291 Works

Data from: Tree imbalance causes a bias in phylogenetic estimation of evolutionary timescales using heterochronous sequences

David Duchêne, Sebastián Duchêne & Simon Y. W. Ho
Phylogenetic estimation of evolutionary timescales has become routine in biology, forming the basis of a wide range of evolutionary and ecological studies. However, there are various sources of bias that can affect these estimates. We investigated whether tree imbalance, a property that is commonly observed in phylogenetic trees, can lead to reduced accuracy or precision of phylogenetic timescale estimates. We analysed simulated data sets with calibrations at internal nodes and at the tips, taking into...

Data from: Living in flowing water increases resistance to ultraviolet B radiation

Ensiyeh Ghanizadeh-Kazerouni, Craig E. Franklin & Frank Seebacher
Ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) is an important environmental driver that can affect locomotor performance negatively by inducing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Prolonged regular exercise increases antioxidant activities, which may alleviate the negative effects of UV-B-induced ROS. Animals naturally performing exercise, such as humans performing regular exercise or fish living in flowing water, may therefore be more resilient to the negative effects of UV-B. We tested this hypothesis in a fully factorial experiment, where...

Data from: Dynamic population codes of multiplexed stimulus features in primate area MT

Erin Goddard, Samuel G. Solomon & Thomas A. Carlson
The middle-temporal area (MT) of primate visual cortex is critical in the analysis of visual motion. Single-unit studies suggest that the response dynamics of neurons within area MT depend on stimulus features, but how these dynamics emerge at the population level, and how feature representations interact, is not clear. Here, we used multivariate classification analysis to study how stimulus features are represented in the spiking activity of populations of neurons in area MT of marmoset...

Data from: Locomotor performance of cane toads differs between native-range and invasive populations

Georgia Kosmala, Gregory Brown, Keith Christian & Richard Shine
Invasive species provide a robust opportunity to evaluate how animals deal with novel environmental challenges. Shifts in locomotor performance—and thus the ability to disperse—(and especially, the degree to which it is constrained by thermal and hydric extremes) are of special importance, because they might affect the rate that an invader can spread. We studied cane toads (Rhinella marina) across a broad geographical range: two populations within the species' native range in Brazil, two invasive populations...

Data from: Indirect effects of ocean acidification drive feeding and growth of juvenile crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci

Pamela Z. Kamya, Maria Byrne, Benjamin Mos, Lauren Hall & Symon A. Dworjanyn
The indirect effects of changing climate in modulating trophic interactions can be as important as the direct effects of climate stressors on consumers. The success of the herbivorous juvenile stage of the crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS), Acanthaster planci, may be affected by the impacts of ocean conditions on its crustose coralline algal (CCA) food. To partition the direct effects of near future ocean acidification on juvenile COTS and indirect effects through changes in their CCA food,...

Data from: A significant component of ageing (DNA damage) is reflected in fading breeding colors: an experimental test using innate antioxidant mimetics in painted dragon lizards

Mats Michael Olsson, Michael Tobler, Mo Healey, Cecile Perrin & Mark Wilson
A decade ahead of their time, von Schantz and coworkers united sexual selection and free radical biology by identifying causal links between deep-rooted physiological processes that dictate resistance to toxic waste from oxidative metabolism (reactive oxygen species), and phenotypic traits, such as ornaments. Ten years later, these ideas have still only been tested with indirect estimates of free radical levels (oxidative stress) subsequent to the action of innate and dietary antioxidants. Here we measure net...

Data from: The basis of antagonistic pleiotropy in hfq mutations that have opposite effects on fitness at slow and fast growth rates

Thomas Ferenci, Ram Maharjan, Christopher McKenzie & Anna Yeung
Mutations beneficial in one environment may cause costs in different environments, resulting in antagonistic pleiotropy. Here we describe a novel form of antagonistic pleiotropy that operates even within the same environment, where benefits and deleterious effects exhibit themselves at different growth rates. The fitness of hfq mutations in Escherichia coli affecting the RNA chaperone involved in small-RNA regulation is remarkably sensitive to growth rate. E. coli populations evolving in chemostats under nutrient limitation acquired beneficial...

Data from: NetView P: a network visualization tool to unravel complex population structure using genome-wide SNPs

Eike J. Steinig, Markus Neuditschko, Mehar S. Khatkar, Herman W. Raadsma & Kyall R. Zenger
Network-based approaches are emerging as valuable tools for the analysis of complex genetic structure in both wild and captive populations. NetView P combines data quality control with the construction of population networks based on mutual k-nearest-neighbours thresholds applied to genome-wide SNPs. The program is cross-platform compatible, open-source and efficiently operates on data ranging from hundreds to hundreds of thousands of SNPs through multiprocessing in Python. We used the pipeline for the analysis of pedigree data...

Data from: Genome-wide association studies in dogs and humans identify ADAMTS20 as a risk variant for cleft lip and palate

Zena T. Wolf, Harrison A. Brand, John R. Shaffer, Elizabeth J. Leslie, Boaz Arzi, Cali E. Willet, Timothy C. Cox, Toby McHenry, Nicole Narayan, Eleanor Feingold, Xioajing Wang, Saundra Sliskovic, Nili Karmi, Noa Safra, Carla Sanchez, Frederic W. B. Deleyiannis, Jeffrey C. Murray, Claire M. Wade, Mary L. Marazita & Danika L. Bannasch
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is the most commonly occurring craniofacial birth defect. We provide insight into the genetic etiology of this birth defect by performing genome-wide association studies in two species: dogs and humans. In the dog, a genome-wide association study of 7 CL/P cases and 112 controls from the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever (NSDTR) breed identified a significantly associated region on canine chromosome 27 (unadjusted p=1.1 x 10-13; adjusted...

Data from: High human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in South African adolescents and young women encourages expanded HPV vaccination campaigns

Zizipho Z.A. Mbulawa, Cari Van Schalkwyk, Nai-Chung Hu, Tracy L. Meiring, Shaun Barnabas, Smritee Dabee, Heather Jaspan, Jean-MAri Kriek, Shameem Z. Jaumdally, Etienne Muller, Linda-Gail Bekker, David A. Lewis, Janan Dietrich, Glenda Gray, Jo-Ann S. Passmore, Anna-Lise Williamson & Zizipho Z. A. Mbulawa
Objectives: To investigate prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes to inform HPV vaccination strategy in South Africa and to study factors associated with HPV prevalence. Methods: Sexually active, HIV-negative women, aged 16-22 years recruited from Soweto (n=143) and Cape Town (n=148) were tested for cervical HPV and other genital infections. Results: Overall HPV prevalence was 66.7% (194/291) in young women. Cape Town women were more likely to have multiple HPV infections than the Soweto...

Data from: Analysis of phylogenomic tree space resolves relationships among marsupial families

David A. Duchêne, Jason G. Bragg, Sebastian Duchêne, Linda E. Neaves, Sally Potter, Craig Moritz, Rebecca N. Johnson, Simon Y. W. Ho & Mark D. B. Eldridge
A fundamental challenge in resolving evolutionary relationships across the Tree of Life is to account for heterogeneity in the evolutionary signal across loci. Studies of marsupial mammals have demonstrated that this heterogeneity can be substantial, leaving considerable uncertainty in the evolutionary timescale and relationships within the group. Using simulations and a new phylogenomic data set comprising nucleotide sequences of 1550 loci from 18 of the 22 extant marsupial families, we demonstrate the power of a...

Data from: The impact of host genetic diversity on virus evolution and emergence

Cristina Rodríguez-Nevado, Tommy T-Y Lam, Edward C. Holmes & Israel Pagán
Accumulating evidence indicates that biodiversity has an important impact on parasite evolution and emergence. The vast majority of studies in this area have only considered the diversity of species within an environment as an overall measure of biodiversity, overlooking the role of genetic diversity within a particular host species. Although theoretical models propose that host genetic diversity in part shapes that of the infecting parasite population, and hence modulates the risk of parasite emergence, this...

Data from: Leaf economics spectrum in rice: Leaf anatomical, biochemical and physiological trait trade-offs

Dongliang Xiong & Jaume Flexas
The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is an eco-physiological concept describing the trade-offs of leaf structural, and physiological traits, that has been widely investigated across multiple scales. However, the effects of the breeding process on the LES in crops, as well as the mechanisms of the trait trade-offs underlying the LES, have not been thoroughly elucidated to date. In this study, a dataset, including leaf anatomical, biochemical and functional traits, was constructed to evaluate the trait...

Data from: Genetic diversity, population structure and ancestral origin of Australian wheat

Reem Joukhadar, Hans D. Daetwyler, Urmil K. Bansal, Anthony R. Gendall & Matthew J. Hayden
Since the introduction of wheat into Australia by the First Fleet settlers, germplasm from different geographical origins has been used to adapt wheat to the Australian climate through selection and breeding. In this paper, we used 482 cultivars, representing the breeding history of bread wheat in Australia since 1840, to characterize their diversity and population structure and to define the geographical ancestral background of Australian wheat germplasm. This was achieved by comparing them to a...

Data from: Identification of allosteric disulphides from labile bonds in X-ray structures

Aster E. Pijning, Joyce Chiu, Reichelle X. Yeo, Jason W. H. Wong & Philip J. Hogg
Protein disulfide bonds link pairs of cysteine sulfur atoms and are either structural or functional motifs. The allosteric disulfides control the function of the protein in which they reside when cleaved or formed. Here, we identify potential allosteric disulfides in all Protein Data Bank X-ray structures from bonds that are present in some molecules of a protein crystal but absent in others, or present in some structures of a protein but absent in others. We...

Genomic vulnerability of a dominant seaweed points to future-proofing pathways for Australia’s underwater forests

Georgina Wood
Globally, critical habitats are in decline, threatening ecological, economic and social values and prompting calls for “future proofing” efforts that enhance resilience to climate change. Such efforts rely on predicting how neutral and adaptive genomic patterns across a species’ distribution will change under future climate scenarios, but data is scant for most species of conservation concern. Here, we use seascape genomics to characterize genetic diversity, structure and gene-environmental associations in a dominant forest-forming seaweed, Phyllospora...

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