29 Works

Data from: Speciation in a keystone plant genus is driven by elevation: a case study in New Guinean Ficus

Simon T. Segar, Martin Volf, , Brus Isua, Mentap Sisol, Legi Sam, Katerina Sam, Daniel Souto-Vilarós & Vojtech Novotny
Much of the world's insect and plant biodiversity is found in tropical and subtropical ‘hotspots’, which often include long elevational gradients. These gradients may function as ‘diversity pumps’ and contribute to both regional and local species richness. Climactic conditions on such gradients often change rapidly along short vertical distances, and may result in local adaptation and high levels of population genetic structure in plants and insects. We investigated the population genetic structure of two species...

Data from: Linkage map of the peppered moth, Biston betularia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae): a model of industrial melanism

Arjen E. Van't Hof, Petr Nguyen, Martina Dalíková, Nicola Edmonds, František Marec & Ilik J. Saccheri
We have constructed a linkage map for the peppered moth (Biston betularia), the classical ecological genetics model of industrial melanism, aimed both at localizing the network of loci controlling melanism and making inferences about chromosome dynamics. The linkage map, which is based primarily on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and genes, consists of 31 linkage groups (LGs; consistent with the karyotype). Comparison with the evolutionarily distant Bombyx mori suggests that the gene content of chromosomes...

Data from: Sunbird hovering behavior is determined by both the forager and resource plant

Eliška Padyšáková & Štěpán Janeček
The long-standing paradigm that pollination systems adapted to hovering birds evolved only in the New World was recently challenged by the discovery of hovering pollination by Old World specialized passerine pollinators. This raises the possibility that hovering pollination may evolve more easily than previously believed, given sufficient selective pressure on plant traits, on nectarivory, or both. We observed foraging behavior by the sunbird Cyanomitra oritis at flowers of the native Old World plant Impatiens sakeriana....

Data from: Ant mosaics in Bornean primary rain forest high canopy depend on spatial scale, time of day, and sampling method

Kalsum M. Yusah, William A. Foster, Glen Reynolds & Tom M. Fayle
Background: Competitive interactions in biological communities can be thought of as giving rise to “assembly rules” that dictate the species that are able to co-exist. Ant communities in tropical canopies often display a particular pattern, an “ant mosaic”, in which competition between dominant ant species results in a patchwork of mutually exclusive territories. Although ant mosaics have been well-documented in plantation landscapes, their presence in pristine tropical forests remained contentious until recently. Here we assess...

Data from: Fine-scale vertical stratification and guild composition of saproxylic beetles in lowland and montane forests: similar patterns despite low faunal overlap

Matthias Weiss, Jiří Procházka, Jiří Schlaghamerský & Lukas Cizek
The finer scale patterns of arthropod vertical stratification in forests are rarely studied and poorly understood. Further, there are no studies investigating whether and how altitude affects arthropod vertical stratification in temperate forests. We therefore investigated the fine-scale vertical stratification of diversity and guild structure of saproxylic beetles in temperate lowland and montane forests and compared the resulting patterns between the two habitats. The beetles were sampled with flight intercept traps arranged into vertical transects...

Drosophila-parasitoid interactions along an elevation gradient in an Australian rainforest, 2016

C.T. Jeffs, J.C.D. Terry, M. Higgie, A. Jandová, H. Konvičková, J.J. Brown, C-H. Lue, M. Schiffer, E.K. O’Brien, J. Bridle, J. Hrček & O.T. Lewis
The dataset contains records of Drosophila flies and associated parasitic wasps collected along two elevational (temperature) gradients from Australian rainforest site. The data is presented at the individual Drosophila pupae level. It describes patterns of parasitism levels from 14 sites and the structure of quantitative food webs at six sites. Also included are temperature records from each site.

Data from: Condition-dependent movement and dispersal in experimental metacommunities

Emanuel A. Fronhofer, Jan Klecka, Carlos J. Melián & Florian Altermatt
Dispersal and the underlying movement behaviour are processes of pivotal importance for understanding and predicting metapopulation and metacommunity dynamics. Generally, dispersal decisions are condition-dependent and rely on information in the broad sense, like the presence of conspecifics. However, studies on metacommunities that include interspecific interactions generally disregard condition-dependence. Therefore, it remains unclear whether and how dispersal in metacommunities is condition-dependent and whether rules derived from single-species contexts can be scaled up to (meta)communities. Using experimental...

Data from: Disentangling the interplay of generative and vegetative propagation among different functional groups during gap colonization in meadows

Alena Vítová, Petr Macek & Jan Lepš
Meadow plant communities are commonly driven by strong competition, and the colonization of gaps plays an important role in the maintenance of their species diversity. Despite this, species-specific information about the dynamics of vegetative and generative propagation, and on the role of seed bank and seed rain, is rather scarce. In a 3-year manipulative experiment, we aimed to disentangle the effects of seed bank, seed rain and vegetative propagation in vegetation and during colonization of...

Data from: Genetic and morphological variation in sexual and asexual parasitoids of the genus Lysiphlebus: an apparent link between wing shape and reproductive mode

Andjeljko Petrović, Milana Mitrović, Ana Ivanović, Vladimir Žikić, Nickolas G. Kavallieratos, Petr Starý, Ana Mitrovski Bogdanović, Zeljko Tomanović & Christoph Vorburger
Background Endoparasitoids of aphids belonging to the genus Lysiphlebus Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) comprise over 20 species that exploit over a hundred species of aphid hosts including many important pest aphid species. Within the genus Lysiphlebus two genetically and morphologically well defined species groups are recognized: the "fabarum" and the "testaceipes" group both including taxa with sexual (arrhenotoky) and asexual (thelytoky) reproduction modes. However the diverse patterns of morphological variation which include clearly distinguishable morphotypes...

Data from: A Z-linked sterility locus causes sexual abstinence in hybrid females and facilitates speciation in Spodoptera frugiperda

Silvia Kost, David G. Heckel, Atsuo Yoshido, Frantisek Marec & Astrid T. Groot
In the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), two sympatric strains have been recognized that have been termed corn strain (C) and rice strain (R), referring to their most common host plants. Both strains are reproductively isolated via a distinct prezygotic barrier as well as via an intriguing postzygotic phenomenon: when R females have mated with C males, the resulting RC hybrid females exhibit dramatically reduced fertility independent of their mating partner. Here we demonstrate...

Data from: Anchored hybrid enrichment provides new insights into the phylogeny and evolution of longhorned beetles (Cerambycidae)

Stephanie Haddad, Seunggwan Shin, Alan R. Lemmon, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Petr Svacha, Brian Farrell, Adam Ślipiński, Donald Windsor & Duane D. McKenna
Cerambycidae is a species-rich family of mostly wood-feeding (xylophagous) beetles containing nearly 35 000 known species. The higher-level phylogeny of Cerambycidae has never been robustly reconstructed using molecular phylogenetic data or a comprehensive sample of higher taxa, and its internal relationships and evolutionary history remain the subjects of ongoing debate. We reconstructed the higher-level phylogeny of Cerambycidae using phylogenomic data from 522 single copy nuclear genes, generated via anchored hybrid enrichment. Our taxon sample (31...

Data from: High specialization and limited structural change in plant‐herbivore networks along a successional chronosequence in tropical montane forest

Conor M. Redmond, John Auga, Bradley Gewa, Simon T. Segar, Scott E. Miller, Kenneth Molem, George D. Weiblen, Phillip T. Butterill, Gibson Maiyah, Amelia S.C. Hood, Martin Volf, Leonardo R. Jorge, Yves Basset, Vojtech Novotny, Philip T. Butterill & Amelia S. C. Hood
Secondary succession is well‐understood, to the point of being predictable for plant communities, but the successional changes in plant‐herbivore interactions remains poorly explored. This is particularly true for tropical forests, despite the increasing importance of early successional stages in tropical landscapes. Deriving expectations from successional theory, we examine properties of plant‐herbivore interaction networks while accounting for host phylogenetic structure along a succession chronosequence in montane rainforest in Papua New Guinea. We present one of the...

Data from: Flying between raindrops: strong seasonal turnover of several Lepidoptera groups in lowland rainforests of Mount Cameroon

Vincent Maicher, Szabolcs Sáfián, Mercy Murkwe, Łukasz Przybyłowicz, Štěpán Janeček, Eric B. Fokam, Tomasz Pyrcz & Robert Tropek
1. Although seasonality in the tropics is often less pronounced than in temperate areas, tropical ecosystems show seasonal dynamics as well. Nevertheless, individual tropical insects’ phenological patterns are still poorly understood, especially in the Afrotropics. To fill this gap, we investigated biodiversity patterns of Lepidoptera communities at three rainforest localities in the foothills of Mount Cameroon, West Africa, one of the wettest places in the world. 2. Our multi-taxa approach covered six lepidopteran groups (fruit-feeding...

Data from: Genotype specificity among hosts, pathogens, and beneficial microbes influences the strength of symbiont mediated protection

Benjamin J. Parker, Jan Hrcek, Ailsa H.C. McLean, H. Charles J. Godfray & Ailsa H. C. McLean
The microbial symbionts of eukaryotes influence disease resistance in many host-parasite systems. Symbionts show substantial variation in both genotype and phenotype, but it is unclear how natural selection maintains this variation. It is also unknown whether variable symbiont genotypes show specificity with the genotypes of hosts or parasites in natural populations. Genotype by genotype interactions are a necessary condition for coevolution between interacting species. Uncovering the patterns of genetic specificity among hosts, symbionts, and parasites...

Data from: The insect-focused classification of fruit syndromes in tropical rainforests: an inter-continental comparison

Chris Dahl, Richard Ctvrtecka, Sofia Gripenberg, Owen T. Lewis, Simon T. Segar, Petr Klimes, Katerina Sam, Dominic Rinan, Jonah Filip, Roll Lilip, Pitoon Kongnoo, Montarika Panmeng, Sutipun Putnaul, Manat Reungaew, Marleny Rivera, Hector Barrios, Stuart J. Davies, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Joseph S. Wright, George D. Weiblen, Vojtech Novotny & Yves Basset.
We propose a new classification of rainforest plants into eight fruit syndromes, based on fruit morphology and other traits relevant to fruit-feeding insects. This classification is compared with other systems based on plant morphology or traits relevant to vertebrate fruit dispersers. Our syndromes are based on fruits sampled from 1,192 plant species at three Forest Global Earth Observatory plots: Barro Colorado Island (Panama), Khao Chong (Thailand) and Wanang (Papua New Guinea). The three plots differed...

Data from: Arthropod distribution in a tropical rainforest: tackling a four dimensional puzzle

Yves Basset, Lukas Cizek, Philippe Cuénoud, Raphael K. Didham, Vojtech Novotny, Frode Ødegaard, Tomas Roslin, Alexey K. Tishechkin, Jürgen Schmidl, Neville N. Winchester, David W. Roubik, Henri-Pierre Aberlenc, Johannes Bail, Héctor Barrios, Jonathan R. Bridle, Gabriela Castaño-Meneses, Bruno Corbara, Gianfranco Curletti, Wesley Duarte Da Rocha, Domir De Bakker, Jacques H.C. Delabie, Alain Dejean, Laura L. Fagan, Andreas Floren, Roger L. Kitching … & Jacques H. C. Delabie
Quantifying the spatio-temporal distribution of arthropods in tropical rainforests represents a first step towards scrutinizing the global distribution of biodiversity on Earth. To date most studies have focused on narrow taxonomic groups or lack a design that allows partitioning of the components of diversity. Here, we consider an exceptionally large dataset (113,952 individuals representing 5,858 species), obtained from the San Lorenzo forest in Panama, where the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa was surveyed using 14...

Data from: Investigating the timing of origin and evolutionary processes shaping regional species diversity: insights from simulated data and Neotropical butterfly diversification rates

Pavel Matos-Maraví
Different diversification scenarios have been proposed to explain the origin of extant biodiversity. However, most existing meta-analyses of time-calibrated phylogenies rely on approaches that do not quantitatively test alternative diversification processes. Here, I highlight the shortcomings of using species divergence ranks, which is a method widely used in meta-analyses. Divergence ranks consist of categorizing cladogenetic events to certain periods of time, typically to either Pleistocene or to pre-Pleistocene ages. This approach has been claimed to...

Data from: Symbionts modify interactions between insects and natural enemies in the field

Jan Hrček, Ailsa H. C. McLean & H. Charles J. Godfray
Eukaryotes commonly host communities of heritable symbiotic bacteria, many of which are not essential for their hosts' survival and reproduction. There is laboratory evidence that these facultative symbionts can provide useful adaptations, such as increased resistance to natural enemies. However, we do not know how symbionts affect host fitness when the latter are subject to attack by a natural suite of parasites and pathogens. Here, we test whether two protective symbionts, Regiella insecticola and Hamiltonella...

Data from: The fate of W chromosomes in hybrids between wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp.: no role in sex determination and reproduction

Atsuo Yoshido, Frantisek Marec & Ken Sahara
Moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) have sex chromosome systems with female heterogamety (WZ/ZZ or derived variants). The maternally inherited W chromosome is known to determine female sex in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. However, little is known about the role of W chromosome in other lepidopteran species. Here we describe two forms of the W chromosome, W and neo-W, that are transmitted to both sexes in offspring of hybrids from reciprocal crosses between subspecies of wild silkmoths,...

Data from: Is active management the key to the conservation of saproxylic biodiversity? Pollarding promotes the formation of tree hollows

Pavel Sebek, Jan Altman, Michal Platek & Lukas Cizek
Trees with hollows are key features sustaining biodiversity in wooded landscapes. They host rich assemblages of often highly specialised organisms. Hollow trees, however, have become rare and localised in Europe. Many of the associated biota is thus declining or endangered. The challenge of its conservation, therefore, is to safeguard the presence of hollow trees in sufficient numbers. Populations of numerous species associated with tree hollows and dead wood are often found in habitats that were...

Data from: Host-plant dissections reveal contrasting distributions of Crematogaster ants and their symbionts in two myrmecophytic Macaranga species

Mickal Y.I. Houadria, Petr Klimes, Tom M. Fayle & Penny J. Gullan
1. Ant–plant mutualisms are among the most widespread and ecologically important insect–plant interactions in the tropics. The multitrophic mutualism involving Macaranga plants (Euphorbiaceae) and Crematogaster ants (Formicidae) is the most diverse in Southeast Asia. This interaction also includes trophobiotic scale insects (Coccidae) and nematodes inhabiting ant refuse piles. 2. Here we compared two myrmecophytic systems, Macaranga trachyphylla with Crematogaster captiosa (Mt+Cc) and M. beccariana with C. decamera (Mb+Cd), using a fine-scale dissection of the stems....

Data from: The influence of symbiotic bacteria on reproductive strategies and wing polyphenism in pea aphids responding to stress

Miguel L. Reyes, Alice M. Laughton, Benjamin James Parker, Hannah Wichmann, Maretta Fan, Daniel Sok, Jan Hrcek, Tarik Acevedo & Nicole M. Gerardo
1. Environmental stressors can be key drivers of phenotypes, including reproductive strategies and morphological traits. The response to stress may be altered by the presence of microbial associates. For example, in aphids, facultative (secondary) bacterial symbionts can provide protection against natural enemies and stress induced by elevated temperatures. Furthermore, aphids exhibit phenotypic plasticity, producing winged (rather than wingless) progeny that may be better able to escape danger, and the combination of these factors improve the...

Data from: Seasonality promotes grassland diversity: interactions with mowing, fertilization and removal of dominant species

Jiri Dolezal, Vojtech Lanta, Ondrej Mudrak & Jan Leps
1. Current biodiversity declines in species-rich grasslands are connected with the cessation of management, eutrophication and the expansion of dominant grass species. One of the theoretical mechanisms limiting biodiversity loss is the ability of subordinate species to avoid competitive exclusion by seasonal niche separation from dominant species. Here we explore how seasonality underpins the maintenance of diversity in temperate meadows under different management regimes and competition intensities in relation to species functional traits. 2. We...

Data from: Metabolome dynamics of diapause in the butterfly Pieris napi: distinguishing maintenance, termination and post-diapause phases

Philipp Lehmann, Peter Pruisscher, Vladimir Kostal, Martin Moos, Petr Simek, Soren Nylin, Rasmus Agren, Leif Varemo, Christer Wiklund, Christopher W. Wheat & Karl Gotthard
Diapause is a deep resting stage facilitating temporal avoidance of unfavourable environmental conditions that is used by many insects to adapt their life cycle to seasonal variation. Although considerable work has been invested in trying to understand each of the major diapause stages (induction, maintenance and termination), we know very little about the transitions between stages, especially diapause termination. Understanding diapause termination is critical for modelling and predicting spring emergence and winter physiology of insects,...

Data from: Higher predation risk for insect prey at low latitudes and elevations

Tomas Roslin, Bess Hardwick, Vojtech Novotny, William K. Petry, Nigel R. Andrew, Ashley Asmus, Isabel C. Barrio, Yves Basset, Andrea Larissa Boesing, Timothy C. Bonebrake, Erin K. Cameron, Wesley Dáttilo, David A. Donoso, Pavel Drozd, Claudia L. Gray, David S. Hik, Sarah J. Hill, Tapani Hopkins, Shuyin Huang, Bonny Koane, Benita Laird-Hopkins, Liisa Laukkanen, Owen T. Lewis, Sol Milne, Isaiah Mwesige … & Eleanor M. Slade
Biotic interactions underlie ecosystem structure and function, but predicting interaction outcomes is difficult. We tested the hypothesis that biotic interaction strength increases toward the equator, using a global experiment with model caterpillars to measure predation risk. Across an 11,660-kilometer latitudinal gradient spanning six continents, we found increasing predation toward the equator, with a parallel pattern of increasing predation toward lower elevations. Patterns across both latitude and elevation were driven by arthropod predators, with no systematic...

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  • Institute of Entomology
  • University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice
  • University of Oxford
  • New Guinea Binatang Research Center
  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
  • National Museum
  • Universidad De Panama
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
  • University of Minnesota
  • Australian National University