6 Works

Data from: Trans-generational parasite protection associated with paternal diet

Eleanore D. Sternberg, Jacobus C. De Roode & Mark D. Hunter
Multiple generations of hosts are often exposed to the same pathogens, favoring the evolution of trans-generational defenses. Because females have more opportunities to transfer protective molecules to offspring, many studies have focused on maternally derived protection. However, males of many species can transfer compounds along with sperm, including chemicals that could provide protection. Here, we assess maternally and paternally derived protection in a monarch butterfly-protozoan parasite system where parasite resistance is heavily influenced by secondary...

Data from: Host social behavior decreases exposure to vector-borne disease: a field experiment in a “hotspot” of West Nile virus transmission

Bethany L. Krebs, Tavis K. Anderson, Tony L. Goldberg, Gabriel L. Hamer, Uriel D. Kitron, Christina M. Newman, Marilyn O. Ruiz, Edward D. Walker & J. D. Brawn
Animals can decrease their individual risk of predation by forming groups. The encounter-dilution hypothesis extends the potential benefits of gregariousness to biting insects and vector-borne disease by predicting that the per capita number of insect bites should decrease within larger host groups. Although vector-borne diseases are common and can exert strong selective pressures on hosts, there have been few tests of the encounter-dilution effect in natural systems. We conducted an experimental test of the encounter-dilution...

Data from: Serial founder effects and genetic differentiation during worldwide range expansion of monarch butterflies

Amanda A. Pierce, Myron P. Zalucki, Marie Bangura, Milan Udawatta, Marcus R. Kronforst, Sonia Altizer, Juan Fernández Haeger & Jacobus C. De Roode
Range expansions can result in founder effects, increasing genetic differentiation between expanding populations and reducing genetic diversity along the expansion front. However, few studies have addressed these effects in long-distance migratory species, for which high dispersal ability might counter the effects of genetic drift. Monarchs (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a long-distance annual migration in North America, but have also dispersed around the world to form populations that do not migrate or travel...

Data from: Heritable variation in host tolerance and resistance inferred from a wild host– parasite system

Elise Mazé-Guilmo, Géraldine Loot, David James Páez, Thierry Lefèvre, Simon Blanchet, T. Lefevre, D. J. Paez & E. Maze-Guilmo
Hosts have evolved two distinct defence strategies against parasites: resistance (which prevents infection or limit parasite growth) and tolerance (which alleviates the fitness consequences of infection). However, heritable variation in resistance and tolerance and the genetic correlation between these two traits have rarely been characterized in wild host populations. Here, we estimate these parameters for both traits in Leuciscus burdigalensis, a freshwater fish parasitized by Tracheliastes polycolpus. We used a genetic database to construct a...

Data from: Partner associations across sympatric broad-headed bug species and their environmentally acquired bacterial symbionts

Justine R. Garcia, Alice M. Laughton, Zayir Malik, Benjamin J. Parker, Claire Trincot, Stephanie S. L. Chiang, Euisun Chung & Nicole M. Gerardo
Many organisms have intimate associations with beneficial microbes acquired from the environment. These host–symbiont associations can be specific and stable, but they are prone to lower partner specificity and more partner-switching than vertically transmitted mutualisms. To investigate partner specificity in an environmentally acquired insect symbiosis, we used 16S rRNA gene and multilocus sequencing to survey the bacterial population in the bacteria-harbouring organ (crypts) of 49 individuals across four sympatric broad-headed bug species (Alydus calcaratus, A....

Data from: Genetic variation in resistance and fecundity tolerance in a natural host-pathogen interaction

Benjamin James Parker, Justine Rebecca Garcia & Nicole M. Gerardo
Individuals vary in their ability to defend against pathogens. Determining how natural selection maintains this variation is often difficult, in part because there are multiple ways that organisms defend themselves against pathogens. One important distinction is between mechanisms of resistance that fight off infection, and mechanisms of tolerance that limit the impact of infection on host fitness without influencing pathogen growth. Theory predicts variation among genotypes in resistance, but not necessarily in tolerance. Here, we...

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