139 Works

Data from: Host tracking or cryptic adaptation? Phylogeography of Pediobius saulius (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the highly invasive horse-chestnut leafminer

Antonio Hernández-López, Rodolphe Rougerie, Sylvie Augustin, David C. Lees, Rumen Tomov, Marc Kenis, Ejup Çota, Endrit Kullaj, Christer Hansson, Giselher Grabenweger, Alain Roques & Carlos López-Vaamonde
Classical biological control is often advocated as a tool for managing invasive species. However, accurate evaluations of parasitoid species complexes and assessment of host-specificity are impeded by the lack of morphological variation. Here we study the possibility of host races/species within the eulophid wasp Pediobius saulius, a pupal generalist parasitoid that parasitize the highly invasive horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth Cameraria ohridella. We analysed the population genetic structure, host associations and phylogeographic patterns of P. saulius in...

Micro CT Images of Sellafield Borehole 13B

Ryan Payton, Brett Clark & Mark Fellgett
These images were acquired using micro computed tomographic imaging of 7 sandstone plugs taken at various depths in the Sellafield borehole 13B. SF696 (63.8 m), SF697 (76.1 m), SF698 (96.98 m), SF699 (126.27 m), SF700 (144.03 m), SF701 (172.16 m) and SF702 (181.39 m). These samples are further detailed and analysed in the following article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/petgeo2020-092

Micro CT Images of Borehole GGC01

Ryan Payton, Brett Clark & Mark Fellgett
These images were acquired using micro computed tomographic imaging of 4 sandstone plugs taken at various depths in the Glasgow UKGEOS borehole GGC01. GG496 (170.07 m), GG497 (168.66 m), GG498 (73.37 m) and GG499 (135.06 m). These samples are further detailed and analysed in the following article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/petgeo2020-092.

Soil moisture, temperature and bulk density and earthworm abundance and biomass along transects from hedges into arable fields, pasture fields, ley strips established in arable fields and arable strips established in pasture fields at a farm in West Yorkshire, England (2015-2017)

M.T. Prendergast-Miller, D.T. Jones & M.E. Hodson
Data are presented on earthworm abundance with distance from hedgerows was recorded for arable fields and pasture leys at Spens farm, the University of Leeds experiment farms, Yorkshire. Sampling was carried out annual from April 2015 to April 2017 with additional sampling in December 2015, and July and October 2016. Pits were excavated and soil hand sorted for earthworms. Mustard solution was then poured into the pit and any emerging earthworms collected. All earthworms were...

Soil moisture, temperature and bulk density and earthworm abundance and biomass along transects in arable fields and ley strips in farms in North Yorkshire, England (2016)

M.T. Prendergast-Miller, D.T. Jones & M.E. Hodson
Data are presented on earthworm abundance with distance from hedgerows was recorded for arable fields and pasture leys at farms at Little Langton, Hutton Wandesley, Overton and Whenby, Yorkshire. Sampling was carried out 12 to 26th May 2016. Pits were excavated and soil hand sorted for earthworms. Mustard solution was then poured into the pit and any emerging earthworms collected. All earthworms were preserved in ethanol for identification using the Sims and Gerard Field studies...

The first Silurian trilobite with three-dimensionally preserved soft parts reveals novel appendage morphology

Mark Sutton, Derek Siveter, Richard Fortey, Derek Briggs & David Siveter
The first Silurian trilobite known with soft parts preserved, a Dalmanites species, is described from the Herefordshire Lagerstätte. Biramous appendages and much of the alimentary system are evident. High-fidelity three-dimensional preservation reveals a novel, double arrangement of the exopod filaments, interconnected by a presumed membranous sheet. This morphology explains a misinterpretation of the exopod as supporting spiral structures, originally reported nearly 150 years ago. The new exopod morphology is considered primarily respiratory in function and...

Evolution, diversity, and disparity of the tiger shark lineage Galeocerdo in deep time

Julia Türtscher, Faviel A. López-Romero, Patrick L. Jambura, René Kindlimann, David J. Ward & Jürgen Kriwet
Sharks have a long and rich fossil record that consists predominantly of isolated teeth due to the poorly mineralized cartilaginous skeleton. Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo), which represent apex predators in modern oceans, have a known fossil record extending back into the early Eocene (ca. 56 Ma) and comprise 22 recognised extinct and one extant species to date. However, many of the fossil species remain dubious, resulting in a still unresolved evolutionary history of the tiger shark...

Data from: Wintering bird communities are tracking climate change faster than breeding communities

Aleksi Lehikoinen, Åke Lindström, Andrea Santangeli, Päivi Sirkiä, Lluis Brotons, Vincent Devictor, Jaanus Elts, Ruud P. B. Fobben, Henning Heldbjerg, Sergi Herrando, Marc Herremans, Marie-Anne R. Hudson, Frederic Jiguet, Alison Johnston, Romain Lorrilliere, Emma-Liina Marjakangas, Nicole L. Michel, Charlotte M. Moshøj, Renno Nellis, Jean-Yves Paquet, Adam C. Smith, Tibor Szep & Chris Van Turnhout
1. Global climate change is driving species’ distributions towards the poles and mountain tops during both non-breeding and breeding seasons, leading to changes in the composition of natural communities. However, the degree of season differences in climate-driven community shifts has not been thoroughly investigated at large spatial scales. 2. We compared the rates of change in the community composition during both winter (non-breeding season) and summer (breeding) and their relation to temperature changes. 3. Based...

Hearing from the ocean and into the river: The evolution of the inner ear of Platanistoidea (Cetacea, Odontoceti)

Mariana Viglino, Maximiliano Gaetán, Mónica R. Buono, R. Ewan Fordyce & Travis Park
The inner ear of the two higher clades of modern cetaceans (Neoceti) is highly adapted for hearing infrasonic (mysticetes) or ultrasonic (odontocetes) frequencies. Within odontocetes, Platanistoidea comprises a single extant riverine representative, Platanista gangetica, and a diversity of mainly extinct marine species from the late Oligocene onward. Recent studies, drawing on features including the disparate tympanoperiotic, have not yet provided a consensus phylogenetic hypothesis for platanistoids. Further, cochlear morphology and evolutionary patterns have never been...

Data from: Learning to see the wood for the trees: machine learning, decision trees and the classification of isolated theropod teeth

Simon Wills, Charlie J. Underwood & Paul M. Barrett
Taxonomic identification of fossils based on morphometric data traditionally relies on the use of standard linear models to classify such data. Machine learning and decision trees offer powerful alternative approaches to this problem but are not widely used in palaeontology. Here, we apply these techniques to published morphometric data of isolated theropod teeth in order to explore their utility in tackling taxonomic problems. We chose two published datasets consisting of 886 teeth from 14 taxa...

Data from: Integrated population models poorly estimate the demographic contribution of immigration

Matthieu Paquet, Jonas Knape, Debora Arlt, Pär Forslund, Tomas Pärt, Øystein Flagstad, Carl G. Jones, Malcolm A. C. Nicoll, Ken Norris, Josephine M. Pemberton, Håkan Sand, Linn Svensson, Vikash Tatayah, Petter Wabakken, Camilla Wikenros, Mikael Åkesson & Matthew Low
Estimating the contribution of demographic parameters to changes in population growth is essential for understanding why populations fluctuate. Integrated Population Models (IPMs) offer a possibility to estimate contributions of additional demographic parameters, for which no data have been explicitly collected: typically immigration. Such parametersare often subsequently highlighted as important drivers of population growth. Yet, accuracy in estimating their temporal variation, and consequently their contribution to changes in population growth rate, has not been investigated. To...

Data for butterfly near-infrared adaptation research

Changku Kang, Sehyuk Lim, Won Young Lee, Yunji Choi, Devi Stuart-Fox & Blanca Huertas
Climatic gradients frequently predict large-scale ecogeographical patterns in animal coloration, but the underlying causes are often difficult to disentangle. We examined ecogeographical patterns of reflectance among 343 European butterfly species and isolated the role of selection for thermal benefits by comparing animal-visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavebands. NIR light accounts for ~50% of solar energy but cannot be seen by animals so functions primarily in thermal control. We found that reflectance of both dorsal and ventral...

Data from: Evolution of Manduca sexta hornworms and relatives: biogeographical analysis reveals an ancestral diversification in Central America

Akito Y. Kawahara, Jesse W. Breinholt, Francesca V. Ponce, Jean Haxaire, Lei Xiao, Greg P. A. Lamarre, Daniel Rubinoff & Ian J. Kitching
The hawkmoth genus Manduca is a diverse group of very large, conspicuous moths that has served as an important model across many biological disciplines. Two species in particular, the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) and the tomato hornworm (Manduca quinquemaculatus) have been researched extensively. Studies across biological fields have referred to these two species as being closely related or even sister species, but the extent to which these two model organisms are related remains largely unknown....

Data from: Bryozoan genera Fenestrulina and Microporella no longer confamilial; multi-gene phylogeny supports separation

Russell J S Orr, Andrea Waeschenbach, Emily L. G. Enevoldsen, Jeroen P. Boeve, Marianne N. Haugen, Kjetil L. Voje, Joanne Porter, Kamil Zágoršek, Abigail M. Smith, Dennis P. Gordon & Lee Hsiang Liow
Bryozoans are a moderately diverse, mostly marine phylum with a fossil record extending to the early Ordovician. Compared to other phyla, little is known about their phylogenetic relationships at both lower and higher taxonomic levels. Hence, an effort is being made to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among bryozoans. Here, we present newly sequenced nuclear and mitochondrial genes for 21 cheilostome bryozoans and compile these with existing orthologous molecular data. Using these data, we focus on...

Data from: The ‘dance’ of life: visualizing metamorphosis during pupation in the blow fly Calliphora vicina by X-ray video imaging and micro-computed tomography

Martin J. R. Hall, Thomas J. Simonsen & Daniel Martín-Vega
The dramatic metamorphosis from larva to adult of insect orders such as Diptera cannot usually be witnessed because it occurs within an opaque structure. For the cyclorrhaphous dipterans, such as blow flies, this structure is the puparium, formed from the larval cuticle. Here, we reveal metamorphosis within the puparium of a blow fly at higher temporal resolution than previously possible with two-dimensional time-lapse videos created using the X-ray within a micro-computed tomography scanner, imaging development...

Data from: A genomewide catalogue of single nucleotide polymorphisms in white-beaked and Atlantic white-sided dolphins

Ruth Fernández, Mikkel Schubert, A. M. Vargas-Velázquez, Andrew Brownlow, Gisli A. Víkingsson, Ursula Siebert, Lasse Fast Jensen, Nils Øien, Dave Wall, Emer Rogan, Bjarni Mikkelsen, Willy Dabin, Gilles Guillot, Ludovic Orlando, A. H. Alfarhan, S. A. Alquraishi & K. A. S. Al-Rasheid
The field of population genetics is rapidly moving into population genomics as the quantity of data generated by high-throughput sequencing platforms increases. In this study, we used restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq) to recover genomewide genotypes from 70 white-beaked (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) and 43 Atlantic white-sided dolphins (L. acutus) gathered throughout their north-east Atlantic distribution range. Both species are at a high risk of being negatively affected by climate change. Here, we provide a resource of 38...

Data from: Cranial biomechanics underpins high sauropod diversity in resource-poor environments

David J. Button, Emily J. Rayfield & Paul M. Barrett
High megaherbivore species richness is documented in both fossil and contemporary ecosystems despite their high individual energy requirements. An extreme example of this is the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation, which was dominated by sauropod dinosaurs, the largest known terrestrial vertebrates. High sauropod diversity within the resource-limited Morrison is paradoxical, but might be explicable through sophisticated resource partitioning. This hypothesis was tested through finite-element analysis of the crania of the Morrison taxa Camarasaurus andDiplodocus. Results demonstrate...

Data from: Identifying heterogeneity in rates of morphological evolution: discrete character change in the evolution of lungfish (Sarcopterygii; Dipnoi)

Graeme T Lloyd, Steve C Wang & Stephen L Brusatte
Quantifying rates of morphological evolution is important in many macroevolutionary studies, and critical when assessing possible adaptive radiations and episodes of punctuated equilibrium in the fossil record. However, studies of morphological rates of change have lagged behind those on taxonomic diversification, and most authors have focused on continuous characters and quantifying patterns of morphological rates over time. Here, we provide a phylogenetic approach, using discrete characters and three statistical tests to determine points on a...

Data from: Disentangling the Pelomedusa complex using type specimens and historical DNA (Testudines: Pelomedusidae)

Uwe Fritz, Alice Petzold, Christian Kehlmaier, Carolin Kindler, Patrick Campbell, Margaretha D. Hofmeyr & William R. Branch
Recent research has shown that the helmeted terrapin (Pelomedusa subrufa), a species that occurs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, in Madagascar and the southwestern Arabian Peninsula, consists of several deeply divergent genetic lineages. Here we examine all nominal taxa currently synonymized with Pelomedusa subrufa (Bonnaterre, 1789) and provide mitochondrial DNA sequences of type specimens or topotypic material for most taxa. Lectotypes are designated for Testudo galeata Schoepff, 1792, Pentonyx capensis Duméril & Bibron, 1835, Pelomedusa nigra Gray,...

Data from: Varyingly hungry caterpillars: predictive models and foliar chemistry suggest how to eat a rainforest

Simon T. Segar, Martin Volf, Brus Isua, Mentap Sisol, Conor M. Redmond, Margaret E. Rosati, Bradley Gewa, Kenneth Molem, Chris Dahl, Jeremy D. Holloway, Yves Basset, Scott E. Miller, George D. Weiblen, Juha-Pekka Salminen & Vojtech Novotny
A long-term goal in evolutionary ecology is to explain the incredible diversity of insect herbivores and patterns of plant host use in speciose groups like tropical Lepidoptera. Here we used standardised food-web data, multigene phylogenies of both trophic levels and plant chemistry data to model interactions between Lepidoptera larvae (caterpillars) from two lineages (Geometridae and Pyraloidea) and plants in species-rich lowland rainforest in New Guinea. Model parameters were used to make and test blind predictions...

Data from: Towards accurate species-level metabarcoding of arthropod communities from the tropical forest canopy

Thomas J. Creedy, Wui Shen Ng & Alfried P. Vogler
Metabarcoding of arthropod communities can be used for assessing species diversity in tropical forests but the methodology requires validation for accurate and repeatable species occurrences in complex mixtures. This study investigates how the composition of ecological samples affects the accuracy of species recovery. Starting with field-collected bulk samples from the tropical canopy, the recovery of specimens was tested for subsets of different body sizes and major taxa, by assembling these subsets into increasingly complex composite...

Data from: Hybridization and barriers to gene flow in an island bird radiation

Ben H. Warren, Eldredge Bermingham, Yann Bourgeois, Laura K. Estep, Robert P. Prys-Jones, Dominique Strasberg & Christophe Thébaud
While reinforcement may play a role in all major modes of speciation, relatively little is known about the timescale over which species hybridize without evolving complete reproductive isolation. Birds have high potential for hybridization, and islands provide simple settings for uncovering speciation and hybridization patterns. Here we develop a phylogenetic hypothesis for a phenotypically-diverse radiation of finch-like weaver-birds (Foudia) endemic to the western Indian Ocean islands. We find that unlike Darwin’s finches, each island-endemic Foudia...

Data from: Global patterns in helminth host specificity: phylogenetic and functional diversity of regional host species pools matter

Konstans Wells, David I. Gibson & Nicholas J. Clark
Host specificity has a major influence on a parasite’s ability to shift between human and animal host species. Yet there is a dearth of quantitative approaches to explore variation in host specificity across biogeographical scales, particularly in response to the varying community compositions of potential hosts. We built a global dataset of intermediate host associations for nine of the world’s most widespread helminth parasites (all of which infect humans). Using hierarchical models, we asked if...

Data from: Shotgun mitogenomics across body size classes in a local assemblage of tropical Diptera: phylogeny, species diversity and mitochondrial abundance spectrum

Le Qin Choo, Alex Crampton-Platt & Alfried P. Vogler
Mitochondrial genomes can be assembled readily from shotgun-sequenced DNA mixtures of mass-trapped arthropods (“mitochondrial metagenomics”), speeding up the taxonomic characterization. Bulk sequencing was conducted on some 800 individuals of Diptera obtained by canopy fogging of a single tree in Borneo dominated by small (<1.5 mm) individuals. Specimens were split into five body size classes for DNA extraction, to equalize read numbers across specimens and to study how body size, a key ecological trait, interacts with...

Data from: Terrestrial reproduction as an adaptation to steep terrain in African toads

H. Christoph Liedtke, Hendrik Müller, Julian Hafner, Johannes Penner, David J. Gower, Tomáš Mazuch, Mark-Oliver Rödel & Simon P. Loader
How evolutionary novelties evolve is a major question in evolutionary biology. It is widely accepted that changes in environmental conditions shift the position of selective optima, and advancements in phylogenetic comparative approaches allow the rigorous testing of such correlated transitions. A longstanding question in vertebrate biology has been the evolution of terrestrial life histories in amphibians and here, by investigating African bufonids, we test whether terrestrial modes of reproduction have evolved as adaptations to particular...

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