45 Works

Data from: Resource availability and sexual size dimorphism: differential effects of prey abundance on the growth rates of tropical snakes

Gregory P. Brown, Thomas R.L. Madsen, Richard Shine, Thomas R. L. Madsen & Rick Shine
1. Broad phylogenetic patterns in sexual size dimorphism (SSD) are shaped by sex differences in net selection pressures (e.g., sexual selection, fecundity selection, survival selection), but environmental and ecological factors can also affect the expression of SSD. 2. Discussions of proximate ecological influences on SSD have focused on niche divergence; for example, increase in a prey type used by only one sex can elevate growth rates of that sex but not the other. Food limitation...

Data from: Plio-Pleistocene phylogeography of the Southeast Asian Blue Panchax killifish, Aplocheilus panchax

Samantha V. Beck, Gary R. Carvalho, Axel Barlow, Lukas Rüber, Heok Hui Tan, Estu Nugroho, Daisy Wowor, Siti Azizah Mohd Nor, Fabian Herder, Zainal A. Muchlisin & Mark De Bruyn
The complex climatic and geological history of Southeast Asia has shaped this region’s high biodiversity. In particular, sea level fluctuations associated with repeated glacial cycles during the Pleistocene both facilitated, and limited, connectivity between populations. In this study, we used data from two mitochondrial and three anonymous nuclear markers to determine whether a fresh/brackish water killifish, Aplocheilus panchax, Hamilton, 1822, could be used to further understand how climatic oscillations and associated sea level fluctuations have...

Data from: Thermal physiology: a new dimension of the pace-of-life syndrome

Celine T. Goulet, Mike B. Thompson, Marcus Michelangeli, Bob B.M. Wong, David G. Chapple & Bob B. M. Wong
1) Current syndrome research focuses primarily on behavior with few incorporating components of physiology. One such syndrome is the Pace-of-Life Syndrome (POLS) which describes covariation between behaviour, metabolism immunity, hormonal response, and life history traits. Despite the strong effect temperature has on behavior, thermal physiology has yet to be considered within this syndrome framework. 2) We proposed the POLS to be extended to include a new dimension, the cold-hot axis. Under this premise, it is...

Data from: Direct and trans-generational effects of male and female gut microbiota in Drosophila melanogaster

Juliano Morimoto, Stephen J. Simpson & Fleur Ponton
There is increasing evidence of the far-reaching effects of gut bacteria on physiological and behavioural traits, yet the fitness-related consequences of changes in the gut bacteria composition of sexually interacting individuals remain unknown. To address this question, we manipulated the gut microbiota of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, by monoinfecting flies with either Acetobacter pomorum (AP) or Lactobacillus plantarum (LP). Re-inoculated individuals were paired in all treatment combinations. LP-infected males had longer mating duration and induced...

Data from: Obesity-induced decreases in muscle performance are not reversed by weight loss

F. Seebacher, J. Tallis, K. McShea & R. S. James
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity can affect muscle phenotypes, and may thereby constrain movement and energy expenditure. Weight loss is a common and intuitive intervention for obesity, but it is not known whether the effects of obesity on muscle function are reversible by weight loss. Here we tested whether obesity-induced changes in muscle metabolic and contractile phenotypes are reversible by weight loss. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We used zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a factorial design to compare energy metabolism, locomotor capacity,...

Data from: The loneliness of the long-distance toad: invasion history and social attraction in cane toads (Rhinella marina)

Jodie Gruber, Martin J. Whiting, Gregory Brown & Richard Shine
Individuals at the leading edge of a biological invasion constantly encounter novel environments. These pioneers may benefit from increased social attraction, because low population densities reduce competition and risks of pathogen transfer, and increase benefits of information transfer. In standardised trials, cane toads (Rhinella marina) from invasion-front populations approached conspecifics more often, and spent more time close to them, than did conspecifics from high-density, long-colonised populations.

Data from: Atoll-scale patterns in coral reef community structure: Human signatures on Ulithi Atoll, Micronesia

Nicole L. Crane, Peter Nelson, Avigdor Abelson, Kristin Precoda, , Giacomo Bernardi & Michelle Paddack
The dynamic relationship between reefs and the people who utilize them at a subsistence level is poorly understood. This paper characterizes atoll-scale patterns in shallow coral reef habitat and fish community structure, and correlates these with environmental characteristics and anthropogenic factors, critical to conservation efforts for the reefs and the people who depend on them. Hierarchical clustering analyses by site for benthic composition and fish community resulted in the same 3 major clusters: cluster 1–oceanic...

Data from: Macronutrient signature of dietary generalism in an ecologically diverse primate in the wild

Zhen-Wei Cui, Zhen-Long Wang, Qi Shao, David Raubenheimer & Ji-Qi Lu
A question of considerable importance is why some animals are able to succeed on a wide range of diets while others are more tightly constrained. Theory predicts that generalists should show a flexible response for macronutrient acquisition in the face of ecologically-driven constraint on the nutritional balance of available foods, which in the modelling framework of nutritional geometry has been quantitatively characterized as an “equal distance” regulatory model. This prediction, which has empirical support from...

Data from: Pedigree analysis reveals a generational decline in reproductive success of captive Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii): implications for captive management of threatened species

Katherine A. Farquharson, Carolyn J. Hogg & Catherine E. Grueber
Captive breeding programs are an increasingly popular tool to augment the conservation of threatened wild populations. Many programs keep detailed pedigrees, which are used to prescribe breeding targets to meet demographic and genetic goals. Annual breeding targets are based on previous productivity, but do not account for changes in reproductive success that may occur over generations in captivity and which may impair the ability of a program to meet its goals. We utilise a large...

Data from: Genetic diversity, population structure and ancestral origin of Australian wheat

Reem Joukhadar, Hans D. Daetwyler, Urmil K. Bansal, Anthony R. Gendall & Matthew J. Hayden
Since the introduction of wheat into Australia by the First Fleet settlers, germplasm from different geographical origins has been used to adapt wheat to the Australian climate through selection and breeding. In this paper, we used 482 cultivars, representing the breeding history of bread wheat in Australia since 1840, to characterize their diversity and population structure and to define the geographical ancestral background of Australian wheat germplasm. This was achieved by comparing them to a...

Data from: Analysis of phylogenomic tree space resolves relationships among marsupial families

David A. Duchêne, Jason G. Bragg, Sebastian Duchêne, Linda E. Neaves, Sally Potter, Craig Moritz, Rebecca N. Johnson, Simon Y. W. Ho & Mark D. B. Eldridge
A fundamental challenge in resolving evolutionary relationships across the Tree of Life is to account for heterogeneity in the evolutionary signal across loci. Studies of marsupial mammals have demonstrated that this heterogeneity can be substantial, leaving considerable uncertainty in the evolutionary timescale and relationships within the group. Using simulations and a new phylogenomic data set comprising nucleotide sequences of 1550 loci from 18 of the 22 extant marsupial families, we demonstrate the power of a...

Data from: Dynamic population codes of multiplexed stimulus features in primate area MT

Erin Goddard, Samuel G. Solomon & Thomas A. Carlson
The middle-temporal area (MT) of primate visual cortex is critical in the analysis of visual motion. Single-unit studies suggest that the response dynamics of neurons within area MT depend on stimulus features, but how these dynamics emerge at the population level, and how feature representations interact, is not clear. Here, we used multivariate classification analysis to study how stimulus features are represented in the spiking activity of populations of neurons in area MT of marmoset...

Data from: Locomotor performance of cane toads differs between native-range and invasive populations

Georgia Kosmala, Gregory Brown, Keith Christian & Richard Shine
Invasive species provide a robust opportunity to evaluate how animals deal with novel environmental challenges. Shifts in locomotor performance—and thus the ability to disperse—(and especially, the degree to which it is constrained by thermal and hydric extremes) are of special importance, because they might affect the rate that an invader can spread. We studied cane toads (Rhinella marina) across a broad geographical range: two populations within the species' native range in Brazil, two invasive populations...

Data from: Indirect effects of ocean acidification drive feeding and growth of juvenile crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci

Pamela Z. Kamya, Maria Byrne, Benjamin Mos, Lauren Hall & Symon A. Dworjanyn
The indirect effects of changing climate in modulating trophic interactions can be as important as the direct effects of climate stressors on consumers. The success of the herbivorous juvenile stage of the crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS), Acanthaster planci, may be affected by the impacts of ocean conditions on its crustose coralline algal (CCA) food. To partition the direct effects of near future ocean acidification on juvenile COTS and indirect effects through changes in their CCA food,...

Data from: Tasting novel foods and selecting nutrient content in a highly successful ecological invader, the common myna

Chloe Peneaux, Gabriel E. Machovsky-Capuska, David Raubenheimer, Francoise Lermite, Charlotte Rousseau, Tanya Ruhan, John C. Rodger & Andrea S. Griffin
Invasion success is dependent on the ability of a species to discover and exploit novel food resources. Within this context, individuals must be willing to taste novel foods. They must also be capable of evaluating the nutritional content of new foods, and selecting their relative intake in order to fulfil their nutritional needs. Whereas the former capacity is well studied, little is known about the latter capacity. First, using the common myna as a model...

Data from: Methods for invasive species control are transferable across invaded areas

Takashi Haramura, Michael R. Crossland, Hirohiko Takeuchi & Richard Shine
Cane Toads (Rhinella marina) are invasive pests in many parts of the world, including the Japanese island of Ishigaki. Extensive research in Australia has identified promising new methods for control, but also has shown that toads exhibit geographic variation in many traits (suggesting that methods developed in one location may not work in another). Can the approaches developed in Australia play a useful role for controlling this invasive species in Japan? Our experimental trials on...

Data from: High human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in South African adolescents and young women encourages expanded HPV vaccination campaigns

Zizipho Z.A. Mbulawa, Cari Van Schalkwyk, Nai-Chung Hu, Tracy L. Meiring, Shaun Barnabas, Smritee Dabee, Heather Jaspan, Jean-MAri Kriek, Shameem Z. Jaumdally, Etienne Muller, Linda-Gail Bekker, David A. Lewis, Janan Dietrich, Glenda Gray, Jo-Ann S. Passmore, Anna-Lise Williamson & Zizipho Z. A. Mbulawa
Objectives: To investigate prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes to inform HPV vaccination strategy in South Africa and to study factors associated with HPV prevalence. Methods: Sexually active, HIV-negative women, aged 16-22 years recruited from Soweto (n=143) and Cape Town (n=148) were tested for cervical HPV and other genital infections. Results: Overall HPV prevalence was 66.7% (194/291) in young women. Cape Town women were more likely to have multiple HPV infections than the Soweto...

Data from: Seasonal shifts along the oviparity-viviparity continuum in a cold-climate lizard population

Richard Shine, Erik Wapstra & Mats Olsson
Because squamate embryos require weeks of high temperature to complete development, cool climatic areas are dominated by viviparous taxa (in which gravid females can sun-bask to keep embryos warm) rather than oviparous taxa (which rely on warm soil to incubate their eggs). How, then, can some oviparous taxa reproduce successfully in cool climates – especially late in summer, when soil temperatures are falling? Near the northern limit of their distribution (in Sweden), sand lizards (Lacerta...

Data from: The behavioural response of migrating humpback whales to a full seismic air gun array

Rebecca A. Dunlop, Michael J. Noad, Robert D. McCauley, Eric Kniest, Robert Slade, David Paton & Douglas H. Cato
Despite concerns on the effects of noise from seismic survey air guns on marine organisms, there remains uncertainty in the biological significance of any response. This study quantifies and interprets the response of migrating humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) to a 3130 cui (51.3l) commercial air gun array. We compare the behavioural responses to active trials (array operational; n = 34 whale groups), with responses to control trials (source vessel towing the array while silent; n...

Data from: The impact of host genetic diversity on virus evolution and emergence

Cristina Rodríguez-Nevado, Tommy T-Y Lam, Edward C. Holmes & Israel Pagán
Accumulating evidence indicates that biodiversity has an important impact on parasite evolution and emergence. The vast majority of studies in this area have only considered the diversity of species within an environment as an overall measure of biodiversity, overlooking the role of genetic diversity within a particular host species. Although theoretical models propose that host genetic diversity in part shapes that of the infecting parasite population, and hence modulates the risk of parasite emergence, this...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    45

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    45

Affiliations

  • University of Sydney
    45
  • Macquarie University
    4
  • Monash University
    3
  • Deakin University
    3
  • Uppsala University
    3
  • Southern Cross University
    2
  • University of the West Indies
    2
  • University of Washington
    2
  • University of Newcastle Australia
    2
  • Oregon State University
    2