63 Works

Paradigmas perdidos ¿Nuevas oportunidades para la transformación?

Peter Thiery
Este informe forma parte del Índice de Transformación BTI 2022. El análisis regional abarca el periodo comprendido entre el 1 de febrero de 2019 y el 31 de enero de 2021. La IAV examina los procesos de transformación hacia la democracia y la economía de mercado, así como la calidad de la gobernanza en 137 países. Más información en www.bti-project.de.

Between Regression and Resilience

Aurel Croissant & Christoph Trinn
This report is part of the Transformation Index BTI 2022. The regional analysis covers the period from February 1, 2019 to January 31, 2021. The BTI assesses the transformation toward democracy and a market economy as well as the quality of governance in 137 countries. More on the BTI at www.bti-project.org.

Der schlaffe Thyrsos. Zur Plinthe des Farnesischen Stiers und zur Frage der expliziten künstlerischen Selbstreferenz in kaiserzeitlichen Marmorbildwerken

Arne Reinhardt
Die Darstellung der dramatischen Szene um die Bestrafung der Dirke, die in der kolossalen marmornen Skulpturengruppe des ›Farnesischen Stiers‹ aus den Caracalla-Thermen erhalten ist, umfasst neben den Hauptfiguren zahlreiche weitere Bildelemente an der Felsenplinthe. In inhaltlicher Hinsicht bereichern diese das gezeigte Geschehen durch eine detaillierte Angabe des Geschehensortes oder sie sind einzelnen Figuren als Attribute beigegeben. Dies gilt auch für den Thyrsosstab der Dirke, dessen Schaft jedoch durch einen zweifachen Richtungswechsel auffällt. Damit erscheint das...

Data from: Post-Turing tissue pattern formation: advent of mechanochemistry

Felix Brinkmann, Moritz Mercker, Thomas Richter & Anna Marciniak-Czochra
Chemical and mechanical pattern formation is fundamental during embryogenesis and tissue development. Yet, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are still elusive in many cases. Most current theories assume that tissue development is driven by chemical processes: either as a sequence of chemical patterns each depending on the previous one, or by patterns spontaneously arising from specific chemical interactions (such as “Turing-patterns”). Within both theories, mechanical patterns are usually regarded as passive by-products of chemical...

Data from: A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny

, Anne Bruneau, Nasim Azani, Marielle Babineau, Edeline Gagnon, Carole Sinou, Royce Steeves, Erin Zimmerman, C. Donovan Bailey, Lynsey Kovar, Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao, Hannah Banks, RuthP. Clark, Manuel De La Estrella, Peter Gasson, GeoffreyC. Kite, BenteB. Klitgaard, GwilymP. Lewis, Danilo Neves, Gerhard Prenner, María De Lourdes Rico-Arce, ArianeR. Barbosa, Maria Cristina López-Roberts, Luciano Paganucci De Queiroz, PétalaG. Ribeiro … & Tingshuang Yi
The classification of the legume family proposed here addresses the long-known non-monophyly of the traditionally recognised subfamily Caesalpinioideae, by recognising six robustly supported monophyletic subfamilies. This new classification uses as its framework the most comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of legumes to date, based on plastid matK gene sequences, and including near-complete sampling of genera (698 of the currently recognised 765 genera) and ca. 20% (3696) of known species. The matK gene region has been the most...

Data from: Ethanol abolishes vigilance-dependent astroglia network activation in mice by inhibiting norepinephrine release

Martin Paukert, Liang Ye, Murat Orynbayev, Xiangyu Zhu, Eunice Lim, Ram Dereddi, Amit Agarwal, Dwight Bergles & Manzoor Bhat
This collection of data sets was obtained during a study of the effect of acute ethanol intoxication on vigilance-dependent astroglia network activation in mice. The main findings have been that ethanol inhibits astroglia activation by inhibiting vigilance-dependent norepinephrine release. This leads to a failure of activation of alpha1A-adrenergic receptors on astroglia. Further, this study has revealed that ethanol inhibition of cerebellar Bergmann glia Ca2+ activation does not account for ataxic motor behavior, but may rather...

Survey of Core Facilities Raw Data

Isabelle Kos-Braun, Bjoern Gerlach & Claudia Pitzer
Recently, it has become evident that academic research faces issues with the reproducibility of research data. As Core Facilities (CFs) have a central position in the research infrastructure they are able to promote and disseminate good research standards through their users. To identify the most important factors for research quality, we polled 253 CFs across Europe about their practices and analysed in detail the interaction process between CFs and their users, from the first contact...

Do South-Eastern Arabia's Earliest Extant Copper-Alloy Arrowheads date to the Wadi Suq Period?

Paul A. Yule & Burkhard Vogt
Journal of Global Archaeology, 2020

Evolutionary footprints of a cold relic in a rapidly warming world

Marcus Koch & Eva Wolf
With accelerating global warming, understanding the evolutionary dynamics of plant adaptation to environmental change is increasingly urgent. Here we reveal the enigmatic history of the genus Cochlearia (Brassicaceae), a Pleistocene relic that originated from a drought-adapted Mediterranean sister genus during the Miocene. Cochlearia rapidly diversified and adapted to circum-Arctic regions and other cold-characterized habitat types during the Pleistocene. This sudden change in ecological preferences was accompanied by a highly complex, reticulate polyploid evolution, which was...

Systematic analysis of precision, long-term stability and data processing of MC-ICP-MS 230Th/U-dating of secondary carbonates

Inga Kristina Kerber , Fabian Kontor , Jennifer Arps , René Eichstädter , Sophie Warken & Norbert Frank
MC-ICP-MS has become the clearly dominant technology in 230Th/U-dating over the last 20 years. The ongoing increase in measurement performance allows for ε-precision by now (Andersen et al., 2004; Cheng et al., 2013) and enabled the production of a large amount of datasets and insights covering a broad range of fields. Despite this large database, systematic studies on the impact of individual corrections on the raw data, long-term instrumental stability and on data processing routines...

Data from: Intracontinental plant invader shows matching genetic and chemical profiles and might benefit from high defence variation within populations

Lisa Johanna Tewes, Florian Michling, Marcus A. Koch & Caroline Müller
1. Whereas many studies have revealed mechanisms driving plant invasions between continents, research on intracontinental range-expanders is scarce. Therefore, we studied genetic, chemical and ecological traits of a range-expanding Brassicaceae, assuming that high genetic diversity should maintain chemical variation, which potentially benefits the invasion success. Moreover, we expected that within-individual defence diversity plays an essential role in biotic interactions. 2. We compared Bunias orientalis plants from 16 populations of native, invasive or exotic non-invasive origin....

Data from: Monophyletic origin and evolution of the largest crucifer genomes

Terezie Mandáková, Petra Hloušková, Dmitry A. German & Martin A. Lysak
Clade E, or the Hesperis-clade is one of the major Brassicaceae (Crucifereae) clades comprising some 48 genera and 351 species classified into seven tribes and is predominantly distributed across arid and montane regions of Asia. Several taxa have socio-economic significance, being important ornamental but also weedy and invasive species. From the comparative genomic perspective, the clade is noteworthy as it harbors species with the largest crucifer genomes but low numbers of chromosomes (n = 5...

Data from: Diversification patterns in the CES clade (Brassicaceae tribes Cremolobeae, Eudemeae, Schizopetaleae) in Andean South America

Diego Leonel Salariato, Fernando O. Zuloaga, Andreas Franzke, Klaus Mummenhoff & Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz
Dated molecular phylogenetic trees show that the Andean uplift had a major impact on South American biodiversity. For many Andean groups, accelerated diversification (radiation) has been documented. However, not all Andean lineages appear to have diversified following the model of rapid radiation, particularly in the central and southern Andes. Here, we investigated the diversification patterns for the largest South American-endemic lineage of Brassicaceae, composed of tribes Cremolobeae, Eudemeae and Schizopetaleae (CES clade). Species of this...

Data from: Wnt/PCP controls spreading of Wnt/β-catenin signals by cytonemes in vertebrates

Benjamin Mattes, Yonglong Dang, Gediminas Greicius, Lilian Tamara Kaufmann, Benedikt Prunsche, Jakob Rosenbauer, Johannes Stegmaier, Ralf Mikut, Suat Özbek, Gerd Ulrich Nienhaus, Alexander Schug, David M. Virshup & Steffen Scholpp
Signaling filopodia, termed cytonemes, are dynamic actin-based membrane structures that regulate the exchange of signaling molecules and their receptors within tissues. However, how cytoneme formation is regulated remains unclear. Here, we show that Wnt/PCP autocrine signaling controls the emergence of cytonemes, and that cytonemes subsequently control paracrine Wnt/β-catenin signal activation. Upon binding of the Wnt family member Wnt8a, the receptor tyrosine kinase Ror2 gets activated. Ror2/PCP signaling leads to induction of cytonemes, which mediate transport...

Entwicklung innovativer satellitengestützter Methoden zur verbesserten PV-Ertragsvorhersage auf verschiedenen Zeitskalen für Anwendungen auf Verteilnetzebene

Stefanie Meilinger, Anna Herman-Czezuch, Nicola Kimiaie, Christopher Schirrmeister, Rone Yousif, Stefan Geiss, Leonhard Scheck, Martin Weissmann, Felix Gödde, Bernhard Mayer, Tobias Zinner, James Barry, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Markus Kraiczy, Kevin Winter, Abdullah Altayara, Christian Reise, Mariella Rivera, Hartwig Deneke, Jonas Witthuhn, Jethro Betcke, Marion Schroedter-Homscheidt, Philipp Hofbauer & Bernhard Rindt
Anhand detaillierter Netzanalysen für ein reales Mittelspannungsnetzgebiet konnte gezeigt werden, dass sowohl die Einbindung von Prognosedaten auf Basis von Satelliten und Wetterdaten, als auch die Verbesserung von Folgetagsprognosen auf der Basis numerischer Wettermodelle einen deutlichen Mehrwert für ein prognosebasiertes Engpassmanagement bzw. Redispatch und Blindleistungsmanagement im Verteilnetz aufweisen. Auch Kurzfristprognosen auf der Basis von Satellitendaten haben einen positiven Effekt. Ein weiterer wichtiger Mehrwert des Projektes ist auch die Rückmeldung der kritischen Prognosesituationen aus Sicht der Anwendungsfälle,...

Data from: Non-rhythmic head-direction cells in the parahippocampal region are not constrained by attractor network dynamics

Olga Kornienko, Patrick Latuske, Mathis Bassler, Laura Kohler & Kevin Allen
Computational models postulate that HD cells are part of an attractor network integrating angular head turns. This network requires inputs from visual landmarks to anchor the HD signal to the external world. We investigated whether information about HD and visual landmarks is integrated in the medial entorhinal cortex and parasubiculum, resulting in neurons expressing a conjunctive code for HD and visual landmarks. We found that parahippocampal HD cells could be divided into two classes based...

Data from: Phylogeny and new taxonomy of the Booted Eagles (Accipitriformes: Aquilinae)

Heather R. L. Lerner, Les Christidis, Anita Gamauf, Carole Griffiths, Elisabeth Haring, Christopher J. Huddleston, Sonia Kabra, Annett Kocum, Meade Krosby, Kirsti Kvaloy, David Mindell, Pamela Rasmussen, Nils Rov, Rachel Wadleigh, Michael Wink & Jan Ove Gjershaug
We present a phylogeny of all booted eagles (38 extant and one extinct species) based on analysis of published sequences from seven loci. We find molecular support for five major clades within the booted eagles: Nisaetus (10 species), Spizaetus (4 species), Clanga (3 species), Hieraaetus (6 species) and Aquila (11 species), requiring generic changes for 14 taxa. Additionally, we recommend that the Long-crested Eagle (Lophaetus occipitalis) and the Black Eagle (Ictinaetus malaiensis) remain in their...

Data from: A global genetic interaction network maps a wiring diagram of cellular function

Michael Costanzo, Benjamin VanderSluis, Elizabeth N. Koch, Anastasia Baryshnikova, Carles Pons, Guihong Tan, Wen Wang, Matej Usaj, Julia Hanchard, Susan D. Lee, Vicent Pelechano, Erin B. Styles, Maximilian Billmann, Jolanda Van Leeuwen, Nydia Van Dyk, Zhen-Yuan Lin, Elena Kuzmin, Justin Nelson, Jeff S. Piotrowski, Tharan Srikumar, Sondra Bahr, Yiqun Chen, Raamesh Deshpande, Christoph F. Kurat, Sheena C. Li … & Charles Boone
INTRODUCTION: Genetic interactions occur when mutations in two or more genes combine to generate an unexpected phenotype. An extreme negative or synthetic lethal genetic interaction occurs when two mutations, neither lethal individually, combine to cause cell death. Conversely, positive genetic interactions occur when two mutations produce a phenotype that is less severe than expected. Genetic interactions identify functional relationships between genes and can be harnessed for biological discovery and therapeutic target identification. They may also...

Data from: Demographic expansion and genetic load of the halophyte model plant Eutrema salsugineum

Xiao-Juan Wang, Quan-Jun Hu, Xin-Yi Guo, Kun Wang, Da-Fu Ru, Dmitry A. German, Elizabeth A. Weretilnyk, Richard J. Abbott, Martin Lascoux & Jian-Quan Liu
Eutrema salsugineum is a widely distributed species, which provide a good model to study long-distance dispersal and accumulation of deleterious mutations. Based on population genomic data, we clarified demographic history of E. salsugineum and showed how deleterious alleles accumulated.

Zwischen Regression und Resilienz

Aurel Croissant & Christoph Trinn
Dieser Bericht ist Teil des Transformationsindex BTI 2022. Die regionale Analyse deckt den Zeitraum zwischen dem 1. Februar 2019 bis 31. Januar 2021 ab. Der BTI untersucht Transformationsprozesse in Richtung Demokratie und Marktwirtschaft sowie die Qualität von Regierungsführung in 137 Ländern. Mehr Informationen unter https://www.bti-project.de

Data from: Sex differentiation in grayling (Salmonidae) goes through an all-male stage and is delayed in genetic males who instead grow faster

Diane Maitre, Oliver M. Selmoni, Anshu Uppal, Lucas Marques Da Cunha, Laetitia G. E. Wilkins, Julien Roux, Kenyon B. Mobley, Isabelle Castro, Susanne Knörr, Marc Robinson-Rechavi & Claus Wedekind
Fish populations can be threatened by distorted sex ratios that arise during sex differentiation. Here we describe sex differentiation in a wild grayling (Thymallus thymallus) population that suffers from distorted sex ratios. We verified that sex determination is linked to the sex determining locus (sdY) of salmonids. This allowed us to study sex-specific gene expression and gonadal development. Sex-specific gene expression could be observed during embryogenesis and was strong around hatching. About half of the...

Data from: The sickle cell trait affects contact dynamics and endothelial cell activation in Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

Christine Lansche, Anil K. Dasanna, Katharina Quadt, Benjamin Fröhlich, Dimitris Missirlis, Marilou Tetard, Benoit Gamain, Bernd Buchholz, Cecilia P. Sanchez, Motomu Tanaka, Ulrich S. Schwarz & Michael Lanzer
Sickle cell trait, a common hereditary blood disorder, protects carriers from severe disease in infections with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Protection is associated with a reduced capacity of parasitized erythrocytes to cytoadhere to the microvascular endothelium and cause vaso-occlusive events. However, the underpinning cellular and biomechanical processes are only partly understood and the impact on endothelial cell activation is unclear. Here, we show, by combining quantitative flow chamber experiments with multiscale computer simulations...

Data from: Alcohol reduces muscle fatigue through atomistic interactions with nicotinic receptors

Hamid R. Noori, Christian Mücksch, Valentina Vengeliene, Kai Schönig, Tatiane T. Takahashi, Nuriya Mukhtasimova, Maryam Bagher Oskouei, Matias Mosqueira, Dusan Bartsch, Rainer Fink, Herbert M. Urbassek, Rainer Spanagel & Steven M. Sine
Alcohol consumption affects many organs and tissues, including skeletal muscle. However, the molecular mechanism of ethanol action on skeletal muscle remains unclear. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations and single channel recordings, we show that ethanol interacts with a negatively charged amino acid within an extracellular region of the neuromuscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), thereby altering its global conformation and reducing the single channel current amplitude. Charge reversal of the negatively charged amino acid abolishes the...

Data from: A time-calibrated road map of Brassicaceae species radiation and evolutionary history

Nora Hohmann, Eva M. Wolf, Martin A. Lysak & Marcus A. Koch
The Brassicaceae include several major crop plants and numerous important model species in comparative evolutionary research such as Arabidopsis, Brassica, Boechera, Thellungiella, and Arabis species. As any evolutionary hypothesis needs to be placed in a temporal context, reliably dated major splits within the evolution of Brassicaceae are essential. We present a comprehensive time-calibrated framework with important divergence time estimates based on whole-chloroplast sequence data for 29 Brassicaceae species. Diversification of the Brassicaceae crown group started...

Data from: Oligocene niche shift, Miocene diversification - cold tolerance and accelerated speciation rates in the St. John's Worts (Hypericum, Hypericaceae)

Nicolai M. Nürk, Simon Uribe-Convers, Berit Gehrke, David C. Tank & Frank R. Blattner
Background: Our aim is to understand the evolution of species-rich plant groups that shifted from tropical into cold/temperate biomes. It is well known that climate affects evolutionary processes, such as how fast species diversify, species range shifts, and species distributions. Many plant lineages may have gone extinct in the Northern Hemisphere due to Late Eocene climate cooling, while some tropical lineages may have adapted to temperate conditions and radiated; the hyper-diverse and geographically widespread genus...

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