300 Works

Data from: The cost of chemical defence: the impact of toxin depletion on growth and behaviour of cane toads (Rhinella marina).

Ryann A. Blennerhassett, Kim Bell-Anderson, Richard Shine & Gregory P. Brown
Many animals capable of deploying chemical defences are reluctant to use them, suggesting that synthesis of toxins imposes a substantial cost. Typically, such costs have been quantified by measuring the elevation in metabolic rate induced by toxin depletion (i.e., during replenishment of toxin stores). More generally, we might expect that toxin depletion will induce shifts in a broad suite of fitness-relevant traits. In cane toads (Rhinella marina), toxic compounds that protect against predators and pathogens...

Data from: A simulation-based evaluation of tip-dating under the fossilized birth-death process

Arong Luo, David A. Duchêne, Chi Zhang, Chao-Dong ZHU & Simon Ho
Bayesian molecular dating is widely used to study evolutionary timescales. This procedure usually involves phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequence data, with fossil-based calibrations applied as age constraints on internal nodes of the tree. An alternative approach is tip-dating, which explicitly includes fossil data in the analysis. This can be done, for example, through the joint analysis of molecular data from present-day taxa and morphological data from both extant and fossil taxa. In the context of...

Flies exploit predictable perspectives and backgrounds to enhance iridescent signal salience and mating success

Thomas White, Nina Vogel-Ghibely & Nathan Butterworth
Communication requires both the encoding of information and its effective transmission, but little is known about display traits that primarily serve to enhance efficacy. Here we examined the visual courtships of Lispe cana, a cursorial fly that lives and mates in heterogeneous foreshores, and tested the prediction that males should seek to enhance signal salience and consequent fitness through the flexible choice of display locations. We show that courting males access the field of view...

Dataset for \"Space use by animals on the urban fringe: interactive effects of sex and personality\"

Katie Wat, Anushika Herath, Adrian Rus, Peter Banks & Clare McArthur
Personality traits shape individual perceptions of risks and rewards, and so, should affect how animals value and use their environment. Evidence is emerging that personality affects foraging, space use and exploitation of novel environments such as urban habitat. But the influence of personality is also hypothesized to be sex-dependent when primary motivation for space use differs between sexes, as often occurs in polygynous species. We tested the influence of personality traits, interacting with sex, on...

Predator responses to fire: a global systematic review and meta-analysis

William Geary, Tim Doherty, Dale Nimmo, Ayesha Tulloch & Euan Ritchie
1. Knowledge of how disturbances such as fire shape habitat structure and composition, and affect animal interactions, is fundamental to ecology and ecosystem management. Predators also exert strong effects on ecological communities, through top-down regulation of prey and competitors, which can result in trophic cascades. Despite their ubiquity, ecological importance and potential to interact with fire, our general understanding of how predators respond to fire remains poor, hampering ecosystem management. 2. To address this important...

Data from: Macronutrients and micronutrients drive trade-offs between male pre- and post-mating sexual traits

Soon Hwee Ng, Stephen J. Simpson & Leigh W. Simmons
Nutrition fundamentally affects growth and reproduction, and identifying how nutrient intakes are linked to the expression of these life-history traits can advance understanding of the mechanisms underlying life history trade-offs. Males are thought to face trade-offs between the allocation of resources to pre-mating secondary sexual traits for gaining access to females and allocation to post-mating traits such as ejaculate quality that affects their fertility. We used the Geometric Framework for nutrition to examine the effects...

Data from: The causes and ecological correlates of head scale asymmetry and fragmentation in a tropical snake

Gregory P. Brown, Thomas Madsen, Sylvain Dubey & Rick Shine
The challenge of identifying the proximate causes and ecological consequences of phenotypic variation can be facilitated by studying traits that are usually but not always bilaterally symmetrical; deviations from symmetry likely reflect disrupted embryogenesis. Based on a 19-year mark-recapture study of >1300 slatey-grey snakes (Stegonotus cucullatus) in tropical Australia, and incubation of >700 eggs, we document developmental and ecological correlates of two morphological traits: asymmetry and fragmentation of head scales. Asymmetry was directional (more scales...

Data from: Hepatic Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) regulates metabolism in mice

Christopher H. Scott, Kuan-Minn Cha, Jason Ngai, Changtao Jiang, Kim Cheng, Rebecca A. Stokes, Kenneth W.K. Ho, Jacob George, Frank J. Gonzalez, Jenny E. Gunton & Kenneth W. K. Ho
Background & Aims: Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) and its partners hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α are candidate factors for the well-known link between the liver, metabolic dysfunction and elevation in circulating lipids and glucose. Methods: Hepatocyte-specific ARNT-null (LARNT), HIF-1α-null (LHIF1α) and HIF-2α-null (LHIF2α) mice were created. Results: LARNT mice had increased fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, increased glucose production, raised post-prandial serum triglycerides (TG) and markedly lower hepatic ATP versus littermate controls. There...

Data from: The costs of parasite infection: effects of removing lungworms on performance, growth and survival of free-ranging cane toads

Patrick B. Finnerty, Richard Shine & Gregory P. Brown
1.Most research on the effects of parasites on their hosts has focused on the parasites of mammals or birds (especially, domesticated taxa) rather than systems in which the hosts are ectothermic wildlife species. 2.We used experimental methods (antihelminthic drugs) to quantify the effects of lungworms (Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala) on their anuran hosts, the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marina). 3.In captivity, eradicating lungworms enhanced toad activity (measures of boldness and level of spontaneous activity), performance (locomotor speed,...

Data from: Mixture models of nucleotide sequence evolution that account for heterogeneity in the substitution process across sites and across lineages

Vivek Jayaswal, Thomas K. F. Wong, John Robinson, Leon Poladian, Lars S. Jermiin & Thomas K.F. Wong
Molecular phylogenetic studies of homologous sequences of nucleotides often assume that the underlying evolutionary process was globally stationary, reversible and homogeneous (SRH), and that a model of evolution with one or more site-specific and time-reversible rate matrices (e.g., the GTR rate matrix) is enough to accurately model the evolution of data over the whole tree. However, an increasing body of data suggests that evolution under these conditions is an exception, rather than the norm. To...

Data from: Boom and bust: ancient and recent diversification in bichirs (Polypteridae: Actinopterygii), a relictual lineage of ray-finned fishes

Thomas J. Near, Alex Dornburg, Masayoshi Tokita, Dai Suzuki, Matthew C. Brandley & Matt Friedman
Understanding the history that underlies patterns of species richness across the Tree of Life requires an investigation of the mechanisms that not only generate young species-rich clades, but also those that maintain species-poor lineages over long stretches of evolutionary time. However, diversification dynamics that underlie ancient species-poor lineages are often hidden due to a lack of fossil evidence. Using information from the fossil record and time calibrated molecular phylogenies, we investigate the history of lineage...

Data from: Odour cues influence predation risk at artificial bat roosts in urban bushland

Caragh Threlfall, Bradley Law & Peter B. Banks
Odours that accumulate from roosting can attract predators and increase predation risk. Consequently, selection should favour strategies that allow prey to evade detection by predators, including changing roosts. Insectivorous bats that roost in tree hollows regularly switch roosts and roost in different sized groups: strategies that would alter the accumulation of roost odours and are hypothesized to reduce predation risk. We experimentally manipulated the amount and refresh rate of roosting odour cues at 90 artificial...

Data from: Exercise changes behaviour

Elektra L. E. Sinclair, Carolina R. Noronha De Souza, Ashley J. W. Ward & Frank Seebacher
1. Exercise, which may be defined as bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle and which increases energy expenditure above basal levels, is essential for fitness-related activities such as foraging, migration, and dispersal. The frequency with which individuals engage in exercise depends on a range of intrinsic and environmental factors. Exercise itself can modify behaviour by inducing endocrine changes and by a training effect that increases physiological capacities. 2. Here we test the...

In the Mind of Innovators. Understanding Key Cognitions Driving Novelty

Carlos Vazquez Hernandez
The document shows an initial exploration of the key cognitions experienced by innovators. Cognitions are understood as the different mental activities humans perform to process information to acquire knowledge. Presented herein is a set of mental activities that innovators experience while innovating.

Claims Submitted to the Multilateral Development Bank Accountability Mechanisms – 1994-2020

Susan Park
The dataset represents a summary depiction of grievance cases brought to the Accountability Mechanisms (AMs) of the six Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) from 1994 to 2018: The Asian Development Bank, the African Development Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the World Bank (IBRD/IDA) and the World Bank Group (IFC and MIGA). These Accountability Mechanisms were created to enable people adversely or potentially adversely affected by a project or program...

Rural and metro free-text raw data from the DaPPHne study

Jo Longman & Megan Passey

Genomes From Bacteria Associated with the Canine Oral Cavity: a Test Case for Automated Genome-Based Taxonomic Assignment

David Coil, Guillaume Jospin, Jonathan Eisen, Aaron Darling, Collin Wallis, Ian Davis, Stephen Harris, Lucy Holcombe & Ciaran O'Flynn
Taxonomy for bacterial isolates is commonly assigned via sequence analysis. However, the most common sequence-based approaches (e.g. 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny or whole genome comparisons) are still labor intensive and subjective to varying degrees. Here we present a set of 33 bacterial genomes, isolated from the canine oral cavity. Taxonomy of these isolates was first assigned by PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene, Sanger sequencing, and taxonomy assignment using BLAST. After genome sequencing, taxonomy...

ASHRAE Global Thermal Comfort Database II

Veronika Földváry Ličina, Toby Cheung, Hui Zhang, Richard De Dear, Thomas Parkinson, Edward Arens, Chungyoon Chun, Stefano Schiavon, Maohui Luo, Gail Brager, Peixian Li & Soazig Kaam
Recognizing the value of open-source research databases in advancing the art and science of HVAC, in 2014 the ASHRAE Global Thermal Comfort Database II project was launched under the leadership of University of California at Berkeley’s Center for the Built Environment and The University of Sydney’s Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Laboratory. The exercise began with a systematic collection and harmonization of raw data from the last two decades of thermal comfort field studies around the...

Reading Rural Landscapes as Heritage

Lionella Scazzosi, Raffaella Laviscio, Steve Brown, Pierre Marie Tricaud, Cari Goetcheus & Andrea L'Erario
The workshop will provide an overview of methods and tools necessary for the identification, documentation and interpretation of rural landscapes, as articulated in the ICOMOS-IFLA Principles Concerning Rural Landscapes as Heritage. Three short presentations will be followed by 30 minutes of discussion.

Data from: Methods for invasive species control are transferable across invaded areas

Takashi Haramura, Michael R. Crossland, Hirohiko Takeuchi & Richard Shine
Cane Toads (Rhinella marina) are invasive pests in many parts of the world, including the Japanese island of Ishigaki. Extensive research in Australia has identified promising new methods for control, but also has shown that toads exhibit geographic variation in many traits (suggesting that methods developed in one location may not work in another). Can the approaches developed in Australia play a useful role for controlling this invasive species in Japan? Our experimental trials on...

Data from: Seasonal shifts along the oviparity-viviparity continuum in a cold-climate lizard population

Richard Shine, Erik Wapstra & Mats Olsson
Because squamate embryos require weeks of high temperature to complete development, cool climatic areas are dominated by viviparous taxa (in which gravid females can sun-bask to keep embryos warm) rather than oviparous taxa (which rely on warm soil to incubate their eggs). How, then, can some oviparous taxa reproduce successfully in cool climates – especially late in summer, when soil temperatures are falling? Near the northern limit of their distribution (in Sweden), sand lizards (Lacerta...

Data from: Tasting novel foods and selecting nutrient content in a highly successful ecological invader, the common myna

Chloe Peneaux, Gabriel E. Machovsky-Capuska, David Raubenheimer, Francoise Lermite, Charlotte Rousseau, Tanya Ruhan, John C. Rodger & Andrea S. Griffin
Invasion success is dependent on the ability of a species to discover and exploit novel food resources. Within this context, individuals must be willing to taste novel foods. They must also be capable of evaluating the nutritional content of new foods, and selecting their relative intake in order to fulfil their nutritional needs. Whereas the former capacity is well studied, little is known about the latter capacity. First, using the common myna as a model...

Propagule composition regulates the success of an invasive seaweed across a heterogeneous seascape

Fabio Bulleri, Ezequiel M. Marzinelli, Sofie Voerman & Paul Gribben
1. Propagule pressure is acknowledged as a key determinant of invasion success. Nonetheless, the role of morphological or physiological attributes of propagules (i.e., their quality) in regulating invader establishment has been little explored. In particular, no study has investigated how the presence of propagules differing in quality within an inoculum influences establishment across heterogeneous landscapes. 2. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that the quality (+Fronds+Rhizoids; +Fronds–Rhizoids; –Fronds+Rhizoids) and the diversity (1, 2, 3 fragment types)...

Data from: Effects of condition and sperm competition risk on sperm allocation and storage in neriid flies

Zac Wylde, Angela Crean & Russell Bonduriansky
Ejaculate traits can be sexually selected and often exhibit heightened condition-dependence. However, the influence of sperm competition risk in tandem with condition-dependent ejaculate allocation strategies is relatively unstudied. Because ejaculates are costly to produce, high-condition males may be expected to invest more in ejaculates when sperm competition risk is greater. We examined the condition-dependence of ejaculate size by manipulating nutrient concentration in the juvenile (larval) diet of the neriid fly Telostylinus angusticollis. Using a fully...

Data from: Fine-scale behavioural adjustments of prey on a continuum of risk

Maud I.A. Kent, James E. Herbert-Read, Gordon McDonald, A. Jamie Wood & Ashley J.W. Ward
In the wild, prey species often live in the vicinity of predators, rendering the ability to assess risk on a moment-to-moment basis crucial to survival. Visual cues are important as they allow prey to assess predator species, size, proximity and behaviour. However, few studies have explicitly examined prey’s ability to assess risk based on predator behaviour and orientation. Using mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, and their predator, jade perch, Scortum barcoo, under controlled conditions, we provide some...

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