105 Works

A test of the riverine barrier hypothesis in the largest subtropical river basin in the neotropics

Leonardo Campagna, Cecilia Kopuchian, Darío A. Lijtmaer, Gustavo S. Cabanne, Natalia C. García, Pablo D. Lavinia, Pablo L. Tubaro, Irby Lovette & Adrián S. Di Giacomo
The riverine barrier hypothesis proposes that large rivers represent geographic barriers to gene flow for terrestrial organisms, leading to population differentiation and ultimately allopatric speciation. Here we asses for the first time if the subtropical Paraná-Paraguay River system in the Del Plata basin, second in size among South American drainages, acts as a barrier to gene flow for birds. We analyzed the degree of mitochondrial and nuclear genomic differentiation in seven species with known subspecies...

Regression models generated by APRANK (computational prioritization of antigenic proteins and peptides from complete pathogen proteomes)

Alejandro Ricci & Fernán Agüero
Availability of highly parallelized immunoassays has renewed interest in the discovery of serology-based biomarkers for infectious diseases. Protein and peptide microarrays now provide a high-throughput platform for immunological screening of potential antigens and B-cell epitopes. However, there is still a need to prioritize relevant probes when designing these arrays. In this work we describe a computational method called APRANK (Antigenic Protein and Peptide Ranker) which integrates multiple molecular features to prioritize antigenic targets starting from...

Data from: Demographic history inferred from genome-wide data reveals two lineages of sheldgeese endemic to a glacial refugium in the southern Atlantic

Cecilia Kopuchian, Leonardo Campagna, Adrián S. Di Giacomo, Robert E. Wilson, Mariana Bulgarella, Pablo Petracci, Juan Mazar Barnett, Ricardo Matus, Olivia Blank & Kevin G. McCracken
Aim: The Malvinas/Falkland Islands (MFI) constitute the largest archipelago in the southern Atlantic, and harbour endemic lineages that presumably evolved after sea-level rise, associated with glacial periods, isolated ancestral populations. We investigate the role of the MFI in isolating populations from continental counterparts of two highly vagile species: the sheldgeese Chloephaga picta and Chloephaga rubidiceps. Location: Patagonia and the Malvinas/Falkland Islands. Methods: We sampled C. picta and C. rubidiceps on the continent and MFI. Using...

Data from: Ancient DNA from the extinct South American giant glyptodont Doedicurus sp. (Xenarthra: Glyptodontidae) reveals that glyptodonts evolved from Eocene armadillos

Kieren J. Mitchell, Agustín Scanferla, Esteban Soibelzon, Ricardo Bonini, Javier Ochoa & Alan Cooper
Glyptodonts were giant (some of them up to ~2400 kg), heavily armoured relatives of living armadillos, which became extinct during the Late Pleistocene/early Holocene alongside much of the South American megafauna. Although glyptodonts were an important component of Cenozoic South American faunas, their early evolution and phylogenetic affinities within the order Cingulata (armoured New World placental mammals) remain controversial. In this study, we used hybridization enrichment and high-throughput sequencing to obtain a partial mitochondrial genome...

Data from: Chromosomal loci important for cotyledon opening under UV-B in Arabidopsis thaliana

Mariana Conte, Silvia De Simone, Susan J. Simmons, Carlos L. Ballaré & Ann E. Stapleton
BACKGROUND: Understanding of the genetic architecture of plant UV-B responses allows extensive targeted testing of candidate genes or regions, along with combinations of those genes, for placement in metabolic or signal transduction pathways. RESULTS: Composite interval mapping and single-marker analysis methods were used to identify significant loci for cotyledon opening under UV-B in four sets of recombinant inbred lines. In addition, loci important for canalization (stability) of cotyledon opening were detected in two mapping populations....

Data from: Extinction debt of a common shrub in a fragmented landscape

Juan P. González-Varo, Rafael G. Albaladejo, Marcelo A. Aizen, Juan Arroyo & Abelardo Aparicio
1. Environmental stochasticity and low demographic rates may cause delayed extinctions of habitat-specialist species that were initially retained within remnant patches after habitat loss and fragmentation. Detecting such extinction debts opens opportunities to counteract future biodiversity loss, yet knowing the underlying causes of population declines is a basic need for targeting specific guidelines for conservation and restoration (e.g. habitat quantity, quality, or connectivity). 2. Here, we examine the extinction debt in the common Mediterranean shrub...

Data from: Quantifying \"apparent\" impact and distinguishing impact from invasiveness in multispecies plant invasions

Dean E. Pearson, Yvette K. Ortega, Ozkan Eren & Jose L. Hierro
The quantification of invader impacts remains a major hurdle to understanding and managing invasions. Here, we demonstrate a method for quantifying the community-level impact of multiple plant invaders by applying Parker et al.'s (1999) equation (impact = range x local abundance x per capita effect or per unit effect) using data from 620 survey plots from 31 grasslands across west-central Montana, USA. In testing for interactive effects of multiple invaders on native plant abundance (percent...

Data from: Body size and allometric shape variation in the molly Poecilia vivipara along a gradient of salinity and predation

Marcio S Araujo, S Ivan Perez, Maria Julia C Magazoni & Ana Cristina Petry
Background: Phenotypic diversity among populations may result from divergent natural selection acting directly on traits or via correlated responses to changes in other traits. One of the most frequent patterns of correlated response is the proportional change in the dimensions of anatomical traits associated with changes in growth or absolute size, known as allometry. Livebearing fishes subject to predation gradients have been shown to repeatedly evolve larger caudal peduncles and smaller cranial regions under high...

Data from: Sexual dimorphism, phenotypic integration, and the evolution of head structure in casque-headed lizards

Gregory W. Taylor, Juan C. Santos, Benjamin J. Perrault, Mariana Morando, Carlos Roberto Vásquez Almazán, & Jack W. Sites
Sexes can differ in features associated with differential reproduction, which can be used during courtship or aggressive encounters. Some traits tend to evolve independently between sexes and emerge as sexually dimorphic within the organismal phenotype. We characterize such a relationship by estimating the phenotypic integration of the head morphology and modularity of the crest in the casque-headed lizards (Corytophanidae). In this clade, some species show extreme sexual dimorphism (e.g., head crests in the genus Basiliscus)...

Data from: Increasing the fish diversity of the Triassic faunas of Gondwana: a new redfieldiiform (Actinopterygii) from the Middle Triassic of Argentina and its palaeobiogeographical implications

Soledad Gouiric-Cavalli, Ana María Zavattieri, Pedro Raúl Gutierrez, Bárbara Cariglino & Lucía Balarino
A new actinopterygian, Calaichthys tehul gen. et sp. nov. is described on the basis of a few, well-preserved specimens from the Anisian Cerro de Las Cabras Formation, Cuyo Basin in Mendoza Province. The new genus shows a combination of primitive characters (e.g. deep posterior region of the maxilla contacting the preopercle, a suspensorium backwardly oriented) and more advanced characters (e.g. distally segmented fin rays, hemiheterocercal caudal fin) and is thus considered to be a ‘subholostean’...

Data from: Vertical gradients in species richness and community composition across the twilight zone in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

Stephanie A. Sommer, Lauren Van Woudenberg, Petra H. Lenz, Georgina Cepeda & Erica Goetze
Although metazoan animals in the mesopelagic zone play critical roles in deep pelagic food webs and in the attenuation of carbon in midwaters, the diversity of these assemblages is not fully known. A metabarcoding survey of mesozooplankton diversity across the epipelagic, mesopelagic and upper bathypelagic zones (0-1500m) in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre revealed far higher estimates of species richness than expected given prior morphology-based studies in the region (4,024 OTUs, 10-fold increase), despite conservative...

Data from: Biotic and abiotic variables influencing plant litter breakdown in streams: a global study

Luz Boyero, Richard Pearson, Cang Hui, Mark Gessner, Javier Perez, Markos Alexandrou, Manuel Graça, Bradley Cardinale, Ricardo Albariño, M. Arunachalam, Leon Barmuta, Andrew Boulton, Andreas Bruder, Marcos Callisto, Eric Chauvet, Russell Death, David Dudgeon, Andrea Encalada, Veronica Ferreira, Ricardo Figueroa, Alex Flecker, , Julie Helson, Tomoya Iwata, Tajang Jinggut … & Catherine Yule
Plant litter breakdown is a key ecological process in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Streams and rivers, in particular, have high rates of carbon dioxide evasion and they contribute substantially to global carbon fluxes. However, there is little information available on the relative roles of different drivers of plant litter breakdown in fresh waters, particularly at large scales. We present a global-scale study of litter breakdown in streams to compare the roles of biotic, climatic and...

Data from: Climatic niche evolution in the Andean genus Menonvillea (Cremolobeae: Brassicaceae)

Diego L. Salariato & Fernando O. Zuloaga
The study of how climatic niches change over evolutionary time has recently attracted the interest of many researchers. Different methodologies have been employed principally to analyze the temporal dynamics of the niche and specially to test for the presence of phylogenetic niche conservatism. Menonvillea, a genus of Brassicaceae including 24 species, is distributed primarily along the Andes of Argentina and Chile, with some taxa growing in southern Patagonia and others in the Atacama Desert and...

Data from: Extended phenotypes and foraging restrictions: ant nest entrances and resource ingress in leaf-cutting ants

Lucía I. Rodríguez-Planes & Alejandro G. Farji-Brener.
Several factors may restrict the acquisition of food to below the levels predicted by the optimization theory. However, how the design of structures that animals build for foraging restrict the entry of food are less known. Using scaling relationships we determined whether the design of the entrances of leaf-cutting ant nests restricts resource input into the colony. We measured nests and foraging parameters in 25 nests of Atta cephalotes in a tropical rain forest. Ant...

Data from: The youngest South American rhynchocephalian, a survivor of the K/Pg extinction

Sebastian Apesteguía, Raúl O. Gómez, Guillermo W. Rougier & R. O. Gomez
Rhynchocephalian lepidosaurs, though once widespread worldwide, are represented today only by the tuatara (Sphenodon) of New Zealand. After their apparent early Cretaceous extinction in Laurasia, they survived in southern continents. In South America, they are represented by different lineages of Late Cretaceous eupropalinal forms until their disappearance by the Cretaceous/Palaeogene (K/Pg) boundary. We describe here the only unambiguous Palaeogene rhynchocephalian from South America; this new taxon is a younger species of the otherwise Late Cretaceous...

Data from: Aerodynamic reconstruction of the primitive fossil bat Onychonycteris finneyi (Mammalia: Chiroptera)

Lucila I. Amador, Nancy B. Simmons & Norberto P. Giannini
Bats are the only mammals capable of powered flight. One of the oldest bats known from a complete skeleton is Onychonycteris finneyi from the Early Eocene (Green River Formation, Wyoming, 52.5 mya). Estimated to weigh ~40 g, Onychonycteris exhibits the most primitive combination of characters thus far known for bats. Here we reconstructed the aerofoil of the two known specimens, calculated basic aerodynamic variables, and compared them with those of extant bats and gliding mammals....

Data from: Isotopic evidence for oligotrophication of terrestrial ecosystems

Joseph M. Craine, Andrew J. Elmore, Lixin Wang, Julieta Aranibar, Marijn Bauters, Pascal Boeckx, Brooke E. Crowley, Melissa A. Dawes, Sylvain Delzon, Alex Fajardo, Yunting Fang, Lei Fujiyoshi, Alan Gray, Rossella Guerrieri, Michael J. Gundale, David J. Hawke, Peter Hietz, Mathieu Jonard, Elizabeth Kearsley, Tanaka Kenzo, Mikhail Makarov, Sara Marañón-Jiménez, Terrence P. McGlynn, Brenden E. McNeil, Stella G. Mosher … & Katarzyna Zmudczyńska-Skarbek
Human societies depend on an Earth System that operates within a constrained range of nutrient availability, yet the recent trajectory of terrestrial nitrogen (N) availability is uncertain. Examining patterns of foliar N concentrations ([N]) and isotope ratios (15N) from more than 42,000 samples acquired over 37 years, here we show that foliar [N] declined by 8% and foliar 15N declined by 0.8 – 1.9 ‰. Examining patterns across different climate spaces, foliar 15N declined across...

Data from: Assessing bottom-trawling impacts based on the longevity of benthic invertebrates

Jan Geert Hiddink, Simon Jennings, Marija Sciberras, Stefan Bolam, Giulia Cambie, Robert McConnaughey, Tessa Mazor, Ray Hilborn, Jeremy Collie, C. Roland Pitcher, Ana Parma, Petri Suuronen, Michel Kaiser, Adriaan Rijnsdorp, Jeremy S. Collie, Michel J. Kaiser, Adriaan D. Rijnsdorp & Robert A. McConnaughey
1. Bottom trawling is the most widespread human activity directly affecting seabed habitats. Assessment and effective management of the effects of bottom trawling at the scale of fisheries requires an understanding of differences in sensitivity of biota to trawling. Responses to disturbance are expected to depend on the intrinsic rate of increase of populations (r), which is expected to be linearly related to the reciprocal of longevity. 2. We examine the relationship between the longevity...

Raster layers of prioritisation analyses for current and future conditions based on phylogenetic diversity of Neotropical palms

Santiago José Elías Velazco
Aim: Palms are an ecologically and societally important plant group, with high diversity in the Neotropics. Here, we estimated the impacts of future climate change on phylogenetic diversity (PD) of Neotropical palms under varying climatic and dispersal scenarios, assessed the effectiveness of the established network of protected areas (PAs) for conserving palms PD today and in 2070, and identified priority areas for the conservation of palm species and their evolutionary history in the face of...

Combined secondary compounds naturally found in nectars enhance honeybee cognition and survival

Walter Farina, Ignacio Marchi, Florencia Palottini, Ignacio Luis Marchi & Walter Marcelo Farina
The alkaloid caffeine and the amino acid arginine are present as secondary compounds in nectars of some flower species visited by pollinators. Each of these compounds affects honeybee appetitive behaviors by improving its foraging activity and learning. While caffeine potentiates responses of mushroom body neurons involved in honeybee learning processes, arginine acts as precursor of nitric oxide enhancing the protein synthesis involved in memory formation. Despite existing evidence on how these compounds affect honeybee cognitive...

Data from: To migrate or not: drivers of over-summering in a long-distance migratory shorebird

Natalia Soledad Martínez-Curci, Juan Pablo Isacch, Verónica D'Amico, Pablo Rojas & Gabriel Castresana
The phenomenon of over-summering in southern non-breeding areas by boreal-breeding birds is particularly prevalent among shorebirds. Despite its frequency, it is understudied compared with most other aspects of shorebird ecology. Our aim was to expand knowledge of this subject through a study of Red Knots Calidris canutus rufa over-summering at a site in Argentina during the austral winter. We measured the proportion of one-year-old and adult over-summerers and evaluated the roles of flight-feather condition and...

Robustness of a meta‐network to alternative habitat loss scenarios

Micaela Santos, Luciano Cagnolo, Tomas Roslin, Emmanuel F. Ruperto, María Laura Bernaschini & Diego P. Vázquez
Studying how habitat loss affects the tolerance of ecological networks to species extinction (i.e. their robustness) is key for our understanding of the influence of human activities on natural ecosystems. With networks typically occurring as local interaction networks interconnected in space (a meta-network), we may ask how the loss of specific habitat fragments affects the overall robustness of the meta-network. To address this question, for an empirical meta-network of plants, herbivores and natural enemies we...

Metapopulation dynamics and foraging plasticity in a highly vagile seabird, the southern rockhopper penguin

Nicolas Lois, Leonardo Campagna, Ulises Balza, Michael Polito, Klemens Pütz, Juliana Vianna, Annick Morgenthaler, Esteban Frere, Ricardo Saenz-Samaniego, Andrea Raya Rey & Bettina Mahler
Population connectivity is driven by individual dispersal potential and modulated by natal philopatry. In seabirds, high vagility facilitates dispersal yet philopatry is also common, with foraging area overlap often correlated with population connectivity. We assess the interplay between these processes by studying past and current connectivity and foraging niche overlap among southern rockhopper penguin colonies of the coast of southern South America using genomic and stable isotope analyses. We found two distinct genetic clusters and...

Census data of growth, mortality and size stage transitions of nests of leaf-cutting ant species before and after fires

Alejandro Gustavo Farji-Brener
We hypothesized that fires will affect more the species that build external, easily flammable thatch mounds with superficial fungal gardens (Acromyrmex lobicornis) than colonies that build subterranean nests in the less-flammable bare-ground (Acromyrmex striatus). We use a stochastic matrix demographic model parameterized with 4 years of data in pre and post fire scenarios. This data set contain all the census data which from we build the matrix models.

Plausible causes of seed preferences and diet composition in seed-eating passerines

Luis Marone, Victor Cueto, Javier Lopez De Casenave, Agustín Zarco & Sergio Camín
We evaluated whether seed mass, handling time, handling efficiency and profitability account for (a) preferences in controlled experiments, and (b) field-diet composition of four bird species of the Monte desert, Argentina. The question of whether birds maximise their energy intake rates while feeding on seeds is assessed. We used feeding experiments with six native seed species of 0.07 – 0.75 mg (i.e. the seed-size range consumed in nature), which account for 0.59 – 0.84 of...

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