3 Works

Plant defense resistance in natural enemies of a specialist insect herbivore

Xi Zhang, Cong Van Doan, Carla C.M. Arce, Lingfei Hu, Sandra Gruenig, Christian Parisod, Bruce E. Hibbard, , Chad Nielson, Christelle A.M. Robert, Ricardo A.R. Machado & Matthias Erb
Plants defend themselves against herbivores through the production of toxic and deterrent metabolites. Adapted herbivores can tolerate and sometimes sequester these metabolites, allowing them to feed on defended plants and become toxic to their own enemies. Can herbivore natural enemies overcome sequestered plant defense metabolites to prey on adapted herbivores? To address this question, we studied how entomopathogenic nematodes cope with benzoxazinoid defense metabolites that are produced by grasses and sequestered by a specialist maize...

Large herbivores maintain a two-phase herbaceous vegetation mosaic in a semi-arid savanna

David Augustine
Many arid and semi-arid rangelands exhibit distinct spatial patterning of vegetated and bare-soil-dominated patches. The latter potentially represent a grazing-induced, degraded ecosystem state, but could also arise via mechanisms related to feedbacks between vegetation cover and soil moisture availability that are unrelated to grazing. The degree to which grazing contributes to the formation or maintenance of degraded patches has been widely discussed and modelled, but empirical studies of the role of grazing in their formation,...

Mass ratio effects underlie ecosystem responses to environmental change

Melinda Smith, Sally Koerner, Alan Knapp, Meghan Avolio, Francis Chaves, Elsie Denton, John Dietrich, David Gibson, Jesse Gray, Ava Hoffman, David Hoover, Kimberly Komatsu, Andrea Silletti, Kevin Wilcox, Qiang Yu & John Blair
1. Random species loss has been shown experimentally to reduce ecosystem function, sometimes more than other anthropogenic environmental changes. Yet, controversy surrounds the importance of this finding for natural systems where species loss is non-random. 2. We compiled data from 16 multi-year experiments located at a single site in native tallgrass prairie. These experiments included responses to 11 anthropogenic environmental changes, as well as non-random biodiversity loss - either the removal of uncommon/rare plant species...

Registration Year

  • 2019
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Resource Types

  • Dataset
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Affiliations

  • Ars Electronica Center
    3
  • University of Georgia
    1
  • University of Neuch√Ętel
    1
  • Johns Hopkins University
    1
  • University of Wyoming
    1
  • University of Rennes 2
    1
  • University of Bern
    1
  • Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
    1
  • Colorado State University
    1
  • Southern Illinois University Carbondale
    1