18 Works

Data from: No consistent pollinator-mediated impacts of alien plants on natives

Julia A. Charlebois & Risa D. Sargent
The introduction of an alien plant is widely assumed to have negative consequences for the pollinator-mediated fitness of nearby natives. Indeed, a number of studies, including a highly cited meta-analysis, have concluded that the trend for such interactions is ompetitive. Here we provide evidence that publication bias and study design have obscured our ability to ssess the pollinator-mediated impacts of alien plants. In a meta-analysis of 76 studies, we demonstrate that alien/native status does not...

Data from: Behavioural responses of naked mole rats to acute hypoxia and anoxia

Aaron N. Ilacqua, Alexia M. Kirby & Matthew E. Pamenter
Naked mole rats (NMRs) are among the most hypoxia-tolerant mammals. Other species respond to hypoxia by either escaping the hypoxic environment or drastically decreasing behavioural activity and body temperature (Tb) to conserve energy. However, NMRs rarely leave their underground burrows, which are putatively hypoxic and thermally stable near the NMRs' preferred Tb. Therefore, we asked whether NMRs are able to employ behavioural and thermoregulatory strategies in response to hypoxia despite their need to remain active...

Data from: Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium), and its occurrence in indoor environments and food

Amanda Juan Chen, Vit Hubka, Jens C. Frisvad, Cobus M. Visagie, Jos Houbraken, Martin Meijer, Janos Varga, Rasime Demirel, Željko Jurjević, Alena Kubátová, František Sklenář, Y. G. Zhou & Robert A. Samson
Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly the genus Eurotium) includes xerophilic species with uniseriate conidiophores, globose to subglobose vesicles, green conidia and yellow, thin walled eurotium-like ascomata with hyaline, lenticular ascospores. In the present study, a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, extrolites, physiological characters and phylogeny was applied to investigate the taxonomy of this section. Over 500 strains from various culture collections and new isolates obtained from indoor environments and a wide range of substrates all over...

Data from: Resolving rapid radiations within angiosperm families using anchored phylogenomics

Étienne Léveillé-Bourret, Julian R. Starr, Bruce A. Ford, Emily Moriarty Lemmon & Alan R. Lemmon
Despite the promise that molecular data would provide a seemingly unlimited source of independent characters, many plant phylogenetic studies are still based on only two regions, the plastid genome and nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA). Their popularity can be explained by high copy numbers and universal PCR primers that make their sequences easily amplified and converted into parallel datasets. Unfortunately, their utility is limited by linked loci and limited characters resulting in low confidence in the...

Data from: Evidence for rapid evolutionary change in an invasive plant in response to biological control

Michael Stastny & Risa D. Sargent
We present evidence that populations of an invasive plant species that have become re-associated with a specialist herbivore in the exotic range through biological control have rapidly evolved increased anti-herbivore defences compared to populations not exposed to biocontrol. We grew half-sib families of the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria sourced from 17 populations near Ottawa, Canada, that differed in their history of exposure to a biocontrol agent, the specialist beetle Neogalerucella calmariensis. In a greenhouse experiment,...

Data from: Dominance and the initiation of group feeding events: the modifying effect of sociality

Julian C. Evans, Teri B. Jones & Julie Morand-Ferron
Individuals can differ in how much they benefit from being in a group depending on characteristics such as their dominance rank or their behaviour. Understanding which categories of individuals influence the decisions of a group could help understand which individuals are benefiting the most. We examine these ideas in wild flocks of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), which feature stable group membership and linear dominance hierarchies. We attempt to infer which individuals are influencing group movement...

Data from: Performance trade-offs and ageing in the ‘world's greatest athletes’

Vincent Careau & Robbie S. Wilson
The mechanistic foundations of performance trade-offs are clear: because body size and shape constrains movement, and muscles vary in strength and fibre type, certain physical traits should act in opposition with others (e.g. sprint versus endurance). Yet performance trade-offs are rarely detected, and traits are often positively correlated. A potential resolution to this conundrum is that within-individual performance trade-offs can be masked by among-individual variation in ‘quality’. Although there is a current debate on how...

Data from: Global biogeography of mating system variation in seed plants

David A. Moeller, Ryan D. Briscoe Runquist, Annika M. Moe, Monica A. Geber, Carol Goodwillie, Pierre-Olivier Cheptou, Christopher G. Eckert, Elizabeth Elle, Mark O. Johnston, Susan Kalisz, Richard H. Ree, Risa D. Sargent, Mario Vallejo-Marin & Alice A. Winn
Latitudinal gradients in biotic interactions have been suggested as causes of global patterns of biodiversity and phenotypic variation. Plant biologists have long speculated that outcrossing mating systems are more common at low than high latitudes owing to a greater predictability of plant–pollinator interactions in the tropics; however, these ideas have not previously been tested. Here, we present the first global biogeographic analysis of plant mating systems based on 624 published studies from 492 taxa. We...

Data from: Density-dependent habitat selection predicts fitness and abundance in a small lizard

James E. Paterson & Gabriel Blouin-Demers
Density-dependent habitat selection has been used to predict and explain patterns of abundance of species between habitats. Thermal quality, a density-independent component of habitat suitability, is often the most important factor for habitat selection in ectotherms which comprise the vast majority of animal species. Ectotherms may reach high densities such that individual fitness is reduced in a habitat due to increased competition for finite resources. Therefore, density and thermal quality may present conflicting information about...

Data from: Environmental complexity and the purging of deleterious alleles

Amardeep Singh, Aneil F. Agrawal & Howard D. Rundle
Sexual interactions among adults can generate selection on both males and females with genome-wide consequences. Sexual selection through males is one component of this selection that has been argued to play an important role in purging deleterious alleles. A common technique to assess the influence of sexual selection is by a comparison of experimental evolution under enforced monogamy vs. polygamy. Mixed results from past studies may be due to the use of highly simplified lab...

Data from: Stable producer–scrounger dynamics in wild birds: sociability and learning speed covary with scrounging behaviour

Lucy M. Aplin & Julie Morand-Ferron
There has been extensive game-theoretic modelling of conditions leading to equilibria of producer–scrounger dichotomies in groups. However there is a surprising paucity of experimental evidence in wild populations. Here, we examine producer–scrounger games in five subpopulations of birds feeding at a socially learnt foraging task. Over four weeks, a bimodal distribution of producers and scroungers emerged in all areas, with pronounced and consistent individual tactic specialization persisting over 3 years. Tactics were unrelated to exploratory...

Data from: Air-borne genotype by genotype indirect genetic effects are substantial in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans

Nicolas O. Rode, Peter Soroye, Rees Kassen & Howard D. Rundle
Genotype by genotype indirect genetic effects (G × G IGEs) occur when the phenotype of an individual is influenced by an interaction between its own genotype and those of neighbour individuals. Little is known regarding the relative importance of G × G IGEs compared with other forms of direct and indirect genetic effects. We quantified the relative importance of IGEs in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, a species in which IGEs are likely to be...

Data from: The purging of deleterious mutations in simple and complex mating environments

Julie Colpitts, Darla Williscroft, Harmandeep Sekhon, Howard Rundle, Howard D. Rundle & Harmandeep Singh Sekhon
There is a general expectation that sexual selection should align with natural selection to aid the purging of deleterious mutations, yet experiments comparing purging under monogamy vs. polygamy have provided mixed results. Recent studies suggest that this may be because the simplified mating environments used in these studies reduces the benefit of sexual selection through males and hampers natural selection through females by increasing costs associated with sexual conflict. To test the effect of the...

Data from: Increased soluble IL-7 receptor concentrations associate with improved IL-7 therapy outcomes in SIV-infected ART-treated Rhesus macaques

Amanda K. Steele, Lorna Carrasco-Medina, Donald L. Sodora & Angela M. Crawley
The use of interleukin-7 (IL-7) as an immunorestorative therapeutic has proven effective in HIV infection, cancer and bone marrow transplantation. Mediating its activity through membrane-bound IL-7 receptor α (mCD127), IL-7 therapy increases T-cell numbers and survival. A soluble form, sCD127, is found in plasma, and we have previously identified increased plasma sCD127 concentrations in HIV infection. Furthermore, patients with high sCD127 exhibited the best viral control, implicating a role for IL-7 or sCD127 directly in...

Data from: The physical environment mediates male harm and its effect on selection in females

Li Yun, Patrick J. Chen, Amardeep Singh, Aneil F. Agrawal & Howard D. Rundle
Recent experiments indicate that male preferential harassment of high-quality females reduces the variance in female fitness, thereby weakening natural selection through females and hampering adaptation and purging. We propose that this phenomenon, which results from a combination of male choice and male-induced harm, should be mediated by the physical environment in which intersexual interactions occur. Using Drosophila melanogaster, we examined intersexual interactions in small and simple (standard fly vials) versus slightly more realistic (small cages...

Data from: Sexual dimorphism in epicuticular compounds despite similar sexual selection in sex role-reversed seed beetles

Isobel Booksmythe, Howard D. Rundle & Göran Arnqvist
Sexual selection imposed by mating preferences is often implicated in the evolution of both sexual dimorphism and divergence between species in signalling traits. Epicuticular compounds (ECs) are important signalling traits in insects and show extensive variability among and within taxa. Here, we investigate whether variation in the multivariate EC profiles of two sex role-reversed beetle species, Megabruchidius dorsalis and Megabruchidius tonkineus, predicts mate attractiveness and mating success in males and females. The two species had...

Data from: Greater pollination generalization is not associated with reduced constraints on corolla shape in Antillean plants

Simon Joly, François Lambert, Hermine Alexandre, Julien Clavel, Étienne Léveillé-Bourret & John L. Clark
Flowers show important structural variation as reproductive organs but the evolutionary forces underlying this diversity are still poorly understood. In animal-pollinated species, flower shape is strongly fashioned by selection imposed by pollinators, which is expected to vary according to guilds of effective pollinators. Using the Antillean subtribe Gesneriinae (Gesneriaceae), we tested the hypothesis that pollination specialists pollinated by one functional type of pollinator have maintained more similar corolla shapes through time due to more constant...

Data from: Huygens' clocks revisited

Allan R. Willms, Petko M. Kitanov & William F. Langford
In 1665, Huygens observed that two identical pendulum clocks, weakly coupled through a heavy beam, soon synchronized with the same period and amplitude but with the two pendula swinging in opposite directions. This behaviour is now called anti-phase synchronization. This paper presents an analysis of the behaviour of a large class of coupled identical oscillators, including Huygens' clocks, using methods of equivariant bifurcation theory. The equivariant normal form for such systems is developed and the...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    18

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    18

Affiliations

  • University of Ottawa
    18
  • University of Toronto
    2
  • Florida State University
    2
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
    1
  • University of Queensland
    1
  • University of Montreal
    1
  • University of Minnesota
    1
  • Dalhousie University
    1
  • University of Szeged
    1
  • University of Guelph
    1