperature in cold winters vs. warmer springs. The monkeys had free access to natural foods throughout the year,...

Data from: Petrol exhaust pollution impairs honey bee learning and memory

Ryan J. Leonard, Vanina Vergoz, Nicholas Proschogo, Clare McArthur & Dieter F. Hochuli
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) serve as important infochemicals, mediating several ecological interactions including herbivory and pollination. Atmospheric pollutants including traffic-related air pollution may impair the detection of VOCs used by insects in insect-plant interactions. We investigated the indirect effect of petrol exhaust pollution on olfactory learning and memory (short and long term) in honey bees. Using appetitive olfactory conditioning, we trained bees to learn one of four floral VOC profiles; linalool, dipentene, myrcene and geranium....

Data from: Anthropogenic selection enhances cancer evolution in Tasmanian devil tumours

Beata Ujvari, Anne-Maree Pearse, Kate Swift, Pamela Hodson, Bobby Hua, Stephen Pyecroft, Robyn Taylor, Rodrigo Hamede, Menna Jones, Kathy Belov, Thomas Madsen & Katherine Belov
The Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD) provides a unique opportunity to elucidate the long-term effects of natural and anthropogenic selection on cancer evolution. Since first observed in 1996, this transmissible cancer has caused local population declines by >90%. So far, four chromosomal DFTD variants (strains) have been described and karyotypic analyses of 253 tumours showed higher levels of tetraploidy in the oldest strain. We propose that increased ploidy in the oldest strain may have...

Data from: Long term effects of superoxide and DNA repair on lizard telomeres

Mats Olsson, Christopher R. Friesen, Nicky Rollings, Joanna Sudyka, Willow Lindsay, Camilla M. Whittington & Mark Wilson
Telomeres are the non-coding protein-nucleotide ‘caps’ at chromosome ends that contribute to chromosomal stability by protecting the coding parts of the linear DNA from shortening at cell division, and from erosion by reactive molecules. Recently, there has been some controversy between molecular and cell biologists, on the one hand, and evolutionary ecologists on the other, regarding whether reactive molecules erode telomeres during oxidative stress. Many studies of biochemistry and medicine have verified these relationships in...

Data from: Is the enhanced dispersal rate seen at invasion fronts a behaviourally plastic response to encountering novel ecological conditions?

Lachlan J. Pettit, Matthew J. Greenlees & Richard Shine
As a population expands into novel areas (as occurs in biological invasions), the range edge becomes dominated by rapidly dispersing individuals—thereby accelerating the rate of population spread. That acceleration has been attributed to evolutionary processes (natural selection and spatial sorting), to which we add a third complementary process: behavioural plasticity. Encountering environmental novelty may directly elicit an increased rate of dispersal. When we reciprocally translocated cane toads (Rhinella marina) among study sites in southern Australia,...

Data from: Understanding the spatial scale of genetic connectivity at sea: unique insights from a land fish and a meta-analysis

Georgina M. Cooke, Timothy E. Schlub, William B. Sherwin & Terry J. Ord
Quantifying the spatial scale of population connectivity is important for understanding the evolutionary potential of ecologically divergent populations and for designing conservation strategies to preserve those populations. For marine organisms like fish, the spatial scale of connectivity is generally set by a pelagic larval phase. This has complicated past estimates of connectivity because detailed information on larval movements are difficult to obtain. Genetic approaches provide a tractable alternative and have the added benefit of estimating...

Data from: Unexpected absence of genetic separation of a highly diverse population of hookworms from geographically isolated hosts

Benjamin T. Haynes, Alan D. Marcus, Damien P. Higgins, Jaime Gongora, Rachael Gray & Jan Slapeta
The high natal site fidelity of endangered Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea) along the southern Australian coast suggests that their maternally transmitted parasitic species, such as hookworms, will have restricted potential for dispersal. If this is the case, we would expect to find a hookworm haplotype structure corresponding to that of the host mtDNA haplotype structure; that is, restricted among geographically separated colonies. In this study, we used a fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase...

Data from: MHC class II diversity of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations across their range

Damien P. Higgins, Quintin Lau, Weerachai Jaratlerdsiri, Joanna E. Griffith & Jaime Gongora
Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) genes code for proteins that bind and present antigenic peptides and trigger the adaptive immune response. We present a broad geographical study of MHCII DA β1 (DAB) and DB β1 (DBB) variants of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus; n=191) from 12 populations across eastern Australia, with a total of 13 DAB and 7 DBB variants found. We identified greater MHCII variation and, possibly, additional gene copies in koala populations in...

Data from: Unravelling species boundaries in the Aspergillus viridinutans complex (section Fumigati): opportunistic human and animal pathogens capable of interspecific hybridization

Vit Hubka, Vanessa Barrs, Zuzana Dudová, František Sklenář, Alena Kubátová, Tetsuhiro Matsuzawa, Takashi Yaguchi, Yoshikazu Horie, Alena Nováková, Jens C. Frisvad, Jessica Talbot & Miroslav Kolařík
Although Aspergillus fumigatus is the major agent of invasive aspergillosis, an increasing number of infections are caused by its cryptic species, especially A. lentulus and the A. viridinutans species complex (AVSC). Their identification is clinically relevant because of antifungal drug resistance and refractory infections. Species boundaries in the AVSC are unresolved since most species have uniform morphology and produce interspecific hybrids in vitro. Clinical and environmental strains from six continents (n = 110) were characterized...

Data from: Oxidant trade-offs in immunity: an experimental test in a lizard

Michael Tobler, Cissy Ballen, Mo Healey, Mark Wilson & Mats Olsson
Immune system functioning and maintenance entails costs which may limit investment into other processes such as reproduction. Yet, the proximate mechanisms and ‘currencies’ mediating the costs of immune responses remain elusive. In vertebrates, up-regulation of the innate immune system is associated with rapid phagocytic production of pro-oxidant molecules (so-called ‘oxidative burst’ responses). Oxidative burst responses are intended to eliminate pathogens but may also constitute an immunopathological risk as they may induce oxidative damage to self...

Data from: Too much of a good thing? Finding the most informative genetic dataset to answer conservation questions

Elspeth A. McLennan, Belinda R. Wright, Katherine Belov, Carolyn J. Hogg & Catherine E. Grueber
Molecular markers are a useful tool allowing conservation and population managers to shed light on genetic processes affecting threatened populations. However, as technological advancements in molecular techniques continue to evolve, conservationists are frequently faced with new genetic markers, each with nuanced variation in their characteristics as well as advantages and disadvantages for informing various questions. We used a well-studied population of Tasmanian devils from Maria Island to illustrate the issues associated with combining multiple genetic...

Data from: Conformity in the collective: differences in hunger affect individual and group behaviour in fish

Alexander Wilson, Alicia Burns, Emanuele Crosato, Joseph Lizier, Mikhail Prokopenko, Tim Schaerf & Ashley J. W. Ward
Animal groups are often composed of individuals that vary according to behavioural, morphological and internal state parameters. Understanding the importance of such individual-level heterogeneity to the establishment and maintenance of coherent group responses is of fundamental interest in collective behaviour. We examined the influence of hunger on the individual and collective behaviour of groups of shoaling fish, x-ray tetras (Pristella maxillaris). Fish were assigned to one of two nutritional states, satiated or hungry, and then...

Data from: Patterns of niche filling and expansion across the invaded ranges of an Australian lizard

Reid Tingley, Michael B. Thompson, Stephen Hartley & David G. Chapple
Studies of realized niche shifts in alien species typically ignore the potential effects of intraspecific niche variation and different invaded-range environments on niche lability. We incorporate our detailed knowledge of the native-range source populations and global introduction history of the delicate skink Lampropholis delicata to examine intraspecific variation in realized niche expansion and unfilling, and investigate how alternative niche modelling approaches are affected by that variation. We analyzed the realized niche dynamics of L. delicata...

Data from: PartitionFinder: combined selection of partitioning schemes and substitution models for phylogenetic analyses.

Robert Lanfear, Brett Calcott, Simon Y. W. Ho & Stephane Guindon
In phylogenetic analyses of molecular sequence data, partitioning involves estimating independent models of molecular evolution for different sets of sites in a sequence alignment. Choosing an appropriate partitioning scheme is an important step in most analyses because it can affect the accuracy of phylogenetic reconstruction. Despite this, partitioning schemes are often chosen without explicit statistical justification. Here, we describe two new objective methods for the combined selection of best-fit partitioning schemes and nucleotide substitution models....

Data from: Efferocytosis perpetuates substance accumulation inside macrophage populations

Hugh Ford, Lynda Zeboudj, Gareth Purvis, Annemieke Ten Bokum, Alexander Zarebski, Joshua Bull, Helen Byrne, Mary Myerscough & David Greaves
In both cells and animals, cannibalism can transfer harmful substances from the consumed to the consumer. Macrophages are immune cells that consume their own dead via a process called cannibalistic efferocytosis. Macrophages that contain harmful substances are found at sites of chronic inflammation, yet the role of cannibalism in this context remains unexplored. Here we take mathematical and experimental approaches to study the relationship between cannibalistic efferocytosis and substance accumulation in macrophages. Through mathematical modelling,...

Data from: Assemblage Accumulation Curves: A framework for resolving species accumulation in biological communities using chloroplast genome sequences

Marlien Van Der Merwe, Samantha Yap, Jason G. Bragg, Caroline Cristofolini, Charles S. P. Foster, Simon Y. W. Ho & Maurizio Rossetto
The timing and tempo of the processes involved in community assembly are of substantial concern to community ecologists and conservation managers. The fossil record is a valuable source of data for studying past changes in community composition, but it is not always detailed enough to allow the process of community assembly to be resolved at regional or site scales while tracing the trajectories of known species with associated known traits. We present a three‐step framework...

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