171 Works

Data from: Echinorhynchus salmonis Müller, 1784 (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) from the Bothnian Bay, Baltic Sea: morphological variability and radial asymmetry of proboscis hooks

Matthew T. Wayland, David I. Gibson & Christina Sommerville
Echinorhynchus salmonis is a common parasite of salmoniform and other fishes, occurring in fresh and brackish waters throughout the Holarctic. Presented here is the first analysis of the morphometric and meristic variation in a Palaearctic population of E. salmonis, collected from whitefish Coregonus lavaretus L. and smelt Osmerus eperlaus (L.) from the Bothnian Bay, northern Baltic Sea. Morphological data were compared with published descriptions of congeneric taxa. Nearctic populations of salmonid echinorhynchids considered by some...

Data from: Echinorhynchus brayi n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) from Pachycara crassiceps (Roule) (Zoarcidae), a deep-sea fish

Matthew T. Wayland, Christina Sommerville & David I. Gibson
Echinorhynchus brayi n. sp. (Palaeacanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) is described from Pachycara crassiceps (Roule) (Zoarcidae) from the Porcupine Seabight, Northeast Atlantic. The new species closely resembles E. canyonensis Huffman & Kliever, 1977, a parasite of a Pacific zoarcid, but has longer lemnisci, larger eggs and larger testes. E. brayi n. sp. can be readily differentiated from the ten other Echinorhynchus spp. recorded from deep-sea fishes (E. abyssicola, E. gadi, E. longiproboscis, E. malacocephali, E. melanoglaeae, E. muraenolepisi,...

Data from: A refined modelling approach to assess the influence of sampling on palaeobiodiversity curves: new support for declining Cretaceous dinosaur richness

Graeme T. Lloyd
Modelling has been underdeveloped with respect to constructing palaeobiodiversity curves, but it offers an additional tool for removing sampling from their estimation. Here an alternative to subsampling approaches, which often require large sample sizes, is explored by the extension and refinement of a pre-existing modelling technique that uses a geological proxy for sampling. Application of the model to the three main clades of dinosaurs suggests that much of their diversity fluctuations cannot be explained by...

Data from: Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life

Brian M. Wiegmann, Michelle D. Trautwein, Isaac S. Winkler, Norman B. Barr, Jung-Wook Kim, Christine Lambkin, Matthew A. Bertone, Brian K. Cassel, Keith M. Bayless, Alysha M. Heimberg, Benjamin M. Wheeler, Kevin J. Peterson, Thomas Pape, Bradley J. Sinclair, Jeffrey H. Skevington, Vladimir Blagoderov, Jason Caravas, Sujatha Narayanan Kutty, Urs Schmidt-Ott, Gail E. Kampmeier, F. Christian Thompson, David A. Grimaldi, Andrew T. Beckenbach, Gregory W. Courtney, Markus Friedrich … & J.-W. Kim
Flies are one of four superradiations of insects (along with beetles, wasps, and moths) that account for the majority of animal life on Earth. Diptera includes species known for their ubiquity (Musca domestica house fly), their role as pests (Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito), and their value as model organisms across the biological sciences (Drosophila melanogaster). A resolved phylogeny for flies provides a framework for genomic, developmental, and evolutionary studies by facilitating comparisons across model organisms,...

Data from: High lability of sexual system over 250 million years of evolution in morphologically conservative tadpole shrimps

Thomas C. Mathers, Robert L. Hammond, Ronald A. Jenner, Thorid Zierold, Bernd Hänfling & Africa Gómez
Background: Sexual system is a key factor affecting the genetic diversity, population structure, genome structure and the evolutionary potential of species. The sexual system androdioecy -- where males and hermaphrodites coexist in populations -- is extremely rare, yet is found in three crustacean groups, barnacles, a genus of clam shrimps Eulimnadia, and in the order Notostraca, the tadpole shrimps. In the ancient crustacean order Notostraca, high morphological conservatism contrasts with a wide diversity of sexual...

Data from: Dramatic niche shifts and morphological change in two insular bird species

Per Alström, Jon Fjeldså, Knud Andreas Jønsson, Anders Ödeen, Per G. P. Ericson, Martin Irestedt, J. Fjeldsa, K. A. Jonsson, P. Alstrom & A. Odeen
Colonizations of islands are often associated with rapid morphological divergence. We present two previously unrecognized cases of dramatic morphological change and niche shifts in connection with colonization of tropical forest-covered islands. These evolutionary changes have concealed the fact that the passerine birds madanga, Madanga ruficollis, from Buru, Indonesia, and São Tomé shorttail, Amaurocichla bocagii, from São Tomé, Gulf of Guinea, are forest-adapted members of the family Motacillidae (pipits and wagtails). We show that Madanga has...

Data from: A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda)

Alain De Chambrier, Andrea Waeschenbach, Makda Fisseha, Tomas Scholz & Jean Mariaux
Proteocephalidean tapeworms form a diverse group of parasites currently known from 315 valid species. Most of the diversity of adult proteocephalideans can be found in freshwater fishes (predominantly catfishes), a large proportion infects reptiles, but only a few infect amphibians, and a single species has been found to parasitize possums. Although they have a cosmopolitan distribution, a large proportion of taxa are exclusively found in South America. We analyzed the largest proteocephalidean cestode molecular dataset...

Data from: Sampling bias and the fossil record of planktonic foraminifera on land and in the deep sea

Graeme T. Lloyd, Paul N. Pearson, Jeremy R. Young & Andrew B. Smith
Large-scale trends in planktonic foraminiferal diversity have so far been based on utilization of synoptic biostratigraphic range charts. Although this approach ensures the taxonomic consistency and quality of the data being used, it takes no formal account of any sampling biases that might exist in the fossil record. We demonstrate that the occurrence data of planktonic foraminifera, as recorded in the primary literature, are strongly biased by sampling. We do this by demonstrating that raw...

Data from: A review of Western Amblyscelio and Baryconus (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea, Platygastridae)

Ovidiu Alin Popovici, Lubomir Masner, David G. Notton & Mariana Popovici
The European species of the genera Amblyscelio and Baryconus are reviewed and revised based on morphological data. Females of Amblyscelio striaticeps Kieffer, 1913 and Baryconus graeffei (Kieffer, 1908) are described and the ovipositor of Amblyscelio is illustrated for the first time. The monotypic genus Amblyscelio was previously known only from a single male specimen. Baryconus graeffei is confirmed as a distinct species, while B. orbus Kononova, 2008 is recognized as a junior subjective synonym of...

Data from: Liverworts to the rescue: an investigation of their efficacy as mycorrhizal inoculum for vascular plants

Jill Kowal, Silvia Pressel, Jeffrey G. Duckett & Martin I. Bidartondo
Pezoloma ericae (D.J. Read) Baral, a widespread mycorrhizal fungus of plants in the Ericales, is known to form intracellular associations with several families of leafy liverworts (Schistochilaceae, Lepidoziaceae, Cephaloziaceae, Cephaloziellaceae) in vitro. The ecological significance of this link between vascular and non-vascular plants is unknown. Fungal symbionts were isolated from rhizoids of the leafy liverworts Cephalozia connivens (Dicks.) Lindb. and C. bicuspidata (L.) Dum. (Cephaloziaceae), as well as from the hair roots of two dominant...

Data from: Assessment of available anatomical characters for linking living mammals to fossil taxa in phylogenetic analyses

Thomas Guillerme & Natalie Cooper
Analyses of living and fossil taxa are crucial for understanding biodiversity through time. The total evidence method allows living and fossil taxa to be combined in phylogenies, using molecular data for living taxa and morphological data for living and fossil taxa. With this method, substantial overlap of coded anatomical characters among living and fossil taxa is vital for accurately inferring topology. However, although molecular data for living species are widely available, scientists generating morphological data...

What you sample is what you get: ecomorphological variation in Trithemis (Odonata, Libellulidae) dragonfly wings reconsidered

Norman MacLeod, Banjamin Price & Zachary Stevens
Abstract Background The phylogenetic ecology of the Afro-Asian dragonfly genus Trithemis has been investigated previously by Damm et al. (in Mol Phylogenet Evol 54:870–882, 2010) and wing ecomorphology by Outomuro et al. (in J Evol Biol 26:1866–1874, 2013). However, the latter investigation employed a somewhat coarse sampling of forewing and hindwing outlines and reported results that were at odds in some ways with expectations given the mapping of landscape and water-body preference over the Trithemis...

Eggs of extinct dwarf island emus retained large-size: Electronic supplementary material

Julian Hume & Christian Robertson
Islands off southern Australia once harboured three subspecies of the mainland emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), the smaller Tasmanian emu (D. n. diemenensis), and two dwarf emus, King Island emu (D. n. minor) and Kangaroo Island emu (D. n. baudinianus), which all became extinct rapidly after discovery by human settlers. Little was recorded about their life histories and only a few historical museum specimens exist, including a number of complete eggs from Tasmania and a unique egg...

Morphospecies and molecular diversity of ‘lace corals’: the genus Reteporella (Bryozoa: Cheilostomatida) in the central North Atlantic Azores Archipelago

Lara Baptista, Björn Berning, Manuel Curto, Andrea Waeschenbach, Harald Meimberg, António M. Santos & Sérgio P. Ávila
Abstract Background As in most bryozoans, taxonomy and systematics of species in the genus Reteporella Busk, 1884 (family Phidoloporidae) has hitherto almost exclusively been based on morphological characters. From the central North Atlantic Azores Archipelago, nine Reteporella species have historically been reported, none of which have as yet been revised. Aiming to characterise the diversity and biogeographic distribution of Azorean Reteporella species, phylogenetic reconstructions were conducted on a dataset of 103 Azorean Reteporella specimens, based...

Data from: Epidemiological interactions between urogenital and intestinal human schistosomiasis in the context of praziquantel treatment across three West African countries

Sarah C. L. Knowles, Bonnie L. Webster, Amadou Garba, Moussa Sacko, Oumar T. Diaw, Alan Fenwick, David Rollinson & Joanne P. Webster
Background: In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis co-occur, and mixed species infections containing both Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni can be common. During co-infection, interactions between these two species are possible, yet the extent to which such interactions influence disease dynamics or the outcome of control efforts remains poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we analyse epidemiological data from three West African countries co-endemic for urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis (Senegal, Niger and...

Data from: Climatic niche evolution is faster in sympatric than allopatric lineages of the butterfly genus Pyrgus

Camille Pitteloud, Nils Arrigo, Tomasz Suchan, Alicia Mastretta-Yanes, Roger Vila, Vlad Dinca, Juan Hernández-Roldán, Ernst Brockmann, Yannick Chittaro, Irena Kleckova, Luca Fumagalli, Sven Buerki, Loïc Pellissier & Nadir Alvarez
Understanding how speciation relates to ecological divergence has long fascinated biologists. It is assumed that ecological divergence is essential to sympatric speciation, as a mechanism to avoid competition and eventually lead to reproductive isolation, while divergence in allopatry is not necessarily associated with niche differentiation. The impact of the spatial context of divergence on the evolutionary rates of abiotic dimensions of the ecological niche has rarely been explored for an entire clade. Here, we compare...

Data from: X-rays and virtual taphonomy resolve the first Cissus (Vitaceae) macrofossils from Africa as early diverging members of the genus

Neil F. Adams, Margaret E. Collinson, Selena Y. Smith, Marion K. Bamford, Félix Forest, Panagiota Malakasi, Federica Marone & Dan Sykes
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Fossilized seeds similar to Cissus (Vitaceae) have been recognized from the Miocene of Kenya, though some were previously assigned to the Menispermaceae. We undertook a comparative survey of extant African Cissus seeds to identify the fossils and consider their implications for the evolution and biogeography of Cissus and for African early Miocene paleoenvironments. METHODS: Micro-computed tomography (µCT) and synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) were used to study seed morphology and anatomy....

Data from: Repeated eye reduction events reveal multiple pathways to degeneration in a family of marine snails

Lauren Sumner-Rooney, Julia D. Sigwart, Jenny McAfee, Lisa Smith & Suzanne T. Williams
Eye reduction occurs in many troglobitic, fossorial, and deep-sea animals but there is no clear consensus on its evolutionary mechanism. Given the highly conserved and pleiotropic nature of many genes instrumental to eye development, degeneration might be expected to follow consistent evolutionary trajectories in closely related animals. We tested this in a comparative study of ocular anatomy in solariellid snails from deep and shallow marine habitats using morphological, histological, and tomographic techniques, contextualized phylogenetically. Of...

Data from: Increases in sampling support the southern Gondwanan hypothesis for the origin of dinosaurs

Júlio C. A. Marsola, Gabriel S. Ferreira, Max C. Langer, David J. Button & Richard J. Butler
Dinosaurs were ubiquitous in terrestrial ecosystems through most of the Mesozoic and are still diversely represented in the modern fauna in the form of birds. Recent efforts to better understand the origins of the group have resulted in the discovery of many new species of early dinosaurs and their closest relatives (dinosauromorphs). In addition, recent re-examinations of early dinosaur phylogeny have highlighted uncertainties regarding the interrelationships of the main dinosaur lineages (Sauropodomorpha, Theropoda and Ornithischia),...

Data from: Evolution of cranial telescoping in echolocating whales (Cetacea: Odontoceti)

Morgan Churchill, Jonathan H. Geisler, Brian L. Beatty & Anjali Goswami
Odontocete (echolocating whale) skulls exhibit extreme posterior displacement and overlapping of facial bones, here referred to as retrograde cranial telescoping. To examine retrograde cranial telescoping across 40 million years of whale evolution, we collected 3D scans of whale skulls spanning odontocete evolution. We used a sliding semilandmark morphometric approach with Procrustes superimposition and PCA to capture and describe the morphological variation present in the facial region, followed by Ancestral Character State Reconstruction (ACSR) and evolutionary...

On defining and finding islands of trees and mitigating large island bias

Ana Serra Silva & Mark Wilkinson
How best can we summarise sets of phylogenetic trees? Systematists have relied heavily on consensus methods, but if tree distributions can be partitioned into distinct subsets it may be helpful to provide separate summaries of these rather than relying entirely upon a single consensus tree. How sets of trees can most helpfully be partitioned and represented leads to many open questions, but one natural partitioning is provided by the islands of trees found during tree...

A broadly resolved molecular phylogeny of New Zealand cheilostome bryozoans as a framework for hypotheses of morphological evolution

Russell Orr, E. Di Martino, D.P. Gordon, M.H. Ramsfjell, H.L. Mello, A.M. Smith & L.H. Liow
Larger and larger molecular phylogenies based on ever more genes are becoming commonplace with the advent of cheaper and more streamlined sequencing and bioinformatics pipelines. However, many groups of inconspicuous but no less evolutionarily or ecologically important marine invertebrates are still neglected in the quest for understanding species- and higher-level phylogenetic relationships using high-throughput sequencing approaches. Here, we alleviate this issue by presenting a 17 gene phylogeny of >200 newly sequenced cheilostome bryozoan species, mainly...

Community metabarcoding reveals the relative role of environmental filtering and spatial processes in metacommunity dynamics of soil microarthropods across a mosaic of montane forests

Víctor Noguerales, Emmanouil Meramveliotakis, Adrián Castro-Insua, Carmelo Andújar, Paula Arribas, Thomas Creedy, Isaac Overcast, Hélène Morlon, Brent C. Emerson, Alfried P. Vogler & Anna Papadopoulou
Disentangling the relative role of environmental filtering and spatial processes in driving metacommunity structure across mountainous regions remains challenging, as the way we quantify spatial connectivity in topographically and environmentally heterogeneous landscapes can influence our perception of which process predominates. More empirical datasets are required to account for taxon- and context-dependency but relevant research in understudied areas is often compromised by the taxonomic impediment. We here employed haplotype-level community DNA metabarcoding, enabled by stringent filtering...

Alignments and phylogenetic tree from: A new endemic species of Loasa ser. Macrospermae from northern Chile

Ludovica Santilli, Nicolas Lavandero, Claire De Schrevel, Philippe Dandois & Rafael Acuña
Alignments used for the phylogenetic work and raw phylogenetic trees obtained. A new species of Loasa, endemic‌ ‌to‌ ‌the‌ ‌northern ‌Andes‌ ‌‌of‌ ‌Chile‌ is described and evaluated, under the IUCN criteria for conservation, as critically endangered. Molecular analyses based on plastid markers place the new species within the Loasa ser. Macrospermae, with high support, and specifically as sister to Loasa acerifolia. A key to and comparative plates including all the 13 known species of Loasa...

Supplementary material from \"Ocular lens morphology is influenced by ecology and metamorphosis in frogs and toads\"

Amartya T. Mitra, Molly C. Womack, David J. Gower, Jeffrey W. Streicher, Brett Clark, Rayna C. Bell, Ryan K. Schott, Matthew K. Fujita & Kate N. Thomas
The shape and relative size of an ocular lens affect the focal length of the eye, with consequences for visual acuity and sensitivity. Lenses are typically spherical in aquatic animals with camera-type eyes and axially flattened in terrestrial species to facilitate vision in optical media with different refractive indices. Frogs and toads (Amphibia: Anura) are ecologically diverse, with many species shifting from aquatic to terrestrial ecologies during metamorphosis. We quantified lens shape and relative size...

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