5 Works

Competition induces silver spoon effects in developing anuran larvae

Sarah Bouchard & Samantha Bonifas
Early life conditions can have persistent, lifelong impacts on survival and fitness. Silver spoon effects occur when favorable early life conditions provide advantages through adulthood, even if conditions worsen. Alternatively, compensatory growth can allow organisms initially reared in unfavorable conditions to grow more quickly than expected should conditions improve. We examined these possibilities in the American Toad, Anaxyrus americanus, by rearing larvae in low competition and high competition environments and then transferring them to either...

Data from: Post-metamorphic carry-over effects of larval digestive plasticity

Sarah S. Bouchard, Chelsea R. Jenney O'Leary, Lindsay J. Wargelin, Julie F. Charbonnier, Karen M. Warkentin & Chelsea J. O'Leary
For animals with complex life cycles, conditions in the larval environment can have important effects that persist after metamorphosis. These carry-over effects may influence juvenile growth plasticity and have important fitness consequences. Small juvenile red-eyed treefrogs, Agalychnis callidryas, grow faster than larger ones. We examined to what extent this growth pattern is due to carry-over effects of intraspecific larval competition. In particular, we assessed larval gut plasticity and determined whether carry-over effects could persist given...

Coevolution of relative brain size and life expectancy in parrots

Simeon Q. Smeele, Dalia A. Conde, Annette Baudisch, Simon Bruslund, Andrew Iwaniuk, Johanna Staerk, Timothy F. Wright, Anna M. Young, Mary Brooke McElreath & Lucy Aplin
Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between longevity and brain size in a variety of taxa. Little research has been devoted to understanding this link in parrots; yet parrots are well-known for both their exceptionally long lives and cognitive complexity. We employed a large-scale comparative analysis that investigated the influence of brain size and life history variables on longevity in parrots. Specifically, we addressed two hypotheses for evolutionary drivers of longevity: the Cognitive Buffer Hypothesis,...

Genetic, morphological, and niche variation in the widely hybridizing Rhus integrifolia-Rhus ovata species complex

Craig Barrett, Joshua Lambert, Mathilda Santee, Brandon Sinn, Samuel Skibicki, Heather Stephens & Hana Thixton
Hybridization and introgression are common processes among numerous plant species that present both challenges and opportunities for studies of species delimitation, phylogenetics, taxonomy, and adaptation. Rhus integrifolia and R. ovata are two ecologically important shrubs native to the southwestern USA and Mexico, and are known to hybridize frequently, but the morphological, genetic, and ecological implications of hybridization in these species are poorly studied on a broad geographic scale. Analyses were conducted using leaf morphology, genetic...

Predation and competition induce variable organ size tradeoffs in larval anurans

Troy Neptune & Sarah Bouchard
Inducible-defenses allow organisms that live in variable environments to invest energy into defense when necessary. These responses are common in aquatic organisms and are particularly notable in larval anurans, which tend to develop deeper tails under sit-and-wait macroinvertebrate predation threat. Although tradeoffs between defense and growth have been well-studied, tradeoffs with internal organ sizes have rarely been considered. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of predation and competition on tradeoffs associated...

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