44 Works

Data from: Female behavior and the interaction of male and female genital traits mediate sperm transfer during mating.

Christopher R. Friesen, Emily J. Uhrig, Robert T. Mason & Patricia L.R. Brennan
Natural selection and post-copulatory sexual selection, including sexual conflict, contribute to genital diversification. Fundamental first steps in understanding how these processes shape the evolution of specific genital traits are to determine their function experimentally and to understand the interactions between female and male genitalia during copulation. Our experimental manipulations of male and female genitalia in red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) reveal that copulation duration and copulatory plug deposition, as well as total and oviductal/vaginal...

Data from: Group foraging decisions in nutritionally differentiated environments

Matthew J. Hansen, Timothy M. Schaerf, Stephen J. Simpson & Ashley J. W. Ward
Foraging behaviour must be flexible enough to adapt to heterogeneities in the distribution and quality of food resources. Accurate models of optimal foraging behaviour should acknowledge the extent to which animals can detect and regulate their intake of food based on smaller scale differences in food types. In particular, consideration of macro-nutrient distribution and how animals perceive this is limited in studies of optimal foraging, particularly in vertebrates and for animals that forage in groups....

Data from: Understanding the spatial scale of genetic connectivity at sea: unique insights from a land fish and a meta-analysis

Georgina M. Cooke, Timothy E. Schlub, William B. Sherwin & Terry J. Ord
Quantifying the spatial scale of population connectivity is important for understanding the evolutionary potential of ecologically divergent populations and for designing conservation strategies to preserve those populations. For marine organisms like fish, the spatial scale of connectivity is generally set by a pelagic larval phase. This has complicated past estimates of connectivity because detailed information on larval movements are difficult to obtain. Genetic approaches provide a tractable alternative and have the added benefit of estimating...

Data from: Local coexistence and genetic isolation of three pollinator species on the same fig tree species

Timothy L. Sutton, Jane L. DeGabriel, Markus Riegler & James M. Cook
Molecular tools increasingly reveal cryptic lineages and species that were previously unnoticed by traditional taxonomy. The discovery of cryptic species in sympatry prompts the question of how they coexist in the apparent absence of ecological divergence. However, this assumes first that the molecular taxonomy used to identify cryptic lineages delimits species boundaries accurately. This issue is important, because many diversity studies rely heavily or solely on data from mitochondrial DNA sequences for species delimitation, and...

Data from: Can alternative mating tactics facilitate introgression across a hybrid zone by circumventing female choice?

Kathryn A. Stewart, Cameron M. Hudson & Stephen C. Lougheed
Reproductive barriers and divergence in species’ mate recognition systems underlie major models of speciation. However, hybridization between divergent species is common, and classic mechanisms to explain permeable reproductive barriers rarely consider how an individual may attain reproductive success. Alternative mating tactics exist in various forms across animal taxa. Such tactics may allow poorer quality individuals to gain mating opportunities and facilitate introgression either through asymmetrical positive selection, or by circumventing female choice altogether in areas...

Data from: Basking behavior predicts the evolution of heat tolerance in Australian rainforest lizards

Martha M. Muñoz, Gary M. Langham, Matthew C. Brandley, Dan Rosauer, Stephen E. Williams, Craig Moritz & Dan F. Rosauer
There is pressing urgency to understand how tropical ectotherms can behaviorally and physiologically respond to climate warming. We examine how basking behavior and thermal environment interact to influence evolutionary variation in thermal physiology of multiple species of lygosomine rainforest skinks from the Wet Tropics of northeastern Queensland, Australia (AWT). These tropical lizards are behaviorally specialized to exploit canopy or sun, and are distributed across steep thermal clines in the AWT. Using phylogenetic analyses, we demonstrate...

Data from: Is the enhanced dispersal rate seen at invasion fronts a behaviourally plastic response to encountering novel ecological conditions?

Lachlan J. Pettit, Matthew J. Greenlees & Richard Shine
As a population expands into novel areas (as occurs in biological invasions), the range edge becomes dominated by rapidly dispersing individuals—thereby accelerating the rate of population spread. That acceleration has been attributed to evolutionary processes (natural selection and spatial sorting), to which we add a third complementary process: behavioural plasticity. Encountering environmental novelty may directly elicit an increased rate of dispersal. When we reciprocally translocated cane toads (Rhinella marina) among study sites in southern Australia,...

Data from: The nutritional balancing act of a large herbivore: an experiment with captive moose (Alces alces L)

Annika M. Felton, Adam Felton, David Raubenheimer, Stephen J. Simpson, Sophie J. Krizsan, Per-Ola Hedwall & Caroline Stolter
The nutrient balancing hypothesis proposes that, when sufficient food is available, the primary goal of animal diet selection is to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet. This hypothesis can be tested using the Geometric Framework for nutrition (GF). The GF enables researchers to study patterns of nutrient intake (e.g. macronutrients; protein, carbohydrates, fat), interactions between the different nutrients, and how an animal resolves the potential conflict between over-eating one or more nutrients and under-eating others during...

Data from: Co-adjustment of yolk antioxidants and androgens in birds

Mathieu Giraudeau & Simon Ducatez
Mothers can shape the developmental trajectory of their offspring through the transmission of resources such as hormones, antioxidants or immunoglobulins. Over the last two decades, an abundant literature on maternal effects in birds has shown that several of these compounds (i.e. androgens, glucocorticoids and antioxidants) often influence the same offspring phenotypic traits (i.e. growth, immunity or oxidative stress levels), making interaction effects between egg components a likely scenario. However, the potential interactive effects of maternally...

Data from: Sexual and nonsexual cannibalism have different effects on offspring performance in redback spiders

Romain P. Boisseau, Shawn M. Wilder & Katherine L. Barry
Sexual cannibalism is often set apart from other forms of cannibalism; however, no studies have directly compared the fitness consequences of these 2 types of cannibalism. Here, we compared the consequences of cannibalism of a male by a female outside the context of mating (referred to as nonsexual cannibalism) and within the context of mating (referred to as sexual cannibalism) for the propensity to remate, fecundity, and offspring traits of female redback spiders Latrodectus hasselti....

Data from: Morphological differences between habitats are associated with physiological and behavioural trade-offs in stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

Frank Seebacher, Mike M. Webster, Rob S. James, Jason Tallis & Ashley J. W. Ward
Local specialization can be advantageous for individuals and may increase the resilience of the species to environmental change. However, there may be trade-offs between morphological responses and physiological performance and behaviour. Our aim was to test whether habitat-specific morphology of stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) interacts with physiological performance and behaviour at different salinities. We rejected the hypothesis that deeper body shape of fish from habitats with high predation pressure led to decreases in locomotor performance. However,...

Data from: Biotic resistance to an alien amphibian: larval competition between Japanese frogs and invasive cane toads

Takashi Haramura, Hirohiko Takeuchi, Michael R. Crossland & Richard Shine
Understanding negative effects of native species on introduced taxa may suggest novel ways to control the invasive species by enhancing such effects. Previous studies have reported that the larvae of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) are suppressed by competition with the larvae of native anurans in Australia, but not in North America. We conducted laboratory trials to measure the effect of exposure to the larvae of Japanese frogs (Microhyla ornata, Fejervarya sakishimensis, Rhacophorus owstoni) on...

Data from: Thyroid hormone modulates offspring sex ratio in a turtle with temperature-dependent sex determination

Bao-Jun Sun, Teng Li, Yi Mu, Jessica K. McGlashan, Arthur Georges, Richard Shine & Wei-Guo Du
The adaptive significance of temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) has attracted a great deal of research, but the underlying mechanisms by which temperature determines the sex of a developing embryo remain poorly understood. Here, we manipulated the level of a thyroid hormone (TH), triiodothyronine (T3), during embryonic development (by adding excess T3 to the eggs of the red-eared slider turtle Trachemys scripta, a reptile with TSD), to test two competing hypotheses on the proximate basis for...

Data from: Sea urchins in a high-CO2 world: the influence of acclimation on the immune response to ocean warming and acidification

Cecilia J. Brothers, Januar Harianto, James B. McClintock & Maria Byrne
Climate-induced ocean warming and acidification may render marine organisms more vulnerable to infectious diseases. We investigated the effects of warming and acidification on the immune response of the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma. Sea urchins were gradually introduced to four combinations of temperature and pHNIST (17°C/pH 8.15, 17°C/pH 7.6, 23°C/pH 8.15 and 23°C/pH 7.6) and then held in temperature–pH treatments for 1, 15 or 30 days to determine if the immune response would adjust to stressors...

Data from: Comparative developmental transcriptomics reveals rewiring of a highly conserved gene regulatory network during a major life history switch in the sea urchin genus Heliocidaris

Jennifer W. Israel, Megan L. Martik, Maria Byrne, Elizabeth C. Raff, Rudolf A. Raff, David R. McClay & Gregory A. Wray
The ecologically significant shift in developmental strategy from planktotrophic (feeding) to lecithotrophic (nonfeeding) development in the sea urchin genus Heliocidaris is one of the most comprehensively studied life history transitions in any animal. Although the evolution of lecithotrophy involved substantial changes to larval development and morphology, it is not known to what extent changes in gene expression underlie the developmental differences between species, nor do we understand how these changes evolved within the context of...

Data from: Maternal body size influences offspring immune configuration in an oviparous snake

Gregory P. Brown & Richard Shine
Like most ectothermic vertebrates, keelback snakes (Tropidonophis mairii) do not exhibit parental care. Thus, offspring must possess an immune system capable of dealing with challenges such as pathogens, without assistance from an attendant parent. We know very little about immune system characteristics of neonatal reptiles, including the magnitude of heritability and other maternal influences. To identify sources of variation in circulating white blood cell (WBC) concentrations and differentials, we examined blood smears from 246 hatchling...

Data from: Immune-challenged fish up-regulate their metabolic scope to support locomotion

Camille Bonneaud, Robbie S. Wilson & Frank Seebacher
Energy-based trade-offs occur when investment in one fitness-related trait diverts energy away from other traits. The extent to which such trade-offs are shaped by limits on the rate of conversion of energy ingested in food (e.g. carbohydrates) into chemical energy (ATP) by oxidative metabolism rather than by the amount of food ingested in the first place is, however, unclear. Here we tested whether the ATP required for mounting an immune response will lead to a...

Data from: Olfactory and visual plant cues as drivers of selective herbivory

Rebecca S. Stutz, Benjamin M. Croak, Nicholas Proschogo, Peter B. Banks & Clare McArthur
Food quality is an important consideration in the foraging strategy of all animals, including herbivores. Those that can detect and assess the nutritional value of plants from afar, using senses such as smell and sight, can forage more efficiently than those that must assess food quality by taste alone. Selective foraging not only affects herbivore fitness but can influence the structure and composition of plant communities, yet little is known about how olfactory and visual...

Data from: Female genital cosmetic surgery: a cross-sectional survey exploring knowledge, attitude and practice of general practitioners

Magdalena Simonis, Ramesh Manocha & Jason J. Ong
Objective To explore general practitioner's (GP) knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) in Australia. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Australia. Sample GPs who attended a women's health seminar and GPs who subscribed to a non-governmental, national health professional organisation database that provides education to primary care professionals. Method A national online survey of GPs was conducted for the 10-week period, starting 1 week prior and 2 months after a Women's Health seminar...

Data from: Enhanced decomposition and nitrogen mineralisation sustain rapid growth of Eucalyptus regnans after wildfire

Feike A. Dijkstra, Meaghan Jenkins, Vivien De Remy De Courcelles, Claudia Keitel, Margaret M. Barbour, Zachary E. Kayler & Mark A. Adams
Eucalyptus regnans grows rapidly from seed after wildfires, out-competing other species, thereby forming pure stands of mature forests that rank amongst the world's most carbon dense. By global standards, these forests grow on infertile soils. It is unclear how E. regnans is able to obtain large amounts nitrogen (N) from these infertile soils to support its rapid growth after fire. We measured carbon (C) and N stored in plant biomass and photosynthetic rates of E....

Data from: Evaluating the impact of genomic data and priors on Bayesian estimates of the angiosperm evolutionary timescale

Charles S. P. Foster, Hervé Sauquet, Marlien Van Der Merwe, Hannah McPherson, Maurizio Rossetto & Simon Y. W. Ho
The evolutionary timescale of angiosperms has long been a key question in biology. Molecular estimates of this timescale have shown considerable variation, being influenced by differences in taxon sampling, gene sampling, fossil calibrations, evolutionary models, and choices of priors. Here, we analyze a data set comprising 76 protein-coding genes from the chloroplast genomes of 195 taxa spanning 86 families, including novel genome sequences for 11 taxa, to evaluate the impact of models, priors, and gene...

Data from: Complementary food resources of carnivory and frugivory affect local abundance of an omnivorous carnivore

Scott E. Nielsen, Terrence A. Larsen, Gordon B. Stenhouse & Sean C. P. Coogan
A major unresolved question for omnivorous carnivores, like most species of bears, is to what degree are populations influenced by bottom–up (food supply) or top–down (human-caused mortality) processes. Most previous work on bear populations has focused on factors that limit survival (top–down) assuming little effect of food resource supply. When food resources are considered, most often they consider only the availability/supply of a single resource, particularly marine-subsidized or terrestrial sources of protein (carnivory) or alternately...

Data from: Crimson spotted rainbowfish (Melanotaenia duboulayi) change their spatial position according to nutritional requirement

Matthew J. Hansen, Timothy M. Schaerf, Jens Krause & Ashley J. W. Ward
Decision making in moving animal groups has been shown to be disproportionately influenced by individuals at the front of groups. Therefore, an explanation of state-dependent positioning of individuals within animal groups may provide a mechanism for group movement decisions. Nutritional state is dynamic and can differ between members of the same group. It is also known to drive animal movement decisions. Therefore, we assayed 6 groups of 8 rainbowfish foraging in a flow tank. Half...

Data from: Shrub encroachment is linked to extirpation of an apex predator

Christopher E. Gordon, David J. Eldridge, William J. Ripple, Mathew S. Crowther, Ben D. Moore & Mike Letnic
The abundance of shrubs has increased throughout Earth's arid lands. This ‘shrub encroachment’ has been linked to livestock grazing, fire-suppression and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations facilitating shrub recruitment. Apex predators initiate trophic cascades which can influence the abundance of many species across multiple trophic levels within ecosystems. Extirpation of apex predators is linked inextricably to pastoralism, but has not been considered as a factor contributing to shrub encroachment. Here, we ask if trophic cascades triggered...

Data from: Parental exposure modulates the effects of UV-B on offspring in guppies

Ensiyeh Ghanizadeh Kazerouni, Craig E. Franklin & Frank Seebacher
1.The environment experienced by parents can alter offspring phenotypes. Such developmental plasticity is beneficial when it optimises offspring responses to their prevailing environment. Plasticity may be detrimental, however, if there is a mismatch between parental and offspring environments, although reversible acclimation within individuals could counteract a developmental mismatch. 2.UV-B radiation damages cells directly and by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. There are indications that the developmental environment can influence ROS defences, which could enhance...

Registration Year

  • 2016

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Sydney
  • University of Queensland
  • University of Wollongong
  • Oregon State University
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • UNSW Sydney
  • Western Sydney University
  • Duke University
  • University of Tasmania
  • Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries