115 Works

The Power of the Brush

Hwisang Cho
The invention of an easily learned Korean alphabet in the mid-fifteenth century sparked an “epistolary revolution” in the following century as letter writing became an indispensable daily practice for elite men and women alike. The amount of correspondence increased exponentially as new epistolary networks were built among scholars and within families, and written culture created room for appropriation and subversion by those who joined epistolary practices. Focusing on the ways that written culture interacts with...


Aniruddha Belsare
An agent-based model simulating West Nile Virus dynamics in a one host (American robin)-one vector (Culex spp. mosquito) system.

Data from: Inclusive fitness and differential productivity across the life course determine intergenerational transfers in a small-scale human society

Paul L. Hooper, Michael Gurven, Jeffrey Winking & Hillard S. Kaplan
Transfers of resources between generations are an essential element in current models of human life-history evolution accounting for prolonged development, extended lifespan and menopause. Integrating these models with Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness, we predict that the interaction of biological kinship with the age-schedule of resource production should be a key driver of intergenerational transfers. In the empirical case of Tsimane’ forager–horticulturalists in Bolivian Amazonia, we provide a detailed characterization of net transfers of food...

Data from: Restoring Study 329: efficacy and harms of paroxetine and imipramine in treatment of major depression in adolescence

Joanna C. Le Noury, John M. Nardo, David Healy, Jon Jureidini, Melissa Raven, Catalin Tufanaru & Elia Abi-Jaoude
Objectives: To reanalyse SmithKline Beecham’s Study 329 (published by Keller and colleagues in 2001), the primary objective of which was to compare the efficacy and safety of paroxetine and imipramine with placebo in the treatment of adolescents with unipolar major depression. The reanalysis under the restoring invisible and abandoned trials (RIAT) initiative was done to see whether access to and reanalysis of a full dataset from a randomised controlled trial would have clinically relevant implications...

Data from: Serial founder effects and genetic differentiation during worldwide range expansion of monarch butterflies

Amanda A. Pierce, Myron P. Zalucki, Marie Bangura, Milan Udawatta, Marcus R. Kronforst, Sonia Altizer, Juan Fernández Haeger & Jacobus C. De Roode
Range expansions can result in founder effects, increasing genetic differentiation between expanding populations and reducing genetic diversity along the expansion front. However, few studies have addressed these effects in long-distance migratory species, for which high dispersal ability might counter the effects of genetic drift. Monarchs (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a long-distance annual migration in North America, but have also dispersed around the world to form populations that do not migrate or travel...

Data from: Deltamethrin resistance in Aedes aegypti results in treatment failure in Merida, Mexico

Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec, Anuar Medina-Barreiro, Azael Che-Mendoza, Felipe Dzul-Manzanilla, Fabian Correa-Morales, Guillermo Guillermo-May, Wilbert Bibiano-Marin, Valentin Uc-Puc, Eduardo Geded-Moreno, Jose Vadillo-Sanches, Jorge Palacio-Vargas, Scott A. Ritchie, Audrey Lenhart, Pablo Manrique-Saide & José Vadillo-Sánchez
The operational impact of deltamethrin resistance on the efficacy of indoor insecticide applications to control Aedes aegypti was evaluated in Merida, Mexico. A randomized controlled trial quantified the efficacy of indoor residual spraying (IRS) against adult Ae. aegypti in houses treated with either deltamethrin (to which local Ae. aegypti expressed a high degree of resistance) or bendiocarb (to which local Ae. aegypti were fully susceptible) as compared to untreated control houses. All adult Ae. aegypti...

Data from: Ploidy tug-of-war: evolutionary and genetic environments influence the rate of ploidy drive in a human fungal pathogen

Aleeza C. Gerstein, Heekyung Lim, Judith Berman & Meleah A. Hickman
Variation in baseline ploidy is seen throughout the tree of life, yet the factors that determine why one ploidy level is maintained over another remain poorly understood. Experimental evolution studies using asexual fungal microbes with manipulated ploidy levels intriguingly reveals a propensity to return to the historical baseline ploidy, a phenomenon that we term ‘ploidy drive’. We evolved haploid, diploid, and polyploid strains of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans under three different nutrient limitation...

Data from: Forest restoration and parasitoid wasp communities in montane Hawai'i

Rachelle K. Gould, Liba Pejchar, Sara G. Bothwell, Berry Brosi, Stacie Wolny, Chase D. Mendenhall & Gretchen Daily
Globally, most restoration efforts focus on re-creating the physical structure (flora or physical features) of a target ecosystem with the assumption that other ecosystem components will follow. Here we investigate that assumption by documenting biogeographical patterns in an important invertebrate taxon, the parasitoid wasp family Ichneumonidae, in a recently reforested Hawaiian landscape. Specifically, we test the influence of (1) planting configurations (corridors versus patches), (2) vegetation age, (3) distance from mature native forest, (4) surrounding...

Data from: Heritable variation in host tolerance and resistance inferred from a wild host– parasite system

Elise Mazé-Guilmo, Géraldine Loot, David James Páez, Thierry Lefèvre, Simon Blanchet, T. Lefevre, D. J. Paez & E. Maze-Guilmo
Hosts have evolved two distinct defence strategies against parasites: resistance (which prevents infection or limit parasite growth) and tolerance (which alleviates the fitness consequences of infection). However, heritable variation in resistance and tolerance and the genetic correlation between these two traits have rarely been characterized in wild host populations. Here, we estimate these parameters for both traits in Leuciscus burdigalensis, a freshwater fish parasitized by Tracheliastes polycolpus. We used a genetic database to construct a...

Data from: Fitness costs of animal medication: antiparasitic plant chemicals reduce fitness of monarch butterfly hosts

Leiling Tao, Kevin M. Hoang, Mark D. Hunter & Jacobus C. De Roode
The emerging field of ecological immunology demonstrates that allocation by hosts to immune defence against parasites is constrained by the costs of those defences. However, the costs of non-immunological defences, which are important alternatives to canonical immune systems, are less well characterized. Estimating such costs is essential for our understanding of the ecology and evolution of alternative host defence strategies. Many animals have evolved medication behaviours, whereby they use antiparasitic compounds from their environment to...

Data from: Establishment and maintenance of aphid endosymbionts after horizontal transfer is dependent on host genotype

Benjamin James Parker, Ailsa H.C. McLean, Jan Hrcek, Nicole M. Gerardo, H. Charles J. Godfray & Ailsa H. C. McLean
Animal-associated microbial communities have important effects on host phenotypes. Individuals within and among species differ in the strains and species of microbes that they harbour, but how natural selection shapes the distribution and abundance of symbionts in natural populations is not well understood. Symbionts can be beneficial in certain environments but also impose costs on their hosts. Consequently, individuals that can or cannot associate with symbionts will be favoured under different ecological circumstances. As a...

Data from: Host social behavior decreases exposure to vector-borne disease: a field experiment in a “hotspot” of West Nile virus transmission

Bethany L. Krebs, Tavis K. Anderson, Tony L. Goldberg, Gabriel L. Hamer, Uriel D. Kitron, Christina M. Newman, Marilyn O. Ruiz, Edward D. Walker & J. D. Brawn
Animals can decrease their individual risk of predation by forming groups. The encounter-dilution hypothesis extends the potential benefits of gregariousness to biting insects and vector-borne disease by predicting that the per capita number of insect bites should decrease within larger host groups. Although vector-borne diseases are common and can exert strong selective pressures on hosts, there have been few tests of the encounter-dilution effect in natural systems. We conducted an experimental test of the encounter-dilution...

Data from: Optogenetic dissection of descending behavioral control in Drosophila

Jessica Cande, Shigehiro Namiki, Jirui Qiu, Wyatt Korff, Gwyneth M. Card, Joshua W. Shaevitz, David L. Stern & Gordon J. Berman
In most animals, the brain makes behavioral decisions that are transmitted by descending neurons to the nerve cord circuitry that produces behaviors. In insects, only a few descending neurons have been associated with specific behaviors. To explore how descending neurons control an insect's movements, we developed a novel method to systematically assay the behavioral effects of activating individual neurons on freely behaving terrestrial D. melanogaster. We calculated a two-dimensional representation of the entire behavior space...

Data from: Evolution of behavioral and cellular defenses against parasitoid wasps in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup

Zachary R. Lynch, Todd A. Schlenke & Jacobus C. De Roode
It may be intuitive to predict that host immune systems will evolve to counter a broad range of potential challenges through simultaneous investment in multiple defenses. However, this would require diversion of resources from other traits, such as growth, survival, and fecundity. Therefore, ecological immunology theory predicts that hosts will specialize in only a subset of possible defenses. We tested this hypothesis through a comparative study of a cellular immune response and a putative behavioral...

Data from: Prospective comparison of two models of integrating early infant male circumcision with maternal child health services in Kenya: the Mtoto Msafi Mbili Study

Robert C. Bailey, Fredrick Adera, Mary Ellen Mackesy-Amiti, Timothy Adipo, Sherry K. Nordstrom, Supriya D. Mehta, Walter Jaoko, F. L. Fredrik G. Langi, Walter Obiero, Edmon Obat, Fredrick O. Otieno & Marisa R. Young
As countries scale up adult voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention, they are looking ahead to long term sustainable strategies, including introduction of early infant male circumcision (EIMC). To address the lack of evidence regarding introduction of EIMC services in sub-Saharan African settings, we conducted a simultaneous, prospective comparison of two models of EIMC service delivery in Homa Bay County, Kenya. In one division a standard delivery package (SDP) was introduced and included...

Data from: Force and torque on spherical particles in micro-channel flows using computational fluid dynamics

Jin Suo, Erin E. Edwards, Ananyaveena Anilkumar, Todd Sulchek, Don P. Giddens & Susan N. Thomas
To delineate the influence of hemodynamic force on cell adhesion processes, model in vitro fluidic assays that mimic physiological conditions are commonly employed. Herein, we offer a framework for solution of the three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to estimate the forces resulting from fluid flow near a plane acting on a sphere that is either stationary or in free flow, and we compare these results to a widely used theoretical model that...

Agricultural intensification drives changes in hybrid network robustness by modifying network structure

Beth Morrison, Berry Brosi & Rodolfo Dirzo
Within ecological communities, species engage in myriad interaction types, yet empirical examples of hybrid species interaction networks composed of multiple types of interactions are still scarce. A key knowledge gap is understanding how the structure and stability of such hybrid networks are affected by anthropogenic disturbance. Using 15,169 interaction observations, we constructed 16 hybrid herbivore-plant-pollinator networks along an agricultural intensification gradient to explore changes in network structure and robustness to local extinctions. We found that...

Data from: Perturbation-evoked cortical responses associated with balance ability

Aiden Payne & Lena Ting
Background: Reactive balance recovery evokes a negative peak of cortical electroencephalography (EEG) activity (N1) that is simultaneous to brainstem-mediated automatic balance-correcting muscle activity. This study follows up on an observation from a previous study, in which N1 responses were larger in individuals who seemed to have greater difficulty responding to support-surface perturbations. Research Question: We hypothesized that people engage more cortical activity when balance recovery is more challenging. We predicted that people with lower balance...

Reservoir hosts experiencing food stress alter transmission dynamics for a zoonotic pathogen

Jennifer C. Owen, Hannah R. Landwerlen, Dhruv B. Sharma, Sichao Wang, Alexander T. Ciota, Laura D. Kramer, Alan P. Dupuis & Aniruddha V. Belsare
Anthropogenic environmental change can significantly alter availability and quality of food resources for reservoir hosts and impact host-pathogen interactions in the wild. The state of the host’s nutritional reserves as time of infection is a key factor influencing infection outcomes by altering host resistance. Here we combine experimental and model-based approaches to better understand how an environmental stressor affects host resistance to West Nile virus (WNV). Using American robins (Turdus migratorius), a species considered a...

COVID-19 and Opioid Use in Appalachian Kentucky

Rachel Vickers-Smith, Hannah L. F. Cooper & April M. Young
Appalachian Kentucky is currently fighting two public health emergencies – COVID-19 and the opioid epidemic – leaving the area strapped for resources to care for these ongoing crises. During this time, people who use opioids (PWUO) have increased vulnerability to fatal overdoses and drug-related harms (e.g., HIV). Disruption of already limited services posed by COVID-19 could have an especially detrimental impact on the health of PWUO. Though the COVID-19 pandemic is jeopardizing hard-won progress in...


John J. Stuhr
First, I develop an account of the nature of moods and the relation of mood to emotion and temperament. This account stresses that social and individual moods are marked by four features: They are transactional - neither wholly subjective nor objective; in experience they shade into and blur back and forth with feeling and temperament; they are ambient and atmospheric, a habit of living ·in the world more expansive than a habit of mind; and,...

Energy drinks consumption and perceptions among university students in Beirut, Lebanon: a mixed methods approach

Malake Ghozayel, Ali Ghaddar, Ghada Farhat, Lara Nasreddine, Janine Kara & Lamis Jomaa
Background: Energy drinks (ED) are caffeine and sugar-rich beverages with other ingredients that are marketed for their energy boosting and performance-enhancing effects. The consumption of these drinks, with and without alcohol, is dramatically increasing worldwide, despite the reported side effects and potential harms to consumers. Few studies, to date, have explored the perceptions and experiences of young adults towards these beverages. Objective: The present study aimed to explore the consumption patterns and correlates of ED...

MHMSLeptoDy (Multi-host, multi-serovar Leptospira Dynamics Model)

Aniruddha Belsare, Meghan Mason, Matthew Gompper & Claudia Munoz-Zanzi

Data from: Aridity drives coordinated trait shifts but not decreased trait variance across the geographic range of eight Australian trees

Leander Anderegg, Xingwen Loy, Ian Markham, Christina Elmer, Mark Hovenden, Janneke HilleRisLambers & Margaret Mayfield
Large intraspecific functional trait variation strongly impacts many aspects of communities and ecosystems, and is the medium upon which evolution works. Yet intraspecific trait variation is inconsistent and hard to predict across traits, species, and locations. We measured within-species variation in leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), branch wood density (WD), and allocation to stem area vs. leaf area in branches (branch Huber value, HV) across the aridity range of seven...

Data from: Predictors of alcohol responsiveness in dystonia

Johanna Junker, Valerie Brandt, Brian D. Berman, Marie Vidailhet, Emmanuel Roze, Anne Weissbach, Cynthia Comella, Irene A. Malaty, Joseph Jankovic, Mark S. LeDoux, Alfredo Berardelli, Richard Barbano, Stephen G. Reich, Joel S. Perlmutter, Hyder A. Jinnah & Norbert Brüggemann
Objective: To determine predictors of alcohol responsiveness in a large cohort of dystonia patients. Methods: 2159 participants with dystonia were prospectively enrolled in the cross-sectional Dystonia Coalition multicenter study. Patients with secondary, combined or confirmed genetic dystonia (total n=164) or unknown alcohol responsiveness (n= 737) were excluded. Patients answered a standardized questionnaire and were clinically examined using a standardized video protocol and the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale. Alcohol responsiveness was determined by patients’ self-report. Results:...

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  • Emory University
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
  • University of Georgia
  • Pennsylvania State University
  • Georgia Institute of Technology
  • Stanford University
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  • University of Michigan–Ann Arbor
  • University of Chicago
  • University of Florida