19 Works

Data from: Disentangling the genetic origins of a plant pathogen during disease spread using an original molecular epidemiology approach

Constance Xhaard, Benoît Barrès, Axelle Andrieux, Lydia Bousset, Fabien Halkett & Pascal Frey
The advent of molecular epidemiology has greatly improved our ability to identify population sources and track pathogen movement. Yet the wide spatial and temporal scales usually considered are useful only to infer historical migration pathways. In this study, Bayesian genetic assignments and a landscape epidemiology approach were combined to unravel genetic origin and annual spread during a single epidemic of a plant pathogen: the poplar rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina. The study focused on a particular...

Data from: Conditional reduction of predation risk associated with a facultative symbiont in an insect

Sarah Polin, Jean-François Le Gallic, Jean-Christophe Simon, Tsutomu Tsuchida & Yannick Outreman
Symbionts are widespread among eukaryotes and their impacts on the ecology and evolution of their hosts are meaningful. Most insects harbour obligate and facultative symbiotic bacteria that can influence their phenotype. In the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, an astounding symbiotic-mediated phenotype has been recently observed: when infected with the symbiotic bacteria Rickettsiella viridis, young red aphid larvae become greener at adulthood and even darker green when co-infected with Rickettsiella viridis and Hamiltonella defensa. As body...

Data from: Ecologically diverse and distinct neighbourhoods trigger persistent phenotypic consequences, and amine metabolic profiling detects them

Françoise Hennion, Isabelle Litrico, Igor Bartish, Alexandra Weigelt, Alain Bouchereau & Andreas Prinzing
1.Global change triggers rapid alterations in the composition and diversity of plant communities which may change ecosystem functioning. Do changes in community diversity also change traits persistently, i.e. does coexistence with numerous or functionally or phylogenetically distinct species trigger, in a given focal species, trait shifts that persist? 2.We studied the grass Dactylis glomerata. Dactylis was grown in experimental plots with different species compositions for five years, sampled, cloned and grown in a common garden....

Data from: Effects of complex life cycles on genetic diversity: cyclical parthenogenesis

Romuald Rouger, Katja Reichel, Florent Malrieu, Jean Pierre Masson & Solenn Stoeckel
Neutral patterns of population genetic diversity in species with complex life cycles are difficult to anticipate. Cyclical parthenogenesis (CP), in which organisms undergo several rounds of clonal reproduction followed by a sexual event, is one such life cycle. Many species, including crop pests (aphids), human parasites (trematodes) or models used in evolutionary science (Daphnia), are cyclical parthenogens. It is therefore crucial to understand the impact of such a life cycle on neutral genetic diversity. In...

Data from: Adaptation to resistant hosts increases fitness on susceptible hosts in the plant parasitic nematode Globodera pallida

Sylvain Fournet, Delphine Eoche-Bosy, Lionel Renault, Frédéric M. Hamelin & Josselin Montarry
Trade-offs between virulence (defined as the ability to infect a resistant host) and life-history traits are of particular interest in plant pathogens for durable management of plant resistances. Adaptation to plant resistances (i.e., virulence acquisition) is indeed expected to be associated with a fitness cost on susceptible hosts. Here, we investigated whether life-history traits involved in the fitness of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida are affected in a virulent lineage compared to an avirulent...

After a catastrophe, a little bit of sex is better than nothing: genetic consequences of a major earthquake on asexual and sexual populations

Ronan Becheler, Marie-Laure Guillemin, Solenn Stoeckel, Stéphane Mauger, Alice Saunier, Antonio Brante, Destombe Christophe & Valero Myriam
Catastrophic events can have profound effects on the demography of a population and consequently, on genetic diversity. The dynamics of post-catastrophic recovery as well as the role of sexual versus asexual reproduction in buffering the effects of massive perturbations remain poorly understood, in part because the opportunity to document genetic diversity before and after such events is rare. Six natural (purely sexual) and seven cultivated (mainly clonal due to farming practices) populations of the red...

Data from: The genome of the yellow potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis reveals insights into the basis of parasitism and virulence

Sebastian Eves-Van Den Akker, Dominik Laetsch, Peter Thorpe, Catherine Lilley, Etienne Danchin, Martine Da Rocha, Corinne Rancurel, Nancy Holroyd, James Cotton, Amir Szitenberg, Eric Grenier, Josselin Montarry, Benjamin Mimee, Marc-Olivier Duceppe, Ian Boyes, Jessica Marvin, Laura Jones, Hazijah Yusup, Joël Lafond-Lapalme, Magali Esquibet, Michael Sabeh, Michael Rott, Hein Overmars, Anna Finkers-Tomczak, Geert Smant … & John Jones
Background: The yellow potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is a devastating plant pathogen of global economic importance. This biotrophic parasite secretes effectors from pharyngeal glands, some of which were acquired by horizontal gene transfer, to manipulate host processes and promote parasitism. G. rostochiensis is classified into pathotypes with different plant resistance-breaking phenotypes. Results: We generate a high-quality genome assembly for G. rostochiensis pathotype Ro1, identify putative effectors and horizontal gene transfer events, map gene expression...

Data from: The coexistence of generalist and specialist clonal lineages in natural populations of the Irish Famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans explains local adaptation to potato and tomato

Alexander Kröner, Romain Mabon, Roselyne Corbière, Josselin Montarry & Didier Andrivon
Phytophthora infestans, causing late blight on Solanaceae, is a serious threat to potato and tomato crops worldwide. P. infestans populations sampled on either potato or tomato differ in genotypes and pathogenicity, suggesting niche exclusion in the field. We hypothesized that such niche separation can reflect differential host exploitation by different P. infestans genotypes. We thus compared genotypes and phenotypes in 21 isolates sampled on potato (n = 11) or tomato (n = 10). Typing at...

Data from: Exploring the causes of small effective population sizes in cyst nematodes using artificial Globodera pallida populations

Josselin Montarry, Sylvie Bardou-Valette, Romain Mabon, Pierre-Loup Jan, Sylvain Fournet, Eric Grenier & Eric J. Petit
The effective size of a population is the size of an ideal population which would undergo genetic drift at the same rate as the real population. The balance between selection and genetic drift depends on the effective population size (Ne), rather than the real numbers of individuals in the population (N). The objectives of the present study were to estimate Ne in the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida and to explore the causes of a...

Data from: Genome scans reveal candidate regions involved in the adaptation to host plant in the pea aphid complex

Julie Jaquiéry, Solenn Stoeckel, Pierre Nouhaud, Lucie Mieuzet, Frédérique Mahéo, Fabrice Legeai, Nina Bernard, Antoine Bonvoisin, Renaud Vitalis & Jean-Christophe Simon
A major goal in evolutionary biology is to uncover the genetic basis of adaptation. Divergent selection exerted on ecological traits may result in adaptive population differentiation and reproductive isolation and affect differentially the level of genetic divergence along the genome. Genome-wide scan of large sets of individuals from multiple populations is a powerful approach to identify loci or genomic regions under ecologically divergent selection. Here, we focused on the pea aphid, a species complex of...

Data from: Genomic regions repeatedly involved in divergence among plant-specialized pea aphid biotypes

Pierre Nouhaud, Jean Peccoud, Frédérique Mahéo, Lucie Mieuzet, Julie Jaquiéry & Jean-Christophe Simon
Understanding the genetic bases of biological diversification is a long-standing goal in evolutionary biology. Here we investigate whether replicated cases of adaptive divergence involve the same genomic regions in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, a large complex of genetically differentiated biotypes, each specialized on different species of legumes. A previous study identified genomic regions putatively involved in host-plant adaptation and/or reproductive isolation by performing a hierarchical genome scan in three biotypes. This led to the...

Data from: Spatial genetic structure in Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima and Beta macrocarpa reveals the effect of contrasting mating system, influence of marine currents and footprints of postglacial recolonisation routes

Marie Leys, Eric J. Petit, Yasmina El-Bahloul, Camille Liso, Sylvain Fournet & Jean-Francois Arnaud
Understanding the factors that contribute to population genetic divergence across a species' range is a long-standing goal in evolutionary biology and ecological genetics. We examined the relative importance of historical and ecological features in shaping the present-day spatial patterns of genetic structure in two related plant species, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima and Beta macrocarpa. Using nuclear and mitochondrial markers, we surveyed 93 populations from Brittany (France) to Morocco – the southern limit of their species'...

Factors driving the within-plant patterns of resource exploitation in a herbivore

Laura BELLEC & Maxime HERVÉ
1. Selective pressures exerted on the feeding behavior of animals have been extensively studied to understand their foraging patterns. In herbivores, specific within-plant patterns of resource exploitation have been reported, but their determinants remain poorly understood. 2. Here, we describe and decipher the determinants of the foraging pattern of the pollen beetle, Brassicogethes aeneus, a pollinivorous insect that is a pest of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). This insect feeds from flowers for almost all of...

Data from: Heterozygote deficits in cyst plant parasitic nematodes: possible causes and consequences

Josselin Montarry, Pierre-Loup Jan, Cécile Gracianne, Andrew D. J. Overall, Sylvie Bardou-Valette, Eric Olivier, Sylvain Fournet, Eric Grenier & Eric J. Petit
Deviations of genotypic frequencies from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) expectations could reveal important aspects of the biology of populations. Deviations from HWE due to heterozygote deficits have been recorded for three plant-parasitic nematode species. However, it has never been determined whether the observed deficits were due (i) to the presence of null alleles, (ii) to a high level of consanguinity and/or (iii) to a Wahlund effect. The aim of the present work was, while taking into...

Data from: Does sex-biased dispersal account for the lack of geographic and host-associated differentiation in introduced populations of an aphid parasitoid?

Francisca Zepeda-Paulo, Blas Lavandero, Frédérique Mahéo, Emilie Dion, Yannick Outreman, Jean-Christophe Simon & Christian C. Figueroa
Host recognition and use in female parasitoids strongly relies on host fidelity, a plastic behavior which can significantly restrict the host preferences of parasitoids, thus reducing the gene flow between parasitoid populations attacking different insect hosts. However, the effect of migrant males on the genetic differentiation of populations has been frequently ignored in parasitoids, despite its known impact on gene flow between populations. Hence, we studied the extent of gene flow mediated by female and...

Data from: Long-distance gene flow outweighs a century of local selection and prevents local adaptation in the Irish famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans

Isabelle Glais, Josselin Montarry, Roselyne Corbière, Claudine Pasco, Bruno Marquer, Hélène Magalon & Didier Andrivon
Sustainably managing plant resistance to epidemic pathogens implies controlling the genetic and demographic changes in pathogen populations faced with resistant hosts. Resistance management thus depends upon the dynamics of local adaptation, mainly driven by the balance between selection and gene flow. This dynamics is best investigated with populations from locally dominant hosts in islands with long histories of local selection. We used the unique case of the potato late blight pathosystem on Jersey, where a...

Data from: Temporal sampling helps unravel the genetic structure of naturally occurring populations of a phytoparasitic nematode. 1. Insights from the estimation of effective population sizes

Pierre-Loup Jan, Cécile Gracianne, Sylvain Fournet, Eric Olivier, Jean-Francois Arnaud, Catherine Porte, Sylvie Bardou-Valette, Marie-Christine Denis & Eric J. Petit
The sustainability of modern agriculture relies on strategies that can control the ability of pathogens to overcome chemicals or genetic resistances through natural selection. This evolutionary potential, which depends partly on effective population size (Ne), is greatly influenced by human activities. In this context, wild pathogen populations can provide valuable information for assessing the long-term risk associated with crop pests. In this study, we estimated the effective population size of the beet cyst nematode, Heterodera...

Data from: Differential gene expression according to race and host plant in the pea aphid

Isobel Eyres, Julie Jaquiéry, Akiko Sugio, Ludovic Duvaux, Karim Gharbi, Jing-Jiang Zhou, Fabrice Legeai, Michaela Nelson, Jean-Christophe Simon, Carole M. Smadja, Roger Butlin & Julia Ferrari
Host-race formation in phytophagous insects is thought to provide the opportunity for local adaptation and subsequent ecological speciation. Studying gene expression differences amongst host races may help to identify phenotypes under (or resulting from) divergent selection and their genetic, molecular and physiological bases. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) comprises host races specializing on numerous plants in the Fabaceae and provides a unique system for examining the early stages of diversification along a gradient of genetic...

Data from: ClonEstiMate, a Bayesian method for quantifying rates of clonality of populations genotyped at two-time steps

Ronan Becheler, Jean-Pierre Masson, Sophie Arnaud-Haond, Fabien Halkett, Stéphanie Mariette, Marie-Laure Guillemin, Myriam Valero, Christophe Destombe & Solenn Stoeckel
Partial clonality is commonly used in Eukaryotes and has large consequences for their evolution and ecology. Assessing accurately the relative importance of clonal versus sexual reproduction matters for studying and managing such species. Here, we proposed a Bayesian approach, ClonEstiMate, to infer rates of clonality c from populations sampled twice over a short time interval, ideally one generation time. The method relies on the likelihood of the transitions between genotype frequencies of ancestral and descendent...

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  • Institute for Genetics, Environment and Plant Protection
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • Agrocampus Ouest
  • French National Institute for Agricultural Research
  • University Austral de Chile
  • Ecology and Ecosystem Health
  • University of Edinburgh
  • University of Bordeaux
  • Canadian Food Inspection Agency
  • Laboratoire de Génétique & Evolution des Populations Végétales