111 Works

Data citation: APA 7 style guide, 2nd ed.

Susan Mowers & Alain El Hofi

Data from: No consistent pollinator-mediated impacts of alien plants on natives

Julia A. Charlebois & Risa D. Sargent
The introduction of an alien plant is widely assumed to have negative consequences for the pollinator-mediated fitness of nearby natives. Indeed, a number of studies, including a highly cited meta-analysis, have concluded that the trend for such interactions is ompetitive. Here we provide evidence that publication bias and study design have obscured our ability to ssess the pollinator-mediated impacts of alien plants. In a meta-analysis of 76 studies, we demonstrate that alien/native status does not...

Data from: Epicuticular compounds of Protopiophila litigata (Diptera: Piophilidae): identification and sexual selection across two years in the wild

Christopher Angell, Sharon Curtis, Anaïs Ryckenbusch & Howard Rundle
The epicuticular compounds (ECs) of insects serve both to waterproof the cuticle and, in many taxa, as pheromones that are important for various social interactions including mate choice within populations. However, ECs have not been individually identified in many species and most studies of their role in mate choice have been performed in a laboratory setting. Here we newly identify and quantify the ECs of the antler fly, Protopiophila litigata Bonduriansky, and use a cross-sectional...

Data from: Characterizing innovators: ecological and individual predictors of problem-solving performance

Sanjay Prasher, Julian C. Evans, Megan J. Thompson & Julie Morand-Ferron
Behavioural innovation, the use of new behaviours or existing ones in novel contexts, can have important ecological and evolutionary consequences for animals. An understanding of these consequences would be incomplete without considering the traits that predispose certain individuals to exhibit innovative behaviour. Several individual and ecological variables are hypothesized to affect innovativeness, but empirical studies show mixed results. We examined the effects of dominance rank, exploratory personality, and urbanisation on the innovativeness of wild-caught black-capped...

Data from: Flexibility, variability and constraint in energy management strategies across vertebrate taxa revealed by long-term heart rate measurements

Lewis G. Halsey, Jonathan A. Green, Sean D. Twiss, Walter Arnold, Sarah J. Burthe, Patrick J. Butler, Steve J. Cooke, David Gremillet, Thomas Ruf, Olivia Hicks, Katarzyna J. Minta, Tanya S. Prystay, Claudia A.F. Wascher, Vincent Careau, Steven J Cooke, Tania S Prystay & Claudia AF Wascher
1) Animals are expected to be judicious in the use of the energy they gain due to the costs and limits associated with its intake. The management of energy expenditure (EE) exhibited by animals has previously been considered in terms of three patterns: the constrained, independent and performance patterns of energy management. These patterns can be interpreted by regressing daily EE against maintenance EE measured over extended periods. From the multiple studies on this topic,...

Rest-task modulation of fMRI-derived global signal topography is mediated by transient co-activation patterns

Jianfeng Zhang, Zirui Huang, Shankar Tumati & Georg Northoff
Recent resting-state fMRI studies have revealed that the global signal (GS) exhibits a non-uniform spatial distribution across the gray matter. Whether this topography is informative remains largely unknown. We therefore tested rest-task modulation of global signal topography by analyzing static global signal correlation and dynamic co-activation patterns in a large sample of fMRI dataset (n=837) from the Human Connectome Project. The GS topography in the resting-state and in seven different tasks was first measured by...

The evolution and fate of diversity under hard and soft selection - all data and code

Patrick Chen & Rees Kassen
How genetic variation arises and persists over evolutionary time despite the depleting effects of natural selection remains a long-standing question. Here, we investigate the impacts of two extreme forms of population regulation – at the level of the total, mixed population (hard selection) and at the level of local, spatially distinct patches (soft selection) – on the emergence and fate of diversity under strong divergent selection. We find that while the form of population regulation...

Collision between biological process and statistical analysis revealed by mean-centering

David Westneat, Yimen Araya-Ajoy, Hassen Allegue, Barbara Class, Niels Dingemanse, Ned Dochtermann, Laszlo Garamszegi, Julien Martin, Shinichi Nakagawa, Denis Reale & Holger Schielzeth
1. Animal ecologists often collect hierarchically-structured data and analyze these with linear mixed-effects models. Specific complications arise when the effect sizes of covariates vary on multiple levels (e.g., within vs among subjects). Mean-centering of covariates within subjects offers a useful approach in such situations, but is not without problems. 2. A statistical model represents a hypothesis about the underlying biological process. Mean-centering within clusters assumes that the lower level responses (e.g. within subjects) depend on...

Quantifying selection on standard metabolic rate and body mass in Drosophila melanogaster

Howard D Rundle, Mathieu Videlier, Vincent Careau & Alastair Wilson
Standard metabolic rate (SMR), defined as the minimal energy expenditure required for self-maintenance, is a key physiological trait. Few studies have estimated its relationship with fitness, most notably in insects. This is presumably due to the difficulty of measuring SMR in a large number of very small individuals. Using high-throughput flow-through respirometry and a Drosophila melanogaster laboratory population adapted to a life-cycle that facilitates fitness measures, we quantified SMR, body mass, and fitness in 515...

Data from: Evidence for rapid evolutionary change in an invasive plant in response to biological control

Michael Stastny & Risa D. Sargent
We present evidence that populations of an invasive plant species that have become re-associated with a specialist herbivore in the exotic range through biological control have rapidly evolved increased anti-herbivore defences compared to populations not exposed to biocontrol. We grew half-sib families of the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria sourced from 17 populations near Ottawa, Canada, that differed in their history of exposure to a biocontrol agent, the specialist beetle Neogalerucella calmariensis. In a greenhouse experiment,...

Data from: High temperature intensifies negative density dependence of fitness in red flour beetles

William D. Halliday, Alison S. Thomas & Gabriel Blouin-Demers
Competition for food, space, or other depletable resources has strong impacts on the fitness of organisms and can lead to a pattern known as negative density dependence, where fitness decreases as population density increases. Yet, many resources that have strong impacts on fitness are nondepletable (e.g., moisture or temperature). How do these nondepletable resources interact with depletable resources to modify negative density dependence? We tested the hypothesis that negative density dependence is modulated by temperature...

Data from: Resolving rapid radiations within angiosperm families using anchored phylogenomics

Étienne Léveillé-Bourret, Julian R. Starr, Bruce A. Ford, Emily Moriarty Lemmon & Alan R. Lemmon
Despite the promise that molecular data would provide a seemingly unlimited source of independent characters, many plant phylogenetic studies are still based on only two regions, the plastid genome and nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA). Their popularity can be explained by high copy numbers and universal PCR primers that make their sequences easily amplified and converted into parallel datasets. Unfortunately, their utility is limited by linked loci and limited characters resulting in low confidence in the...

Data from: Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium), and its occurrence in indoor environments and food

Amanda Juan Chen, Vit Hubka, Jens C. Frisvad, Cobus M. Visagie, Jos Houbraken, Martin Meijer, Janos Varga, Rasime Demirel, Željko Jurjević, Alena Kubátová, František Sklenář, Y. G. Zhou & Robert A. Samson
Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly the genus Eurotium) includes xerophilic species with uniseriate conidiophores, globose to subglobose vesicles, green conidia and yellow, thin walled eurotium-like ascomata with hyaline, lenticular ascospores. In the present study, a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, extrolites, physiological characters and phylogeny was applied to investigate the taxonomy of this section. Over 500 strains from various culture collections and new isolates obtained from indoor environments and a wide range of substrates all over...

Data from: Stronger convex (stabilizing) selection on homologous sexual display traits in females than in males: a multipopulation comparison in Drosophila serrata

Howard D. Rundle & Stephen F. Chenoweth
Mutual mate choice for homologous sexual display traits has been demonstrated in Mutual mate choice for homologous sexual display traits has been demonstrated in several recent studies yet little attention has been given to quantitative comparison of the strength and form of mate preferences between the sexes. Such comparisons may provide important insight into the evolution of mate choice for honest signals. In particular, because females generally provide the majority of resources for initial offspring...

Data from: Dominance and the initiation of group feeding events: the modifying effect of sociality

Julian C. Evans, Teri B. Jones & Julie Morand-Ferron
Individuals can differ in how much they benefit from being in a group depending on characteristics such as their dominance rank or their behaviour. Understanding which categories of individuals influence the decisions of a group could help understand which individuals are benefiting the most. We examine these ideas in wild flocks of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), which feature stable group membership and linear dominance hierarchies. We attempt to infer which individuals are influencing group movement...

Data from: Behavioural responses of naked mole rats to acute hypoxia and anoxia

Aaron N. Ilacqua, Alexia M. Kirby & Matthew E. Pamenter
Naked mole rats (NMRs) are among the most hypoxia-tolerant mammals. Other species respond to hypoxia by either escaping the hypoxic environment or drastically decreasing behavioural activity and body temperature (Tb) to conserve energy. However, NMRs rarely leave their underground burrows, which are putatively hypoxic and thermally stable near the NMRs' preferred Tb. Therefore, we asked whether NMRs are able to employ behavioural and thermoregulatory strategies in response to hypoxia despite their need to remain active...

Assessing seasonal demographic covariation to understand environmental-change impacts on a hibernating mammal

Maria Paniw, Dylan Childs, Kenneth Armitage, Daniel Blumstein, Julien Martin, Madan Oli & Arpat Ozgul
Natural populations are exposed to seasonal variation in environmental factors that simultaneously affect several demographic rates (survival, development, reproduction). The resulting covariation in these rates determines population dynamics, but accounting for its numerous biotic and abiotic drivers is a significant challenge. Here, we use a factor-analytic approach to capture partially unobserved drivers of seasonal population dynamics. We use 40 years of individual-based demography from yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventer) to fit and project population models that...

Swimming and defense - competing needs across ontogeny in armored fishes (Agonidae)

Matthew Kolmann, Cassandra Donatelli, Tessa Peixoto, Janne Pfeiffenberger & Adam Summers
Biological armors are potent model systems for understanding the complex series of competing demands on protective exoskeletons; after all, armored organisms are the product of millions of years of refined engineering under the harshest conditions. Fishes are no strangers to armor, with various types of armor plating common to the 400 million years of evolution in both jawed and jawless fishes. Here we focus on the poachers (Agonidae), a family of armored fishes native to...

Data from: The REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely-collected health Data (RECORD) statement: methods for arriving at consensus and developing reporting guidelines

Stuart G. Nicholls, Pauline Quach, Erik Von Elm, Astrid Guttmann, David Moher, Irene Petersen, Henrik T. Sørensen, Liam Smeeth, Sinéad M. Langan & Eric I. Benchimol
Objective: Routinely collected health data, collected for administrative and clinical purposes, without specific a priori research questions, are increasingly used for observational, comparative effectiveness, health services research, and clinical trials. The rapid evolution and availability of routinely collected data for research has brought to light specific issues not addressed by existing reporting guidelines. The aim of the present project was to determine the priorities of stakeholders in order to guide the development of the REporting...

Data from: Genomic evidence that sexual selection impedes adaptation to a novel environment

Stephen F. Chenoweth, Nicolas C. Appleton, Scott L. Allen & Howard D. Rundle
Sexual selection is widely appreciated for generating remarkable phenotypic diversity, but its contribution to adaptation and the purging of deleterious mutations is unresolved. To provide insight into the impact of sexual selection on naturally segregating polymorphisms across the genome, we previously evolved 12 populations of Drosophila serrata in a novel environment employing a factorial manipulation of the opportunities for natural and sexual selection. Here, we genotype more than 1,400 SNPs in the evolved populations and...

Data from: Reproductive character displacement of female mate preferences for male cuticular hydrocarbons in Drosophila subquinaria

Howard D. Rundle & Kelly A. Dyer
Several lines of evidence implicate sexual isolation in both initiating and completing the speciation process. While its existence is straightforward to demonstrate, understanding the evolution of sexual isolation requires identifying the underlying phenotypes responsible so that we can determine how these have diverged. Here we study geographic variation in female mate preferences for male sexual displays in the fly Drosophila subquinaria. Female D. subquinaria that are sympatric with its sister species D. recens discriminate strongly...

Data from: The fitness costs of antibiotic resistance mutations

Anita H. Melnyk, Alex Wong & Rees Kassen
Antibiotic resistance is increasing in pathogenic microbial populations and is thus a major threat to public health. The fate of a resistance mutation in pathogen populations is determined in part by its fitness. Mutations that suffer little or no fitness cost are more likely to persist in the absence of antibiotic treatment. In this review, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the fitness costs associated with single mutational events that confer resistance. Generally, these mutations...

Data from: The causes of selection on flowering time through male fitness in a hermaphroditic annual plant

Emily J. Austen & Arthur E. Weis
Flowering is a key life history event whose timing almost certainly affects both male and female fitness, but tests of selection on flowering time through male fitness are few. Such selection may arise from direct effects of flowering time, and indirect effects through covariance between flowering time and the environment experienced during reproduction. To isolate these intrinsically correlated associations, we staggered planting dates of Brassica rapa families with known flowering times, creating populations in which...

Data from: Stable producer–scrounger dynamics in wild birds: sociability and learning speed covary with scrounging behaviour

Lucy M. Aplin & Julie Morand-Ferron
There has been extensive game-theoretic modelling of conditions leading to equilibria of producer–scrounger dichotomies in groups. However there is a surprising paucity of experimental evidence in wild populations. Here, we examine producer–scrounger games in five subpopulations of birds feeding at a socially learnt foraging task. Over four weeks, a bimodal distribution of producers and scroungers emerged in all areas, with pronounced and consistent individual tactic specialization persisting over 3 years. Tactics were unrelated to exploratory...

Data from: Air-borne genotype by genotype indirect genetic effects are substantial in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans

Nicolas O. Rode, Peter Soroye, Rees Kassen & Howard D. Rundle
Genotype by genotype indirect genetic effects (G × G IGEs) occur when the phenotype of an individual is influenced by an interaction between its own genotype and those of neighbour individuals. Little is known regarding the relative importance of G × G IGEs compared with other forms of direct and indirect genetic effects. We quantified the relative importance of IGEs in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, a species in which IGEs are likely to be...

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