105 Works

Andean non-volant small mammals: a dataset of community assemblages of non-volant small mammals from the high Andes

Edgardo M. Rengifo, Jorge Brito, Jorge Pablo Jayat, Raisa Cairampoma, Agustina Novillo, Natali Hurtado, Ignacio Ferro, Cesar E. Medina, Alonso Arguero, Sergio Solari, Jose Urquizo, Ariatna Villareal, Elena Vivar, Pablo Teta, Marcial Quiroga-Carmona, Guillermo D'Elía & Alexandre Reis Percequillo
Information from diversity inventories is used to study patterns of biodiversity and species distribution; likewise, it may be useful to identify priority areas for conservation, and to guide future sampling efforts. In this context, we compiled information on non-volant small mammal communities from the high Andes (> 2,000 m.). Here we present an open resource data set containing information diversity (species composition, number of individuals captured ), inventory design (type of traps, sampling efforts), and...

Taxonomy based on limited genomic markers may underestimates species diversity of rockhopper penguins and threaten their conservation

María José Frugone, Theresa Cole, María Eugenia López, Gemma Clucas, Pável Matos-Maraví, Nicolás Lois, Pierre Pistorius, Francesco Bonadonna, Phil Trathan, Andrea Polanowski, Barbara Wienecke, Andrea Raya-Rey, Klemens Pütz, Antje Steinfurth, Ke Bi, Cynthia Wang-Claypool, Rauri C. K. Bowie, Jonathan Waters, Elie Poulin & Juliana Vianna
Delimiting recently diverged species is challenging. During speciation, genetic differentiation may be distributed unevenly across the genome, as different genomic regions can be subject to different selective pressures and evolutionary histories. Reliance on limited numbers of genetic markers that may be underpowered can make species delimitation even more challenging, potentially resulting in taxonomic inconsistencies. Rockhopper penguins of the genus Eudyptes comprise three broadly recognized taxa: northern (E. moseleyi), southern (E. chrysocome), and eastern rockhopper (E....

Data from: Pervasive genetic integration directs the evolution of human skull shape

Neus Martínez-Abadías, Mireia Esparza, Torstein Sjøvold, Rolando González-José, Mauro Santos, Miquel Hernández & Christian Peter Klingenberg
It has long been unclear whether the different derived cranial traits of modern humans evolved independently in response to separate selection pressures or whether they resulted from the inherent morphological integration throughout the skull. In a novel approach to this issue, we combine evolutionary quantitative genetics and geometric morphometrics to analyze genetic and phenotypic integration in human skull shape. We measured human skulls in the ossuary of Hallstatt (Austria), which offer a unique opportunity because...

Data from: A global perspective on the trophic geography of sharks

Christopher Stephen Bird, Ana Veríssimo, Sarah Magozzi, Kátya G. Abrantes, Alex Aguilar, Hassan Al-Reasi, Adam Barnett, Dana M. Bethea, Gérard Biais, Asuncion Borrell, Marc Bouchoucha, Mariah Boyle, Edward J. Brooks, Juerg Brunnschweiler, Paco Bustamante, Aaron Carlisle, Diana Catarino, Stéphane Caut, Yves Cherel, Tiphaine Chouvelon, Diana Churchill, Javier Ciancio, Julien Claes, Ana Colaço, Dean L. Courtney … & Clive N. Trueman
Sharks are a diverse group of mobile predators that forage across varied spatial scales and have the potential to influence food web dynamics. The ecological consequences of recent declines in shark biomass may extend across broader geographic ranges if shark taxa display common behavioural traits. By tracking the original site of photosynthetic fixation of carbon atoms that were ultimately assimilated into muscle tissues of 5,394 sharks from 114 species, we identify globally consistent biogeographic traits...

Data from: Ancient mitochondrial DNA reveals convergent evolution of giant short-faced bears (Tremarctinae) in North and South America

Kieren J. Mitchell, Sarah C. Bray, Pere Bover, Leopoldo Soibelzon, Blaine W. Schubert, Francisco Prevosti, Alfredo Prieto, Fabiana Martin, Jeremy J. Austin & Alan Cooper
The Tremarctinae are a subfamily of bears endemic to the New World, including two of the largest terrestrial mammalian carnivores that have ever lived: the giant, short-faced bears Arctodus simus from North America and Arctotherium angustidens from South America (greater than or equal to 1000 kg). Arctotherium angustidens became extinct during the Early Pleistocene, whereas Arctodus simus went extinct at the very end of the Pleistocene. The only living tremarctine is the spectacled bear (Tremarctos...

Data from: Hybridization could be a common phenomenon within the highly diverse lizard genus Liolaemus

Melisa Olave, Luciano J. Avila, , Mariana Morando & Jack W. Sites
Hybridization is likely to occur more often between closely related taxa that have had insufficient time to diverge to the point of reproductive incompatibility; hybridization between deeply divergent lineages is rare. In squamate reptiles, hybridization has been proposed as a possible explanation for the extensive paraphyly observed in mitochondrial gene trees in several species complexes of the South American lizard genus Liolaemus. One of the best-documented cases is within the L. boulengeri and L. rothi...

Data from: Climate modifies response of non-native and native species richness to nutrient enrichment

Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Peter B. Reich, Eric M. Lind, Lauren L. Sullivan, Eric W. Seabloom, Laura Yahdjian, Andrew S. MacDougall, Lara G. Reichmann, Juan Alberti, Selene Báez, Jonathan D. Bakker, Marc W. Cadotte, Maria C. Caldeira, Enrique J. Chaneton, Carla M. D'Antonio, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Oscar Iribarne, Kevin P. Kirkman, Johannes M. H. Knops, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Ramesh Laungani, Andrew D. B. Leakey … & Elizabeth T. Borer
Ecosystem eutrophication often increases domination by non-natives and causes displacement of native taxa. However, variation in environmental conditions may affect the outcome of interactions between native and non-native taxa in environments where nutrient supply is elevated. We examined the interactive effects of eutrophication, climate variability and climate average conditions on the success of native and non-native plant species using experimental nutrient manipulations replicated at 32 grassland sites on four continents. We hypothesized that effects of...

Data from: The effect of habitat fragmentation on the genetic structure of a top predator: loss of diversity and high differentiation among remnant populations of Atlantic Forest jaguars (Panthera onca)

Taiana Haag, Anelisie Santos, Denis Sana, Ronaldo Morato, , , Carlos De Angelo, Mario Di Bitetti, Francisco Salzano & Eduardo Eizirik
Habitat fragmentation may disrupt original patterns of gene flow and lead to drift-induced differentiation among local population units. Top predators such as the jaguar may be particularly susceptible to this effect, given their low population densities, leading to small effective sizes in local fragments. On the other hand, the jaguar's high dispersal capabilities and relatively long generation time might counteract this process, slowing the effect of drift on local populations over the time frame of...

Data from: Major radiations in the evolution of caviid rodents: reconciling fossils, ghost lineages, and relaxed molecular clocks

María Encarnación Pérez & Diego Pol
BACKGROUND: Caviidae is a diverse group of caviomorph rodents that is broadly distributed in South America and is divided into three highly divergent extant lineages: Caviinae (cavies), Dolichotinae (maras), and Hydrochoerinae (capybaras). The fossil record of Caviidae is only abundant and diverse since the late Miocene. Caviids belongs to Cavioidea sensu stricto (Cavioidea s.s.) that also includes a diverse assemblage of extinct taxa recorded from the late Oligocene to the middle Miocene of South America...

Data from: Genetic and phenotypic differentiation among Galaxias maculatus populations in a Patagonian postglacial lake system

Cecilia Carrea, Juan P. Barriga, Victor E. Cussac & Daniel E. Ruzzante
Understanding the influence of landscape features on population differentiation is fundamental to evolutionary biology studies. We examined spatial patterns of genetic and phenotypic variability among Galaxias maculatus populations in a complex of four postglacial lakes in northwestern Patagonia differing in size and connectivity among them. A hierarchical Bayesian analysis grouped the individuals collected from 11 localities into 3 genetic clusters, first defining the populations of the two large lakes and separating the two small lakes...

Data from: The taxonomic utility of micromorphology in Lepidaploa (Vernonieae: Asteraceae)

Danilo Marques, María Betiana Angulo, Jimi Naoki Nakajima & Massimiliano Dematteis
Lepidaploa belongs to tribe Vernonieae, one of the most complex tribes of Asteraceae, and relationships among Lepidaploa and related genera are poorly understood. Microcharacters may be of taxonomic value and used in the identification of different taxonomic categories. [DM1]The morphology of phyllaries, florets and cypselae was analysed in detail for the first time in 23 species of Lepidaploa to evaluate the reliability of microcharacters as taxonomic markers. The results were also discussed in relation to...

Data from: Plasticity of parental care under the risk of predation: how much should parents reduce care?

Cameron K. Ghalambor, Susana I. Peluc & Thomas E. Martin
Predation can be an important agent of natural selection shaping parental care behaviours, and can also favor behavioural plasticity. Parent birds often decrease the rate that they visit the nest to provision offspring when perceived risk is high. Yet the plasticity of such responses may differ among species as a function of either their relative risk of predation, or the mean rate of provisioning. Here, we report parental provisioning responses to experimental increases in the...

Data from: Land use intensity indirectly affects ecosystem services mainly through plant functional identity in a temperate forest

Verónica Chillo, Diego P. Vázquez, Mariano M. Amoroso & Elena M. Bennett
1.Land-use change is known to affect biodiversity, and there is increasing concern regarding how these changes may impact the provision of ecosystem services. Although functional composition (diversity and identity) could influence ecosystem properties and services at the community level, there is little quantitative understanding of these relationships in the field. Here, we evaluate the direct and indirect effects (through ecosystem properties) of biodiversity on the provision of multiple ecosystem services in native mixed forest in...

Data from: A new Palaeocene crocodylian from southern Argentina sheds light on the early history of caimanines

Paula Bona, Martín D. Ezcurra, Francisco Barrios & María V. Fernandez Blanco
Caimanines are crocodylians currently restricted to South and Central America and the oldest members are from lower Palaeocene localities of the Salamanca Formation (Chubut Province, Argentina). We report here a new caimanine from this same unit represented by a skull roof and partial braincase. Its phylogenetic relationships were explored in a cladistic analysis using standard characters and a morphogeometric two-dimensional configuration of the skull roof. The phylogenetic results were used for an event-based supermodel quantitative...

Data from: Isotopic niche partitioning between two apex predators over time

Massimiliano Drago, Luis Cardona, Valentina Franco-Trecu, Enrique A. Crespo, Damian Vales, Florencia Borrella, Lisette Zenteno, & Pablo Inchausti
1. Stable isotope analyses have become an important tool in reconstructing diets, analyzing resource use patterns, elucidating trophic relations among predators and understanding the structure of food webs. 2. Here, we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in bone collagen to reconstruct and compare the isotopic niches of adult South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis); n = 86) and sea lions (Otaria flavescens); n = 49) –two otariid species with marked morphological differences– in...

Data from: Revisiting protein aggregation as pathogenic in sporadic Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases

Alberto J. Espay, Joaquin A. Vizcarra, Luca Marsili, Anthony E. Lang, David K. Simon, Aristide Merola, Keith A. Josephs, Alfonso Fasano, Francesca Morgante, Rodolfo Savica, J. Timothy Greenamyre, Franca Cambi, Tritia R. Yamasaki, Caroline M. Tanner, Ziv Gan-Or, Irene Litvan, Ignacio F. Mata, Cyrus P. Zabetian, Patrik Brundin, Hubert H. Fernandez, David G. Standaert, Marcelo A. Kauffman, Michael A. Schwarzschild, S. Pablo Sardi, Todd Sherer … & James B. Leverenz
The gold standard for a definitive diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the pathologic finding of aggregated alpha-synuclein into Lewy bodies and for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) aggregated amyloid into plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau into tangles. Implicit in this clinico-pathologic-based nosology is the assumption that pathological protein aggregation at autopsy reflect pathogenesis at disease onset. While these aggregates may in exceptional cases be on a causal pathway in humans (e.g., aggregated alpha-synuclein in SNCA gene multiplication...

Data from: Thresholds in forest bird communities along woody vegetation gradients in the South American Dry Chaco

Leandro Macchi, Matthias Baumann, Hendrik Bluhm, Matthew Baker, Christian Levers, Héctor Ricardo Grau & Tobias Kuemmerle
1. Worldwide, tropical savannas and dry forests are under increasing pressure from land use. The environmental impacts of agricultural expansion into these ecosystems have received much attention, yet subtler changes in natural vegetation remain severely understudied. 2. We explored how bird communities vary along gradients of woody vegetation in the South American Dry Chaco by combining high-resolution, satellite-based tree, shrub, and total woody cover with field data on the frequency of 82 bird species surveyed...

Data from: Morphological datasets fit a common mechanism much more poorly than DNA sequences and call into question the Mkv model

Pablo A. Goloboff, Michael Pittman, Diego Pol & Xing Xu
The Mkv evolutionary model, based on minor modifications to models of molecular evolution, is being increasingly used to infer phylogenies from discrete morphological data, often producing different results from parsimony. The critical difference between Mkv and parsimony is the assumption of a “common mechanism” in the Mkv model, with branch lengths determining that probability of change for all characters increases or decreases at the same tree branches by the same exponential factor. We evaluate whether...

Data from: The oldest sigmodontine rodent revisited and the age of the first South American cricetids

Franck Barbière, Pablo E. Ortiz & Ulyses F.J. Pardiñas
New fossil material of Auliscomys formosus Reig 1978 allows restudy of the oldest known South American representative of the subfamily Sigmodontinae, Auliscomys formosus was based on a fragmentary dentary exhumed from the Monte Hermoso Formation of central Argentina. Previous studies allocated A. formosus to the early Pliocene. A revaluation of dental and cranial morphology, including for the first time the upper dentition, and the inclusion of A. formosus in a phylogenetic analysis of the tribe...

Data from: Sensitivity of global soil carbon stocks to combined nutrient enrichment

Thomas W. Crowther, Charlotte Riggs, Eric M. Lind, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Sarah E. Hobbie, E. R. Jasper Wubs, Peter B. Adler, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Johannes M. H. Knops, Rebecca L. McCulley, Andrew MacDougall, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Carly J. Stevens & Devin Routh
Soil stores approximately twice as much carbon as the atmosphere and fluctuations in the size of the soil carbon pool directly influence climate conditions. We used the Nutrient Network global change experiment to examine how anthropogenic nutrient enrichment might influence grassland soil carbon storage at a global scale. In isolation, enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorous had minimal impacts on soil carbon storage. However, when these nutrients were added in combination with potassium and micronutrients, soil...

Data from: Signatures of divergence, invasiveness and terrestralization revealed by four apple snail genomes

Jin Sun, Huawei Mu, Jack C. H. Ip, Runsheng Li, Ting Xu, Alice Accorsi, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado, Eric Ross, Yi Lan, Yanan Sun, Alfredo Castro-Vazquez, Israel A. Vega, Horacio Heras, Santiago Ituarte, Bert Van Bocxlaer, Kenneth A. Hayes, Robert H. Cowie, Zhongying Zhao, Yu Zhang, Pei-Yuan Qian & Jian-Wen Qiu
The family Ampullariidae includes both aquatic and amphibious apple snails. They are an emerging model for evolutionary studies due to the high diversity, ancient history and wide geographical distribution. Insight into drivers of ampullariid evolution is hampered, however, by the lack of genomic resources. Here we report the genomes of four ampullariids spanning the Old World (Lanistes nyassanus) and New World (Pomacea canaliculata, Pomacea maculata and Marisa cornuarietis) clades. The ampullariid genomes have conserved ancient...

Data from: Natural hazards and wildlife health: the effects of a volcanic eruption on the Andean condor

Pablo Plaza, Guillermo Wiemeyer, Guillermo Blanco, Pablo Alarcón, Dámaso Hornero-Méndez, José Antonio Donázar, José Antonio Sánchez-Zapata, Fernando Hiraldo, Jesús De La Rosa & Sergio Agustín Lambertucci
Volcanic eruptions produce health changes in animals that may be associated with emitted gases and deposited ashes. We evaluated whether the Puyehue–Cordón Caulle volcanic eruption in 2011 produced health changes in the threatened Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) living in the area most affected by the eruption, north-western Patagonia. We studied clinical and biochemical parameters of condors examined before and after the eruption. We also examined concentrations of different metals and metalloids in the blood of...

Astroniumxylon, Schinopsixylon and Parametopioxylon n. gen. fossil woods from Upper Cenozoic of Argentina: Taxonomic revision, new taxon and new records

María Jimena Franco
This paper presents new descriptions of Anacardiaceae fossil woods from the Ituzaingó Formation (late Cenozoic) at the Toma Vieja, Curtiembre, and Arroyo El Espinillo localities, Argentina. We describe eight silicified woods assigned to four different species in three genera, one of which, Parametopioxylon crystalliferum n. gen. n. sp., is new. Similarities between these three genera and the six Anacardiaceae species previously recorded from the late Cenozoic in northeastern Argentina are investigated using multivariate analysis techniques...

Intraspecific variation in body size of bumblebee workers influences anti-predator behavior

Sabrina Gavini, Carolina Quintero & Mariana Tadey
1.Flower dwelling predators make flowers dangerous foraging sites for pollinators, potentially affecting their anti-predator behavior. Moreover, predation vulnerability often varies among pollinators’ body-sizes with interspecific comparisons showing that smaller species are more vulnerable than larger ones. However, how intraspecific body size variation influences pollinator behavior under predation risk is still unknown, especially under natural conditions. 2.We hypothesized that bumblebee workers of different sizes will exhibit different foraging strategies under predation risk. We predict that (i)...

Behavioural complementarity among frugivorous birds and lizards can promote plant diversity in island ecosystems

Teresa Morán López, Aarón González Castro, Juan Manuel Morales & Manuel Nogales Hidalgo
The behavioural complementarity of fruit-eating animals is thought to exert a key role in plant community assembly. However, a mechanistic understanding of the causal links between the two processes is still lacking. This study assesses if complementarity between dispersers in feeding and microhabitat-use behaviour enhances community-scale dispersal services, resulting in a more diverse community of seedlings. We used a Bayesian approach to connect a comprehensive database of seed dispersal effectiveness at a community scale with...

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