Data from: Barriers to access improved water and sanitation in poor peri-urban settlements of Abidjan, Côte d’IvoireEliachie L.E. Angoua, Kouassi Dongo, Michael R. Templeton, Jakob Zinsstag, Bassirou Bonfoh, Eliachie Larissa & Eliachie Larissa Eméline Angoua
Achieving access to safe water and sanitation still pose major challenges in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa countries, despite all the progress achieved in the last decade. This study assessed the ability of populations living in poor peri-urban settlements to access improved water and sanitation and identified factors influencing this access, in order to guide sustainable mitigating solutions to address associated health and environmental risks. We conducted a cross-sectional study in six poor peri-urban settlements...
Data from: The complex relationship of exposure to new Plasmodium infections and incidence of clinical malaria in Papua New GuineaNatalie E. Hofmann, Stephan Karl, Rahel Wampfler, Benson Kiniboro, Albina Teliki, Jonah Iga, Andreea Waltmann, Inoni Betuela, Ingrid Felger, Leanne J. Robinson & Ivo Mueller
The molecular force of blood-stage infection (molFOB) is a quantitative surrogate metric for malaria transmission at population level and for exposure at individual level. Relationships between molFOB, parasite prevalence and clinical incidence were assessed in a treatment-to-reinfection cohort, where P.vivax (Pv) hypnozoites were eliminated in half the children by primaquine (PQ). Discounting relapses, children acquired equal numbers of new P. falciparum (Pf) and Pv blood-stage infections/year (Pf-molFOB=0-18, Pv-molFOB=0-23) resulting in comparable spatial and temporal patterns...
Plasmodium vivax is the geographically most widespread human malaria parasite. To analyze patterns of microsatellite diversity and population structure across countries of different transmission intensity, genotyping data from 11 microsatellite markers was either generated or compiled from 841 isolates from four continents collected in 1999–2008. Diversity was highest in South-East Asia (mean allelic richness 10.0–12.8), intermediate in the South Pacific (8.1–9.9) Madagascar and Sudan (7.9–8.4), and lowest in South America and Central Asia (5.5–7.2). A...
Effect of specificity of health expenditure questions in the measurement of out-of-pocket health expenditure: Evidence from field experimental study in GhanaIsaiah Agorinya, Amanda Ross, Gabriela Flores, Tessa Tan-Torres Edejer, Maxwel Dalaba, Nathan Mensah, Lan Le My, Yadeta Bacha, Jemima Sumboh, Abraham Oduro, James Akazili & Fabrizio Tediosi
Background: The effect of number of health items on OOPs has been identified as a source of bias in measuring OOPs. Evidence comes mostly from cross-sectional comparison of different survey instruments to collect data on OOPs. Very few studies have attempted to validate these questionnaires, or distinguish bias arising from the comprehensiveness of the OOPs list versus specificity of OOPs questions. Objectives: This study aims to estimate biases arising from the specificity of OOPs questions...
Data from: Reversion of antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by spiroisoxazoline SMARt-420Nicolas Blondiaux, Martin Moune, Matthieu Desroses, Rosangela Frita, Marion Flipo, Vanessa Mathys, Karine Soetaert, Mehdi Kiass, Vincent Delorme, Kamel Djaout, Vincent Trebosc, Christian Kemmer, René Wintjens, Alexandre Wohlkönig, Rudy Antoine, Ludovic Huot, David Hot, Mireia Coscolla, Julia Feldmann, Sebastien Gagneux, Camille Locht, Priscille Brodin, Marc Gitzinger, Benoit Deprez, Nicolas Willand … & Alain R. Baulard
Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest threats to human health globally. Alarmingly, multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis have now spread worldwide. Some key antituberculosis antibiotics are prodrugs, for which resistance mechanisms are mainly driven by mutations in the bacterial enzymatic pathway required for their bioactivation. We have developed drug-like molecules that activate a cryptic alternative bioactivation pathway of ethionamide in M. tuberculosis, circumventing the classic activation pathway in which resistance mutations have now...
Data from: Strategies for understanding and reducing the Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale hypnozoite reservoir in Papua New Guinean children: a randomised placebo-controlled trial and mathematical modelLeanne J. Robinson, Rahel Wampfler, Inoni Betuela, Stephan Karl, Michael T. White, Connie S. N. Li Wai Suen, Natalie E. Hofmann, Benson Kiniboro, Andreea Waltmann, Jessica Brewster, Lina Lorry, Nandao Tarongka, Lornah Samol, Mariabeth Silkey, Quique Bassat, Peter M. Siba, Louis Schofield, Ingrid Felger, Ivo Mueller & Benson Kinboro
Background: The undetectable hypnozoite reservoir for relapsing Plasmodium vivax and P. ovale malarias presents a major challenge for malaria control and elimination in endemic countries. This study aims to directly determine the contribution of relapses to the burden of P. vivax and P. ovale infection, illness, and transmission in Papua New Guinean children. Methods and Findings: From 17 August 2009 to 20 May 2010, 524 children aged 5–10 y from East Sepik Province in Papua...
Data from: Blood-stage parasitaemia and age determine Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax gametocytaemia in Papua New GuineaCristian Koepfli, Leanne J. Robinson, Patricia Rarau, Mary Salib, Naomi Sambale, Rahel Wampfler, Inoni Betuela, Wang Nuitragool, Alyssa E. Barry, Peter Siba, Ingrid Felger & Ivo Mueller
A better understanding of human-to-mosquito transmission is crucial to control malaria. In order to assess factors associated with gametocyte carriage, 2083 samples were collected in a cross-sectional survey in Papua New Guinea. Plasmodium species were detected by light microscopy and qPCR and gametocytes by detection of pfs25 and pvs25 mRNA transcripts by reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). The parasite prevalence by PCR was 18.5% for Plasmodium falciparum and 13.0% for P. vivax. 52.5% of all infections were...
Data from: Safety and immunogenicity of H1/IC31®, an adjuvanted TB subunit vaccine, in HIV-infected adults with CD4+ Lymphocyte counts greater than 350 cells/mm3: a phase II, multi-centre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trialKlaus Reither, Lynn Katsoulis, Trevor Beattie, Nicolene Gardiner, Nicole Lenz, Khadija Said, Elirehema Mfinanga, Christian Pohl, Katherine L. Fielding, Hannah Jeffery, Benjamin M. Kagina, Elisabeth J. Hughes, Thomas J. Scriba, Willem A. Hanekom, Søren T. Hoff, Peter Bang, Ingrid Kromann, Claudia Daubenberger, Peter Andersen & Gavin J. Churchyard
Background: Novel tuberculosis vaccines should be safe, immunogenic, and effective in various population groups, including HIV-infected individuals. In this phase II multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the safety and immunogenicity of the novel H1/IC31 vaccine, a fusion protein of Ag85B-ESAT-6 (H1) formulated with the adjuvant IC31, was evaluated in HIV-infected adults. Methods: HIV-infected adults with CD4+ T cell counts >350/mm3 and without evidence of active tuberculosis were enrolled and followed until day 182. H1/IC31 vaccine or...
Data from: Two-year impact of community-based health screening and parenting groups on child development in Zambia: follow-up to a cluster-randomized controlled trialPeter C. Rockers, Arianna Zanolini, Bowen Banda, Mwaba Moono Chipili, Robert C. Hughes, Davidson H. Hamer & Günther Fink
Background: Early childhood interventions have potential to offset the negative impact of early adversity. We evaluated the impact of a community-based parenting group intervention on child development in Zambia. Methods and Findings: We conducted a non-masked cluster-randomized controlled trial in Southern Province, Zambia. Thirty clusters of villages were matched based on population density and distance from the nearest health center, and randomly assigned to intervention (15 clusters, 268 caregiver-child dyads) or control (15 clusters, 258...
Data from: The temporal dynamics and infectiousness of subpatent Plasmodium falciparum infections in relation to parasite densityHannah C. Slater, Amanda Ross, Ingrid Felger, Natalie E. Hofmann, Leanne Robinson, Jackie Cook, Bronner P. Gonçalves, Anders Björkman, Andre Lin Ouedraogo, Ulrika Morris, Mwinyi Msellem, Cristian Koepfli, Ivo Mueller, Fitsum Tadesse, Endalamaw Gadisa, Smita Das, Gonzalo Domingo, Melissa Kapulu, Janet Midega, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Cécile Nabet, Renaud Piarroux, Ogobara Doumbo, Safiatou Niare Doumbo, Kwadwo Koram … & Lucy C. Okell
Malaria infections occurring below the limit of detection of standard diagnostics are common in all endemic settings. However, key questions remain surrounding their contribution to sustaining transmission and whether they need to be detected and targeted to achieve malaria elimination. In this study we analyse a range of malaria datasets to quantify the density, detectability, course of infection and infectiousness of subpatent infections. Asymptomatically infected individuals have lower parasite densities on average in low transmission...
Previous reports link differential DNA methylation (DNAme) to environmental exposures which are associated with lung function. Direct evidence on lung function DNAme is however limited. We undertook an agnostic epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) on pre-bronchodilation lung function and its change in adults. In a discovery-replication EWAS design, DNAme in blood and spirometry were measured twice, six-to-15 years apart, in the same participants of three adult population-based discovery cohorts (n=2,043). Associated DNAme markers (P<5x10-7) were tested...
ddRAD data for: Multiple introductions and overwintering shape the progressive invasion of Aedes albopictus beyond the AlpsLaura Vavassori, Ann-Christin Honnen, Norah Saarman, Adalgisa Caccone & Pie Müller
Aedes albopictus originates from Southeast Asia and is considered one of the most invasive species globally. This mosquito is a nuisance and a disease vector of significant public health relevance. In Europe, Ae. albopictus is firmly established and widespread south of the Alps, a mountain range that forms a formidable biogeographic barrier to many organisms. Recent reports of Ae. albopictus north of the Alps raise questions of 1) the origins of its recent invasion, and...
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute12
University of Basel7
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research5
University of Melbourne4
Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research4
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine2
University of Barcelona2
University of Gezira1
Helmholtz Zentrum München1